Written proposal summer 2009

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Written proposal summer 2009

  1. 1. University of Puerto Rico<br />Precint of Cayey<br />00736<br />Aflatoxins in Zea mays<br />Jose Angel Pagan Lopez<br />Prof. Roman<br />BIOL-3033<br />Abstract<br />Since 20% of the global crops of maize are spoiled by a large quantity of pathogens, the curiosity of science and the humans for resolving situations in society have been increased in this type of specie. The purpose and justification of this work is: try to solve the problem of the aflatoxins in the Zea mays. By resolving this situation, animal or humans will consume this tyoe of products without fearing a toxicity attacks. Following also, the society avoids large critical diseases like cancer. My hypothesis is that antifungal drugs from Penicillium griseofulvum will nullify the effects of the spores of the Asperguillus flavus. In the results of the study I expect that maize corns will have no damage, or less harm than the experimental groups.<br />Introduction <br />The large genomal flexibility of the species of maize, had made scientist and citizens use this type of plant for a lot of purposes: The most common one is for food source, for combustible, for decorations, creativity products, and for making fancy utilities like: pencils, and base of brushes. There is a lot types of maize but in this case is used the Zea mays, the common maize, this is the most cultivated grain worldwide. This is a monoic plant with inflorescence of both genders in the same plant. It is an annual one, in which it has a fast development that can reach 2.5 m of height. It’s leaves has long proportion, in which there erupts the corncob. The maize has the ability to reproduce itself, with it’s fallen plants and grains promote the new progenies. This specie has 10 chromosomes in which 17% have not been identified in another plantae1. <br />The fungi that has most negative effects on maize is the Aspergillius flavus2. It produces the carcinogenic B1 aflatoxin. This is soluble at methanol, chloroform, actone, and acenonitrile; Grows as a yellow-green mold in culture. Among other Aspergillius species can produce a distinctive conidiophores composed of a long stalk supporting an inflated vesicle. Is particulary affecting corns, peanuts, and other cereals3. Other fungi present in the work is the Penicullium griseofulvum this fungi produces one drug named griseofulvin this type of drug in contact of cancerigenous cells make the divide properly which leads to cancer cells eradication. <br />Scientist had developed techniques to overcome this obstacle by altering the DNA of the plant, and using other types of chemicals. Some of this works had a great overcome, but in the same way they affect the plant itself. This way scientific community is eager to find a way to defeat pathogens in the maze crops without harming this specie. <br />Methodology<br />Before the experimentation I must provide to the three plains or spaces the same properties for the liability of the work. Some of the mayor properties is that the space must give: regular relative humidity, a pH of 5.5 to 7.5, and a regular temperature of 21˚C. Proceeding to the space that consist in a 6 x 3 m for each one (each space must have a minimal distance of 10 m avoiding the alteration of the groups). I will plant one seed in the holes with 0.25 cm of deepness, with a distance of 90 cm for each seed hole (this is for the three groups). For the group control it will going to be poured with 1.5 L of water distributing it for the 3 seeds, each day, until the harvest season. The other two experimental groups (A and B) are going to be poured with 1.5 L of water with a concentration of 2.5%M of griseofulvin, each day, until the harvest season. Each day must be recorded with qualitative and qualitative data. <br />In the harvest season, when the corncobs are visible, the procedure of the control group will continue same as past procedure. In experimental group A the procedure will continue with water with a concentration of 2.5% M of griseolfulvin each day. In the experimental group B It will be the same as A but additional will be sprinkled with 1g of aflatoxins from the spores of Asperguillus flavus, distributed equally in the crop. The experiment will end after 4 weeks after the harvest season. Record qualitative and quantitative data. <br />Expected results<br />Low concentrations of griseoflvin absorbed by the maize roots will be distributed in the whole plant this specific concentration will not harm the plant, in addition when the harvest season comes and plants are going to be infected with the aflatoxins, griseofulvin will prevent the ambiguous mitosis of the cancerigenous cell that will afect the crop, that way eradicating the irregular cell. When the experiment is finished I will compare color, aspect height color, length of the leaves and the corncobs. <br />Relevance and importance<br />This investigation would affect significantly to the society by all the impications, and benefits that could bring. With the succes of this work there will be less crops wasted, minimizing the affected products and will lessen a little the world hunger that this world has. In addition when we consume these products there will lessen a little the world hunger that this world has. In addition when we consume these products there will be fewer carcinogenic foods, minimizing the chance to people to get cáncer and other terrible diseases. In the future, this work can be applied to other grains and cereals, like the peanuts and walnuts , bewariong lesser contamination to food and less hunger. <br />

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