Fatigue Risk Management
Safety and Flight Operations
A IATA (International Air Transport Association) is an international
organization that supports the global commerce related to the
Founded in 1945, has 240 member airlines representing 84% of the
world air traffic.
Our mission is to represent, lead and serve the industry.
Our Vision is to deliver standards and solutions in order to ensure a
successful and safe air transport worldwide.
Fatigue Management Approaches
• Flight and duty time limitations.
• Identified by regulator.
• One-size fits all.
• Arbitrary “safety” line.
Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS);
• FTLs identified through operator’s processes.
• Specific to operational context.
• Continually evaluated and updated.
Fatigue Management Provisions
ICAO Annex 6 Part 1 (Flight and Cabin Crew):
• FRMS Standards and Recommended
• Appendix 8.
• Attachment A (guidance for FTL regulations).
ICAO Doc 9966 - FRMS Manual for Regulators
FRMS Guides (IATA& ICAO) developed for:
Annex 6 - FM SARP: 4.10.2
Where FRMS regulations are offered, can choose
how to manage their fatigue risks:
• Comply with prescriptive regulations
• An FRMS for all operations.
• An FRMS for some operations and prescriptive
regulations for the remainder of operations.
IATA’s FRMS Guide
Aligned with ICAO’s FRMS Manual for
Provides comprehensive implementation
guidance including scientific principles.
Freely available on the web
Regulatory Decisions, Activities and Tools
Chapter 1.Chapter 1.
FRMS SARPs and their
deciding to offer FRMS
The FRMS Approval
Appendix D. FRMS
Appendix D. FRMS
The Scientific Background
The scientific principles
on which an FRMS
approach is based.
Components of an FRMS
Tools for measuring
Appendix C. Procedures
for Controlled Rest on
the Flight Deck
IATA’s FRMS Guide
FRMS Definition (IATA/ICAO)
“ A data-driven means of continuously monitoring and
managing fatigue-related safety risks, based upon scientific
principles and knowledge as well as operational experience,
that aims to ensure relevant personnel are performing at
adequate levels of alertness.”
What are the scientific principles?
The physiological need for sleep:
Recovery from sleep loss:
Circadian biological clock;
Who is the expert?
Fatigue Subject Matter
Fatigue (ICAO Definition)
“…A physiological state of reduced mental or physical
performance capability resulting from sleep loss or
extended wakefulness, circadian phase, or workload
(mental and/or physical activity) that can impair a crew
member’s alertness and ability to safely operate an
aircraft or perform safety related duties.”
“Fatigue” vs. “Tired”
There is a difference!!
Why is Fatigue Getting so Much Attention?
All aspects of a carrier’s operation are affected
• Crew Utilization
• Equipment Utilization
• Network Planning
Fatigue Management = Additional Constraints
Increasing operating costs with sick crews.
Ops Conference 14 16-18 April 2012, Rio de Janeiro
Sitting at the Fatigue Management Table
• Provide a regulatory framework for the
adequate management of fatigue related
• Ensure that the operator is managing their
fatigue related risks to an acceptable level
• Recognizes that FRMS needs to be
unique to each operator.
A platform of robust prescriptive flight and duty limitation
Time and resources to develop sufficient knowledge related
to fatigue management processes;
Access to scientists;
Experience in oversight of performance-based regulations;
Clear approval and oversight processes;
Basis : ICAO Doc 9966 (FRMS Manual for Regulators, 2011)
• FAR117 (2013) “Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements”.
• AC 117-3 “Crew Fitness”.
Challenges for the Regulator
Providing a regulatory environment that supports effective safety
Performance-based regulations require different regulatory skill sets
Assessing the balance - flexibility with tolerable risk.
Provision of consistent and comprehensive guidance to operators.
Consistency in regulatory decisions.
• Own and manage their fatigue related risk
to an acceptable level of safety;
• Within the regulatory framework provided,
identify the most appropriate means of
managing their fatigue-related risk;
• Provide the operational environment to
allow a pilot to manage their fatigue-related
risk on any given day or time.
Operate competitively within the global aviation environment.
A level playing field amongst global carriers.
Operational flexibility to react quickly to unforeseen circumstances.
Data-driven and/or results-oriented resource allocation.
Free-flow of information from pilots.
Challenges for the Operator
• Data collection.
• Undertaking scientific research.
• Effective application of available information.
• In-house expertise.
• Use the resources provided to assure
he/she is adequately rested to perform
his/her duties safely.
• Recognize when they are unable to
perform their duties safely and if so
remove themselves from the operation.
Information, schedules and resources for allowance to responsibly
prepare for, and execute duties.
Effective safety reporting culture.
High standards of professional behaviour.
Challenges for Pilots
Focusing on safety needs vs. industrial desires.
Focusing on safety needs vs. personal preference.
Group acceptance of scientific principles and their application.
Confidence in the operator’s reporting system.
Pilots - Fitness For Duty
• Opportunity for rest
• Use of rest opportunity
• What do we do when it doesn’t
work as planned.
• Pilot’s role
• Operator’s role
Safety x Labor Relations
• Pilots - Interrupt data collection and/or halt participation for
• Operators - Use voluntary information for punitive reasons or
other than intended purposes.
• Regulators - Fail to set rules to protect data.
How to Avoid the Deal Breakers
Collaborative Relationship (CDM)
Commitment to meet respective
Data-driven and scientifically based process;
Allows for continuous monitoring and management of safety risks
associated with fatigue-related error;
Part of a repetitive performance improvement process;
Leads to continuous safety enhancements;
• Identification and management of fatigue factors across time
• Changes physiological and operational circumstances associated
with a specific operation
May be integrated into an operator’s overall SMS.
Elements of an FRMS
Current flight time and duty period limitations.
Rest scheme consistent with limitations.
A fatigue management policy.
Education and awareness training program.
Fatigue reporting process.
System for monitoring and analyzing flight crew fatigue.
Effective Safety Reporting System
Permits crewmembers and other employees to report fatigue.
Contains valuable data.
An effective safety reporting system.
• Does not provide full immunity from acts resulting from willful
and/or gross negligence and illegal acts;
• Does provide clear descriptions of acceptable and non-
acceptable behavior and their consequences;
• Does provide the environment that encourages free
Types of Data
Reactive - wait for incidents to happen
and try to understand why;
Proactive - analyze near misses,
identified risks to mitigate before they turn
into an accident / incident;
Predictive - mature system which
conducts predictive analytics (statistical
modeling) to identify and mitigate risks;
A system for monitoring flight crew member fatigue in day-to-day
• Not-fit for duty;
• Hazard report ;
Should contain operational procedures to follow when one identifies
or suspects fatigue risk in oneself or others.
Confidential reporting can be used for the following safety concerns:
• Unsafe behaviors;
• Inadvertent errors and mistakes;
• Near miss occurrences (incidents that did not occur but could
have easily resulted in a serious event);
• Inadvertent errors or violations of aircraft handling or servicing
• Procedures or processes that could be improved;
Other Data Sources
Other data sources to consider when identifying and assessing
• Internal audit results;
• Procedural errors
• Schedule deviations ~ planned vs. actual
• Accident Reports
Summarizes supporting science
Explains the minimum requirements
Describes how to implement an FRMS
Provides operational examples of various
means of compliance
Stresses the need for joint responsibility amongst
IATA’s FRMS Guide
Methods of Hazard Identification
• Assess the contribution of crewmember fatigue to safety reports
• At what time of day did the occurrence take place?
• Was the crewmember’s normal circadian rhythm disrupted?
• How many hours had the crewmember been awake at the time
of the occurrence?
• Does the 72-hour sleep history suggest a sleep debt?
Methods of Hazard Identification
• Identify areas of future fatigue related risks:
o Previous experience;
o Evidence-based scheduling practices;
o Bio-mathematical models;
Methods of Hazard Identification
• Monitor fatigue levels in an
• Self-reporting of fatigue risks;
• Crew fatigue survey;
• Flight crew performance data;
• Available safety databases and
• Analysis of planned x actual time
• Sleep monitoring (sleep diary,
I f conf ident ialit y r equir edt ick her e ● Fatigue Report
Nam e Em ployee No. Pilot /CCM ( cir cle)
WHEN DI D I THAPPEN? Local r epor t dat e Tim e of event ( local r epor t t im e)
Dut ydescr ipt ion ( t r ippat t er n)
Sect or onwhich f at igue
occur r ed
Fr om To
Hour sf r om r epor t t im et owhen f at igueoccur r ed Disr upt ? Yes/ No
Air cr af t t ype Num ber of cr ew
Descr ibe how youf elt ( or what youobser ved)
Please cir cle how youf elt
1 Fully aler t , wide awake 5 Moder at elylet down, t ir ed
2 Ver ylively, som ewhat r esponsive, but not at peak
3 OK, som ewhat f r esh 6 Ext r em elyt ir ed, ver ydif f icult t o concent r at e
4 A lit t le t ir ed, lesst hanf r esh 7 Com plet ely exhaust ed
Please m ar kt heline below wit h an‘ X’ at t hepoint t hat indicat es how youf elt
aler t - - - - - - - - - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -dr owsy
WHY DI DI THAPPEN?
Fat igue pr ior t odut y? Yes /No How long had youbeen awakewhen t he
Hot el Yes /No event happened? hr s m ins
Hom e Yes /No How m uchsleep did youhave in t he24hr s
Dut yit self Yes /No bef or et heevent ? hr s m ins
I n- f light r est Yes /No How m uchsleep did youhave in t he72hr s
Disr upt Yes /No bef or et heevent ? hr s m ins
Per sonal Yes /No f light decknap? Yes/ No I f yes, when
st ar t end
Ot her com m ent s
WHAT DI DYOU DO? Act ionst akent o m anageor r educef at igue( f or exam ple, f light decknap)
WHAT COULD BE DONE? Suggest edcor r ect iveact ions
1 = extremely alert
3 = alert
5 = neither sleepy nor
7 = sleepy, but no
9 = extremely sleepy,
Analysis and interpretation
Note: Ask scientists about science, not
Applying the Findings
Build into pairings.
Build into rosters.
Build into day-to-day crew scheduling.
On-Board Sleep facilities.
• Flight Crew.
• Support Staff.
What they do:
• Identify where fatigue is a hazard;
• Assess the level of risk that given fatigue hazard
• If necessary, put in place controls and mitigation
strategies, and monitor to make sure that they manage the
risk at an acceptable level
Is there existing science / experience / literature?
Does anyone already do something similar?
Answer : Yes
• Flight Safety Foundation ULR Working Group
• NASA studies
• Singapore Airlines
o Safety Case
What do we already know from our own experience?
16+ hours block time
10.5 hour time zone shift
Maximum capabilities of aircraft
No crew base for aircraft
Sequence of Events
• City Pair/Time/Aircraft
• Can we conduct this flight at an acceptable level of risk?
• What are the available mitigations?
• Formulate a plan using available resources to conduct the flight
• Review the plan
FRMS Implementation (the real truth!)
There is no ‘off-the-shelf’ version of an FRMS that will suit all
An FRMS needs to be developed, understood and managed by
people who have comprehensive experience in the complex
operational environment to which it will apply;
A fully functioning FRMS doesn’t happen overnight;
Implementation is necessarily accomplished in phases;
Ops Conference 55 16-18 April 2012, Rio de Janeiro
• Pairing/Roster Comparisons
• New Routes
• Evaluation of Mitigations
• Incident Investigation
• Complaint Resolution
• Evaluation of New Regulations
Not Used for:
• Firm Go/No Go Decisions
The Circadian Component
The circadian component
of alertness follows a
The peak in the late
The trough is in the
copyright frms int ltd.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Time of day (h)
The Alertness Component
Alertness is low immediately
• Effect of sleep inertia
It increases to a peak 2-4
hours after waking
Thereafter it decreases
copyright frms int ltd.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Time since sleep (h)
5 models commercially available
3 models public domain (maybe more)
1 model produced by an operator.
No International Standards.
No International Validation Process.
Experience with Most has Been Outside of Aviation.
Straight Science vs. Reality
Which Model is the Best?
Over Reliance by Stakeholders
Accuracy of Predictions-Limited Data
Accounting for Crew Mitigations
Additional Constraint During Optimization
IATA, ICAO, IFALPA FRMS Seminars:
• All Stakeholders invited and encouraged to
- Pilot Associations;
• Deliver a consistent message with a
IATA FRMS TASK FORCE
Provide assistance and guidance to Industry with FRMS
Collaborate with Regulators;
Safety Performance Measures;
Acceptance and use of credible Scientific Principles / Data;
Identification of Models / “Experts”;
Common Data Reporting;
Training ~ including CBT training for front line employees (regulatory
Inclusion of fatigue management provisions into IOSA;
Opportunities – CBT Training
CBT Training under development
• Flight Crew
• Cabin Crew
• Dispatch / Ops Control
• Crew Scheduling / Crew Planning
Opportunities - IOSA
FRMS concept introduced as
Guidance Material in ISM Edition 6
effective by September 2012.
• Applicable to Flight and Cabin
- FLT 3.4.3
- CAB 3.1.4
Overall an FRMS may offer a way to more safely conduct flights by
offering flexibility that may not be available within regulatory limits;
An FRMS complements prescriptive flight time, duty, and rest
Improves operational efficiency;
Provides for a performance-based regulatory approach that is
“tailored” to an operator’s specific operation;
José Alexandre.T.G. Fregnani
AssistantDirector – Safety & Flight Operations
Tel: +55 11 2187 4236
and serve the