Design- oriented Pedagogy – an Example of Child-driven EducationJorma EnkenbergProfessor (Emeritus)University of Eastern Finlandjeeberg@gmail.com@jormaenkenberg Lahti 30.8.2012
The two main decisions in educating of ourchildrenWorking on childrenYour experiences, concerns, hopes, fears,desires, interests count nothing. What count iswhat we are interested in, what we careabout, and what we have decided you to learn(Holt)orWorking with childrenEducation demands you to write script of yourown life with the help of people who love andcare about you (Gatto). 2
And on the other hand…...we discovered that education is notsomething which the teacher does, butthat it is a natural process whichdevelops spontaneously in the humanbeing. It is not acquired by listening towords, but in virtue of experiences inwhich the child acts on his environment.The teachers task is not to talk, but toprepare and arrange a series of motivesfor cultural activity in a specialenvironment made for the child. (MariaMontessori)
Most preferred ways to learn In groups 55% By doing practical things 39% With friends 35% By using computers 31% Alone 21% From teachers 19% From friends 16% By seeing things done 14% With your parents 12% By practising 9% New Millennium Learners In silence 9% Initial findings on the effects By copying 8% of digital technologies At a museum or library 5% on school-age learners (OECD/CERI International By thinking for yourself 6% Conference “Learning in the From others 3% 21st Century: Research, Other 1% Innovation and Policy”, 2008)Base: All pupils (2,417) Source: Ipsos MORI
Lahti 30.8.2012 Common classroom activities Copy from the board or a book 52% Listen to a teacher talking for a long time 33% Have a class discussion 29% Take notes while my teacher talks 25% Work in small groups to solve a problem 22% Spend time thinking quietly on my own 22% Have a drink of water when I need it 17% Talk about my work with a teacher 16% Work on a computer 16% Listen to background music 10% Learn things that relate to the real world 10% Have some activities that allow me to move around 9% Teach my classmates about something 8% Create pictures or maps to help me remember 7% Have a change of activity to help focus 7% Have people from outside to help me learn 4% Learn outside in my school’s grounds 3%
Learning is always situated in a certain culturally- specific system Home, playgroup, kindergarten, primary school, home learning, secondary school, high school, college and university, interest group, library, museum, reading circle e.g. 7
Learning as activity system Goal/desire Object Tools Actor(s) Context Result 8
Home – an example of natural learningsystemA child is naturally a researcher andexperimenter and aims to constructmeanings about the objects in the world bycollecting information through interactions.Most of the learning is not a consequencefrom teaching but it results from continuousand breathing-like acting – participating indaily activities.Our brains are programmed for learning ,they learn from our mistakes and form aself-correcting system.(Meighen,2003) 9
Shared/child-drivenlearningIn shared/child-driven learning activities are based onlearners’ needs and interests as well ason their goals,framed and supported by teachers.It is constructivist, continuous and reciprocal in thecommunity of teachers, other learners, parents andother adults.It supports optimally interactions between the learnersand objects for learning as well as negotiations ofmeaning. 10
Design-oriented pedagogy (DOP) Self-learning Participating in community Conception of learningPersonal tools A child as a Context for learning designer Mediating tools Instructional modelSocial media A child as a researcher 11
Design principles in DOPAnchoring learning process to children’ ideas, thinking,conceptions and interpretations about the phenomena inquestion (epistemological principle)Driven questions and whole tasks engage to learn(instructional principle)Emphasis on conceptual objects and artifacts, that representthe phenomena in question/objects for action utilizingphysical and cognitive tools (ontological principle)Enhancing becoming to know and learning by collaborativework and designing (learning principle))Using children’ own tools and technologies in collectinginformation and communication (technological principle)Teacher affords learning resources, guides and support theactions (principle of teacher’s agency). 12
An example of design-oriented pedagogy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVKeTflC5Qghttp://www.thinglink.com/scene/29701760602236 5185#tlsite 13
Interesting empiricalquestionsDesign-oriented pedagogy and development ofconceptual and theoretical thinking?Pedagogy and engagement to learning?Acceptance of the pedagogy in different,international educational cultures? 14
LEARNING OBJECTAs learning objects we mean digitalrepresentations about real phenomenon andtools for constructing meaning about it.Representations refer directly or indirectlyto existing objects and context where theobjects is situated.Representations allow perceiving the objectfrom different perspectives. Physical andcognitive tools enhance the negotiation ofmeaning about them.
Only the flexible, human, personaland democratic learning system willeducate people, who do not hurtthemselves or each others, do notspoil our environment and who try tobuild our cultures in the framework ofsustainable values, collaboration andfairness. 20
MoreEnkenberg, J. (2010). A framework for the future teaching and learningenvironments. Paper presented in Julis 2010 meeting, University of EasternFinland, Joensuu.Liljeström, A., Enkenberg, J. & Pöllänen, S. (2012). Making learning whole: aninstructional approach for mediating the practices of authentic science inquiries.Cultural Studies of Science Education.(DOI) 10.1007/s11422-012-9416-0Liljeström, A., Vartiainen, H.& Enkenberg, J. (in preparation) Social networking ofaction and knowing in design-oriented learning.Meighan, R. (2003). Learning Systems: the good, the bad and the ugly.... InLearning Cooperative Quarterly. Vol.1, No.2. 9-11.Vartiainen, H. & Enkenberg, J. (2011). Enlargement of Educational Innovation: AnInstructional Model of the Case Forest Pedagogy. Proceedings of the 4thInternational Network-Based Education 2011 Conference The Social Media in theMiddle of Nowhere. University of Lapland Publications in Education 25.Vartiainen, H.; Liljeström, A. & Enkenberg, J. (accepted forpuplication).Introducing a design-oriented pedagogy to educate learners to meetthe future needs. Journal of Universal Computer Science.http://www.skogsstyrelsen.se/Projektwebbar/Case-Forest/Parikka-Nihti, M. (2011) Pieniä puroja. Lasten Keskus 22
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