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Sector overviewOffice basedcompaniesMaximising energy savings in an office environment
Office-based companies   2PrefaceReducing energy use makes perfect business sense; it saves money,enhances corporate reputa...
Office-based companies       3IntroductionEnergy is one of the largest controllable overheads   Who is this publication for...
Office-based companies   4Energy consumption in office buildingsBusinesses which are based in an office environment          ...
Office-based companies   5Opportunities for energy savingThere are many low and no-cost solutions youcan use to reduce cons...
Office-based companies   6LightingLighting is a significant energy cost in an office and good savings can be achieved through...
Office-based companies             7Avoid blinds down and lights on                                Figure 2 The benefits of ...
Office-based companies               8Label light switches                                             Existing lamp type  ...
Office-based companies          9Occupancy sensors                                              Switching in parallelAn offi...
Office-based companies   10Figure 3 Use of an occupancy sensor with a photocell override to give the option of keeping ligh...
Office-based companies       11HeatingHeating accounts for 20-40% of energy costs in a typical office environment, which mea...
Office-based companies       12Controlling systems                                          Maintain boilers and pipe work ...
Office-based companies       13Ventilation and air conditioningVentilation using fans and ducting and the use of cooling, i...
Office-based companies           14Maintain system components to                              Recover heat from exhaust air...
Office-based companies   15Office equipmentOffice equipment is the fastest growing energy user in the business world; the ele...
Office-based companies     16Maintain equipment for                                       Install plug-in seven-day timerso...
Office-based companies   17Building fabric                                                          Figure 6 Heat loss from...
Office-based companies   18Undertake regular maintenance and                         Redirect heat and light from the sunav...
Office-based companies             19Good housekeeping and people solutionsSavings are easily achievable in all offices and ...
Office-based companies      20Undertake regular housekeeping                                     Action                    ...
Office-based companies       21Next stepsThere are many easy low and no-cost options to help save money and improve the ope...
Office-based companies     22Go online to get moreThe Carbon Trust provides a range of tools, services and information to h...
The Carbon Trust is a not-for-profit company with the mission to accelerate the move to a low                  CTV007carbon...
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Office based companies energy saving, by the carbon trust

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Presentation created by The Carbon Trust of UK to inform about energy savings in the office environment and encourage employees co-operation

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Transcript of "Office based companies energy saving, by the carbon trust"

  1. 1. Sector overviewOffice basedcompaniesMaximising energy savings in an office environment
  2. 2. Office-based companies 2PrefaceReducing energy use makes perfect business sense; it saves money,enhances corporate reputation and helps everyone in the fight againstclimate change.The Carbon Trust provides simple, effective advice to help businessestake action to reduce carbon emissions, and the simplest way to do thisis to use energy more efficiently.This overview for office based companies introduces the main energysaving opportunities for businesses and demonstrates how simpleactions save energy, cut costs and increase productivity.
  3. 3. Office-based companies 3IntroductionEnergy is one of the largest controllable overheads Who is this publication for? In some sectors, businesses routinely analyse energyin office buildings which means there are many use and employ experts to monitor performance. Managers of office based companies – from smallopportunities to make savings. Reducing energy Office based companies usually do not consider this businesses to national and multinational organisationsconsumption not only saves money but improves as an option, and energy consumption often takes a operating across a number of large sites – can benefitworking conditions which can increase staff low priority on the business agenda. from the advice in this publication. Focusing on low andproductivity. Furthermore, the environment will no-cost measures which will have the quickest payback, However, there are big savings to be made andbenefit from reductions in energy use and carbon this overview demonstrates the best energy saving opportunities for staff to contribute to improvingemissions which enhances corporate reputation. opportunities applicable to most offices and will help their working environment. managers to:Using the simple and cost • Assess the potential for energy savings and indicateeffective measures detailed key areas for improvement • Raise awareness of energy conservation amongstin this guide could reduce staff and motivate them to reduce wasteyour energy bills by as • Appraise the overall energy performance of an office.much as 20%
  4. 4. Office-based companies 4Energy consumption in office buildingsBusinesses which are based in an office environment Note that proportions of energy use will vary accordingare diverse, yet there are several key areas where energy to occupancy levels and whether the building has airis commonly wasted. Figure 1 details where the biggest conditioning or mechanical cooling installed. In an officesavings can be made: in lighting, heating, ventilation, air without cooling, the greatest energy user is heating.conditioning and office equipment. In each of the areas identified in the chart, there are three main opportunities to save energy:Figure 1 Breakdown of energy use within a typical Switching off – All energy consuming equipmentair-conditioned office should be switched off when not required. This can be done by staff, by timer switches or by adjusting building control systems and need not cost any money. Maintenance – A number of energy efficiency measures can be carried out as part of routine maintenance procedures for no extra cost. Refurbishment/replacement – Energy saving measures taken when planning major building refurbishment or replacement of equipment can be extremely cost effective. Air conditioning Heating Office equipment Lighting Hot water
  5. 5. Office-based companies 5Opportunities for energy savingThere are many low and no-cost solutions youcan use to reduce consumption in the mainareas of energy use, without adversely affectingthe working environment.
  6. 6. Office-based companies 6LightingLighting is a significant energy cost in an office and good savings can be achieved through careful considerationof equipment, maintenance and staff habits. There are many simple and inexpensive ways to reduce the energyconsumption and costs associated with lighting without compromising health, safety or comfort levels.‘Switch off’ policy – involve staff and Examples of posters and stickers available from the Carbon Trustincrease awareness DownloadIn many offices, especially open plan ones, lights often A chiller door left open for 30 minutes A photocopier left on standby overnight A 2°C increase in office temperature a day wastes enough wastes enough energy creates enough CO2remain on much longer than necessary. Staff at all energy in a year to power a lighthouse to make 30 cups of tea. in a year to fill a hot air balloon. for nearly 4 days. Switch it off and you’lllevels should be involved in making savings – appoint Close it and you’ll make all the difference. make all the difference. For more ways to help combat climate change at work visit Reduce it and you’ll make all the difference. For more ways to help combatsomeone to take responsibility for turning the lights www.carbontrust.co.uk climate change at work visit For more ways to help combat www.carbontrust.co.uk climate change at work visit www.carbontrust.co.ukoff. Use emails, intranets and staff meetings to remindpeople and place stickers above light switches andposters around the building. These are available from Switch it offthe Carbon Trust. Encourage staff to report failing Switch it off and you’ll make all the differencelights and replace them immediately. This will help and you’ll make all the difference Switch it off Switch it offmaintain the desired light output and in turn, provide asafer working environment. Photocopier standby = 0.042kW x 14 hours = 0.588kWh. Average cup of tea = 0.25 litres = 0.25kg. Energy used to make cup of tea = 0.25kg x heat capacity Based on typical office floor area = 1500m and benchmark of 113.25 kWh heating/m , average office uses 169,875kWh per year to heat to 20˚C. Increase from Energy wasted from open chiller door = 0.2kW x 30 minutes per day x 365 = 36.5kWh. Lighthouse 0.4kW x 24 hours x 4 = 38.4kWh. For full calculation see of water (4200j/kg/˚C) x temperature rise (90˚C - 20˚C) = 73,500 joules = 0.02kWh. 0.588kWh/0.02kWh = 29.4 cups of tea. For full calculation see 20˚C to 22˚C requires extra 15.38% = 26,134.62kWh/per year x 0.191KgCO /kWh = 4991.71KgCO /year. Divide by 1.98m /kg = 2521.07m CO /year. www.carbontrust.co.uk/postercalculations www.carbontrust.co.uk/postercalculations Average volume of a hot air balloon is 2500m . For full calculation see www.carbontrust.co.uk/postercalculations The Carbon Trust is grant funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, The Carbon Trust is grant funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, The Carbon Trust is grant funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, the Scottish Government, the Welsh Assembly Government and Invest Northern Ireland. © Carbon Trust 2008. All rights reserved, March 2008. the Scottish Government, the Welsh Assembly Government and Invest Northern Ireland. © Carbon Trust 2008. All rights reserved, March 2008. the Scottish Government, the Welsh Assembly Government and Invest Northern Ireland. © Carbon Trust 2008. All rights reserved, March 2008. PFL308 PFL310 PFL307 PFL308 PFL310 PFL307 Switch it off and you’ll make all Switch it Switch it offTurn it off off the difference Switch it off Switch it off Turn it off and you’ll make all Switch it off the difference and you’ll make and you’ll make all the difference all the difference Switch it off Switch it off PFL338 Turn it off PFL338 and you’ll make all the difference PFL318 PFL318 Switch it off and you’ll make all Turn it off Turn it off the difference Turn it off Close off Switch it it Switch it off and you’ll make and you’ll make all the difference all the difference Turn it off
  7. 7. Office-based companies 7Avoid blinds down and lights on Figure 2 The benefits of daylight blindsA familiar scene in offices is the use of blinds to Reduces brightness Ensures light distributioncontrol glare when it is bright outside. Where possible, at the window deep into the interiorencourage staff to adjust blinds so they make the mostof natural light while cutting the glare.One effective way of achieving this is to use daylightblinds. These enable the natural light to enter the spaceby re-directing the light onto the ceiling, thereby allowingthe ‘free’ daylight to enter the space and alleviate anydiscomfort felt by the occupants from glare. Manydaylight blinds also have perforated blades to enablea view outside, which is often appreciated by staff. Protects from heat and glare Did you know? Without regular maintenance, light levels can Provides a view fall by up to 30% in 2-3 years. Establishing a outside for staff basic lighting maintenance programme can reduce costs by up to 15% as well as improving Maintains the natural Direct sunlight office appearance. Diffuse overhead light daylight spectrum Specify high frequency fittings with reflectors to help tubes last longer and eliminate flicker and hum. Mirror reflectors allow the area to be lit by fewer tubes as more light is projected into the space.
  8. 8. Office-based companies 8Label light switches Existing lamp type Energy efficient option Energy saving/benefits Application notesLight switches should be clearly labelled to help staff to Replace withselect only those lights they need. Lights in unoccupied compact Modern CFL replacements Tungsten fluorescent 75% saving plus may also be acceptable forareas should be switched off but remember to consider light bulbs lamps (CFLs) longer lamp life display and task lightinghealth and safety implications, particularly in corridors in the same fittingand stairwells. Replace withMaintenance 38mm (T12) fluorescent tubes equivalent 26mm 8% saving plus General lighting, but even better use with in switch-start (T8) triphosphor longer lamp life modern fittings fluorescent tubesLighting is essential for providing a pleasant and fittings of lower wattage (see below)productive working environment so it is important tokeep windows, skylights and light fittings clean. Spot lighting in considered Replace with areas, such as receptionReplace old dim lamps and keep controls in good Mains voltage low-voltage 30-80% saving for or displays. If low voltage reflector lamps, tungsten halogen tungsten halogen spotlightsworking order by ensuring timers are set to match filament spot lighting or metal equivalent lighting performance are installed use 35W infrared and flood types halide dischargeoccupancy hours and that occupancy sensors are clean. lighting coated (IRC) bulbs instead of the standard 50W bulbsReplace blackened, flickering, dim or failed fluorescent Replace with 30-45% saving withtubes with tri-phosphor coated ones (this is stated on Fluorescent efficient fittings much improved lighting using reflectors/ fittings with quality. The use of highthe packaging). Tri-phosphor coating provides a more the old 2ft 40W, louvres or efficient frequency electronic General lighting prismatic controllers and 8ft 125W control gear eliminatesnatural, brighter light for the whole life of the tube. If the fluorescent lamps with high-frequency flicker, hum and electronic or lowtubes are 38mm (1.5 inch), they should be replaced with stroboscopic effect loss control gearslimmer 26mm (1 inch) tubes. Fluorescent fittings with Replace with No reduction in opal diffusers new prismatic energy consumptionInstall low-energy lighting or prismatic controllers or but increases the General lighting controllers which replace complete amount of light by are permanently fittings as above between 30% and 60%Upgrade any standard tungsten light bulbs to energy discolouredsaving compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) which use75% less energy, produce less unwanted heat and lasteight to ten times longer. Lighting technology advancesvery quickly and modern low energy bulbs that lookattractive and provide good light output are nowavailable. See the table following for some ideas onefficient options and where they might be appropriate.
  9. 9. Office-based companies 9Occupancy sensors Switching in parallelAn office where staff or cleaners work late may benefitfrom occupancy sensors. These help to ensure lights Consider wiring light switches to control lights that are parallel to windows. This enables staff to make the most Mythonly operate when there is somebody there to require of natural daylight without leaving those spaces furtherthem. Sensors can achieve savings of up to 30% on away from the windows in shadow. As a result, less It is better to leave fluorescentlighting costs and are especially useful in: lighting is used which reduces energy consumption. lights on as starting them up This also cuts additional heat generated by the lights• Storerooms meaning that less cooling is required. wastes more energy than if they• Toilets Always consult a qualified lighting technician before remain permanently switched on.• Meeting rooms. upgrading lighting systems. If you are replacing False or upgrading your lighting, you may qualify for anThey are not appropriate for general office areas Fluorescent tubes use only a few seconds worth interest-free loan from the Carbon Trust – seewhere people may not be moving frequently enough of power in start up – therefore, it is always better page 18 for details.to be detected. to switch them off when leaving a room.Daylight sensorsLight sensors or ‘photocells’ can be used to controlartificial lighting when there is sufficient natural daylight.As daylight hours vary throughout the year, sensorshelp to provide closer control and thus, substantialsavings. They can be particularly useful externally forlighting car parks or signage and can often pay backtheir costs in less than a year. Both types of control aresometimes combined with time switches.
  10. 10. Office-based companies 10Figure 3 Use of an occupancy sensor with a photocell override to give the option of keeping lights offon bright days Enough daylight, occupied – lighting OFF Enough daylight, unoccupied – lighting OFF Night, occupied – lighting ON Night, unoccupied – lighting OFFIllustrations supplied courtesy of Danlers Limited.
  11. 11. Office-based companies 11HeatingHeating accounts for 20-40% of energy costs in a typical office environment, which means that there are bigopportunities to make savings. It is possible to minimise the cost of heating, regardless of which system isin place. Some businesses have shaved up to a third off their heating costs through the implementation ofsome simple energy saving measures.Obtain feedback from staff The recommended temperature for offices and sedentary work is 21–23ºC. However, when setting Did you know?Office workers usually have strong views about the temperatures, remember that usually office heating isinternal temperature. This is valuable information, so Reducing heating temperatures by just 1ºC can not set above 19ºC. This is because internal heat gainsencourage staff to report areas that are too hot, cold or cut fuel consumption in a typical office by 8% from equipment and lighting will bring the temperaturedraughty. Look for trends and investigate problem areas. and save enough energy to print over 40 million up to a level that most workers find comfortable. ForThere may be maintenance issues which, if addressed, sheets of A4 paper. more information on setting temperatures, see the topwill make workers less likely to bring in portable electric tip on page 13.heaters and fans or to open windows whilst heating orcooling is on. It will also discourage staff from tampering Match working hourswith thermostats and may resolve disagreements. Check that the system operating hours match the timesConsider comfort and temperatures when heating, ventilation and cooling are required, as needs vary throughout the day and in different seasons.Most people feel comfortable in a temperature range Observe the working patterns and make adjustments toof between 18-26ºC, provided the temperature is in line the controls.with outdoor conditions. If it is cold outside, staff andvisitors will typically be wearing warmer clothing, so A good first step is to use inexpensive time controlsensure temperatures are set accordingly. Encourage to automatically switch off the heating at the end of astaff to dress for the conditions and ensure workspaces typical work day. See the Controlling systems sectionare shielded from draughts and direct sunlight. These on page 12 for more ideas.are no-cost solutions that save money and helpmaintain comfort.
  12. 12. Office-based companies 12Controlling systems Maintain boilers and pipe work These types of controls can save thousands of pounds and will pay back their investment in just a couple ofMany businesses find that controlling temperature is Have boilers serviced regularly by a reputable firm. years. Consult a qualified heating technician to discussdifficult. Some signs of poor control include: Gas-fired boilers should be serviced once a year; oil the range of options available. boilers twice a year. A regularly serviced boiler can save• Heating being on when the building is unoccupied, as much as 10% on annual heating costs. because timers are not set correctly Consider a Building Energy Boilers, hot water tanks, pipes and valves should be Management System (BMS or BEMS)• Heating being on too high or not high enough, insulated to prevent heat escaping. Payback can usually because the thermostat is located where sunlight, A BEMS is based on a network of controllers and offers be expected within a few months of installation, with radiators or office equipment affect its reading. closer control and monitoring of building services additional savings in subsequent years. performance, including heating, ventilation and airOften, simple adjustments to the location and setting There are many more savings to be found by conditioning. This is shown on a computer screen in realof controls can reduce costs without affecting optimising boilers. See the Carbon Trust’s technology time and allows settings to be changed quickly and easily.staff comfort. overview on Low temperature hot water boilers BEMS can reduce total energy costs by 10% or more soControls can affect the switching time, heating (CTV008) for more details. they are well worth considering in medium to large offices.temperature or the system functioning, and range from BEMS are discussed in detail in Heating controlsimple to the very complex. Upgrade controls (CTG002).It is recommended to not rely on controls, but to ensure Heating system control can be problematic with old,settings are reviewed every month or so to check that inefficient time controls. Upgrades are well worthwhilethey are correct for the office usage and the season. implementing as they can pay for themselves very Tax incentives quickly through energy and cost savings.Many systems function inefficiently because someone Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) enablemade a short term adjustment and then forgot about it. Technology has made it possible for heating systems businesses to buy energy efficient equipment to adjust themselves in line with the changeable UK using a 100% rate of tax allowance in the year ofFor more information, see the Heating control climate. A compensator is a form of control for heating purchase. Businesses can claim this allowancetechnology guide (CTG002), available from the systems that automatically regulates the heating on the investment value of energy efficientCarbon Trust. temperature based on the weather. An optimum start equipment, if it is on the Energy Technology controller learns how quickly the building reaches the List. The procedure for claiming an ECA is theKeep systems clear and unobstructed desired temperature and brings the heating on at the same as for any capital allowance. For furtherRadiators, fans and ducts should be clear of furniture and optimum time prior to building occupancy, again information please visit www.eca.gov.uk or callother obstructions. Keep fans and ducts clean and replace depending on the weather. the Carbon Trust on 0800 085 2005.any filters at manufacturers’ recommended intervals.
  13. 13. Office-based companies 13Ventilation and air conditioningVentilation using fans and ducting and the use of cooling, including air conditioning is becomingcommonplace due to an increase in heat-gains from lighting, staff and office equipment. The more heat that isgenerated, the harder the ventilation and cooling systems have to work to maintain the desired temperature.Reduce the need Take advantage of natural ventilation Stay cool at night and free cooling to halve energy costsIt takes energy to heat and cool the air inside an office. Use the lower external temperatures at night to cool theIf that air is removed via a ventilation system, the money As simple as it sounds, natural ventilation and cooling building ready for the following day, thus delaying theused to heat and cool it is also lost. The lost air then has relies on natural air flow between openings on opposite switching on of air conditioning. This is known as ‘nightto be replaced with the same amount of air from outside sides of a room or building – or rising warm air being cooling’. Information on this topic can be found in thewhich needs to be heated or cooled to match inside replaced with cooler air sucked in through windows or Carbon Trust’s publication, Heating ventilation andtemperatures – and that also costs money. vents. It may be possible to use windows and doors air conditioning (CTV003). to provide good levels of natural ventilation, allowingReducing the need for heating and comfort cooling will mechanical ventilation to be switched off or turnedreduce expenditure on ventilation. down to save money. When opening vents, doors Top tip and windows, always consider security implications. Don’t let heating and cooling operate at the same time.Figure 4 ‘Dead band’ control providing recommended temperatures This can be avoided by setting a temperature control ‘dead band’ – a wide gap between the temperatures at which heating and cooling cut 0ºC 5ºC 10ºC 15ºC 20ºC 25ºC 30ºC 35ºC 40ºC in (see Figure 4). In an office environment, the heating should switch off when a temperature Heating is on until Cooling is on when of 19ºC has been reached and cooling should temperature reaches 19ºC temperature exceeds 24ºC not come on until the temperature exceeds 24ºC. Heating and Cooling both off between 19ºC and 24ºC — a ‘dead band’ of 5 degrees
  14. 14. Office-based companies 14Maintain system components to Recover heat from exhaust airensure efficiencyEnergy consumption can increase by up to 60% if regular It costs money to heat the air in a building – so why not recover some of that energy? The simplest way Mythmaintenance is not undertaken. Dirty or faulty fans, air to recover the heat from exhaust air is to simply re-ducts and components directly affect system efficiency circulate a proportion of the exhaust air along with fresh Leaving air conditioning onand will increase running costs and risk of breakdown. air. More advanced solutions are available which allow overnight reduces energyThe performance of the whole system should be the heat from the exhaust air to be used to pre-treatreviewed annually and replacement parts ordered as fresh incoming air. This is a worthwhile technology, costs as the system stays atnecessary. Always consult a maintenance technician. but expert advice should be sought. the required temperature. Consider cooling options FalseThe need for mechanical cooling The result is a much higher energy consumption Full air conditioning is not usually required in UK offices,will reduce if you control your heat and should only be considered when careful control of than necessary.gains – which can come from the humidity is also required. Cheaper cooling options are Remedy available and should be investigated before the decisionsun or from lighting and equipment to install full air conditioning is made. Using natural An office only needs a fraction of overnight energy to reach adequate temperatures for the start of the ventilation or night cooling techniques can reduce or day. Air conditioning may not be needed at all at thisConsider fitting variable speed eliminate the need for mechanical air conditioning, or time if ‘night cooling’ is used (see page 13).drives (VSDs) there are options such as mixed-mode systems whichIn an office ventilation system, fans often do not need can reduce energy use.to operate at full speed all of the time and VSDs canhelp to reduce costs by enabling the output speed ofthe fans to match requirements at different times of theday. This reduction in speed saves energy and there arecorresponding heating and cooling cost savings too.The Carbon Trust can provide further information andadvice on VSDs.
  15. 15. Office-based companies 15Office equipmentOffice equipment is the fastest growing energy user in the business world; the electricity it consumes represents15% of total energy consumption in offices. This figure is expected to double by 2020. As most equipment isoften left on when not being used, there are opportunities to make significant savings.Turn off and power down Minimise cooling loads Figure 5 The proportion of total energy used by office equipment in a small officeSwitch off all equipment when not in use and enable Place heat emitting equipment such as printers andpower down modes. As well as clearly reducing the photocopiers in a separate, naturally-ventilated area withenergy consumption, it also reduces the heat produced by good airflow. This helps minimise air conditioning costsequipment which in turn, lowers cooling costs. Equipment and excessive noise. Colder areas on the north side oflifespan will also be extended and maintenance costs and buildings are ideal.risk of breakdown should be reduced.To take immediate steps and for some specific Did you know?instructions, see How to operate your office equipmentefficiently (CTL006), available from the Carbon Trust. A computer and monitor left on 24 hours a day will cost around £45 a year. Switching them offUse the most appropriate equipment out of hours and enabling standby featuresfor the task could reduce this to less than £10 a year and prolong the lifespan of equipment.For internal printing, use a black and white printer. Set PCsdefault printing to double-sided (duplex) and try to print Monitorsin batches where possible to allow the machine to Printersspend more time in standby than idling mode. Take care Photocopiersthough; machines with a very deep-sleep mode can Fax machinestake longer to reach the right temperature which canresult in staff disabling the standby feature, therebymissing out on savings.
  16. 16. Office-based companies 16Maintain equipment for Install plug-in seven-day timersoptimum performance Did you know? These can be bought for a few pounds from most DIYPrinters, fax machines and copiers should be checked stores and will help to reduce the likelihood of machines Office equipment left on standby during bankand cleaned regularly. Keep parts clean and free of being left on out of hours. Timers can be fitted to holidays and weekends could cost small anddust and blockages and follow manufacturers’ advice communal equipment such as printers, photocopiers medium sized office based businesses nearlyon servicing schedules in order to maintain and even vending machines, although it is advisable to £6,000 over the course of a yearoptimum efficiency. check with your supplier first about how this may affect • The energy bill of a typical office based your service agreement. company could cost over 65% more than thatRaise awareness of an equivalent energy efficient office. Purchase for your requirementsMost workers in this sector see equipment as a meansto complete their jobs and do not put too much thought Choose equipment that caters for current businessinto the expense of running it. However it is an area that needs and predicted requirements only. Do not overstaff can affect directly, so awareness and training is specify – high spec PCs with large screens and fastvery important. Staff should know about switch-off processors use more energy; ask how many of yourpolicies and be informed of the savings and staff really need them. Always take running costs intoimprovements to working conditions they can achieve account as well as initial purchase cost.by taking responsibility. Ensure all new equipment has energy saving featuresThe Carbon Trust’s free publication, Creating an meeting at least ‘ENERGY STAR’ performanceawareness campaign (CTG001), outlines an approach to specifications. This and other labelling schemes aremaking energy saving a priority for staff, with top tips discussed in the Office equipment technology overviewand resources. (CTV005). Consider upgrading existing PCs Some computers can simply be upgraded with newer, more energy efficient components. Look into this option before purchasing new machines. Flat screen (LCD) monitors can reduce monitor energy use by over two thirds. There are also obvious space advantages.
  17. 17. Office-based companies 17Building fabric Figure 6 Heat loss from a typical office buildingImproving an office’s building fabric makes good sensefor many reasons: Roof 22%• Better temperature control – it can lower ventilation costs and prevent overheating• Improved productivity – staff morale and output can be enhanced by providing a more comfortable working environment through reducing draughts, solar glare, overheating and noise• Lower capital expenditure – a more efficient, well-insulated office needs smaller heating and cooling systems• Good investment – better insulation can increase an office’s value and attractiveness. Ventilation and air infiltrationTypically, two thirds of heat in an Windows 35% 26%office is lost through the building Wallsfabric, with the remaining third 9%being lost through air infiltrationand ventilation Floor 8%
  18. 18. Office-based companies 18Undertake regular maintenance and Redirect heat and light from the sunavoid expensive problems later on Energy-Efficiency Loans Overheating due to high levels of glazing is a growingMaintaining buildings well means identifying potential problem in offices. Fit horizontal blinds or external shading Small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)problems and dealing with them promptly. In particular, to windows to direct light away from workstations and in England or Scotland and all businesses ingaps or holes in walls, windows, doors and skylights onto ceilings and walls. This will allow more daylight into Wales that have been trading for at least 12should be repaired immediately. the space, whilst minimising heat and glare from sunlight. months could borrow* from £3,000 to £100,000. Loans are unsecured, interest-freeEstablish a housekeeping schedule Insulate to accumulate and repayable over a period of up to fourand involve staff years. There are no arrangement fees and 25% of a building’s heat will escape via an un-insulated applying is straightforward.Compile a checklist to address areas where energy roof, which adds hundreds, or even thousands ofis lost via the building structure. A comprehensive pounds per year to heating bills. Insulating any roof All businesses in Northern Ireland* that haveschedule should include regularly checking window spaces and unfilled external cavity walls is an effective been trading for at least 12 months may bepanes and frames, roof lights and doors. The larger and inexpensive way of reducing heat losses. eligible for an unsecured interest-free loan.a building, the more beneficial it would be to appoint a Visit www.carbontrust.co.uk/loans.staff member to carry this out. Ask staff to report any Gain control *Subject to eligibility. Regional variations apply.problems and ensure these are promptly repaired. The more complex a building is, the greater the need for a clear control strategy. The strategy should defineRegularly check the building for damp how each service (heating, cooling and ventilation) isDamp causes significant damage to the building controlled. To be effective, controls need to be user Did you know?structure and reduces its insulating properties. friendly for managers and intuitive and accessible forRepair split downpipes, faulty gutters and leaky roof occupants. Building control systems, coupled with If the building suffers from draughts throughtiles. Check for signs of damp and condensation at building management policy have probably the most windows and doors, it is better to address theseleast once a year, preferably prior to winter months. important influence on the energy performance before improving the heating, ventilation or of an office. cooling systems.
  19. 19. Office-based companies 19Good housekeeping and people solutionsSavings are easily achievable in all offices and need not require any initial outlay.Many opportunities are within the control of staff which is an ideal way of involvingpeople and raising awareness of the importance of reducing energy consumption.Everyone should be reminded that good energy Involve staffmanagement helps to achieve: Posters and All staff members are important in saving energy so A 2°C increase in stickers office temperature creates enough CO2• Environmental benefits they must be made aware of wastage areas and be in a year to fill a hot air balloon. trained to operate equipment and controls correctly. Posters and stickers Reduce it and you’ll make all the difference.• Healthier and more productive working conditions For more ways to help combat climate change at work visit Motivate staff – ask their opinions and encourage are available to order www.carbontrust.co.uk• Cost savings them to review their own working practices to increase from the Carbon Trust energy savings. Competitions, campaigns and team• An enhanced corporate image which can be projects are great ways to get buy-in. promoted to shareholders. Reinforce the benefits of improving their work area andWhether starting an energy conservation programme give them a sense of ownership of energy management.from scratch or simply checking the effectiveness ofan existing management system, there are a number The Carbon Trust’s publication Creating an awareness Swof basics to consider. campaign (CTG001) includes a staff survey, useful Switch it off a tips, and examples of posters and stickers that can Turn it off and you’ll make all the differenceResponsibility and commitment increase awareness. Switch itCommitment to energy efficiency has to come from thetop and should be backed up by a personalised mission Sw astatement and energy policy. It is also important toappoint an ‘energy champion’. In very small businesses, Turn it off Switch itthis may be the owner or manager but in larger and you’ll make all the differencecompanies, appointing a staff member will often improveinvolvement and awareness across the whole company. T a Turn it of Close it
  20. 20. Office-based companies 20Undertake regular housekeeping Action Savingswalk rounds Switch off all non-essential lighting out of business hours (Page 6) 10% of lighting costsNote down and act on any maintenance measures Install photocell controls to switch off some lighting on brighter days (Page 10) 20% of lighting costsneeded in order to avoid expensive problems later on.As patterns of energy use vary throughout the day, it Replace traditional tungsten lamps with energy efficient, compact fluorescent 75% of tungstenis advisable to carry out a series of walk rounds at lamps (CFLs) to reduce operating and maintenance costs (Page 8) lighting costsdifferent times to get a better idea of where and when Experiment with switch-on and switch-off times for heating and air conditioning 20% of heating andenergy is being wasted. A walk round helps to: and switch off before the end of the working day (Page 11) cooling costs• Establish current operating practices Ensure thermostats are set correctly — increase temperature set-point for cooling A 1ºC reduction in• Eliminate wasteful practices and ensure they do and reduce set-point for heating (Page 11) temperature during not recur the heating season can cut costs by 8%• Demonstrate commitment to improving energy performance Set a gap or ‘dead band’ between heating and air conditioning control 10% of heating and temperatures of about 5ºC to avoid them operating at the same time (Page 13) cooling costs• Identify opportunities for savings Turn off unnecessary equipment during the day and especially out of hours to 5% of energy costs• Involve staff and raise awareness of the importance reduce heat build-up and unnecessary electrical costs (Page 15) of reducing energy consumption. Check insulation levels and increase wherever practical to reduce heating 5% of energy costsAn extensive checklist and guidance is available from requirements (Page 18)the Carbon Trust: Assessing the energy use in yourbuilding (CTL003). Walk around your office at different times of the day and during different seasons 5% of energy costs to see how and when heaters and coolers are working. Check time andMonitor energy use temperature settings (Page 20)Understand your energy consumption by reviewingenergy invoices over the last year – you should be ableto build a picture of your monthly performance. Larger However, if your office does not have half-hourlycompanies generally have meters recording half-hourly electricity meters, you should check and record monthlyelectricity consumption and this data should be available meter readings yourself. It is also advisable to check andfrom your energy supplier for comparison with your bills. record your monthly gas consumption in the same way.
  21. 21. Office-based companies 21Next stepsThere are many easy low and no-cost options to help save money and improve the operation of your office.Step 1. Understand your energy use Step 4. Seek specialist help Related publicationsLook at your office and identify the major areas of It may be possible to implement some energy savingenergy consumption. Check the condition and operation measures in-house but others may require specialist The following publications are available fromof equipment and monitor the power consumption over, assistance. Discuss the more complex or expensive the Carbon Trust:say, one week to obtain a base figure against which options with a qualified technician.energy efficiency improvements can be measured. Fact sheets and how to guides Understanding your energy consumption (CTL001) Step 5. Make the changes and measureStep 2. Identify your opportunities the savings Assessing the energy use in your building (CTL003)Compile an energy checklist. Walk around your office Implement your energy saving actions and measure How to operate your office equipment efficientlyand complete the checklist at different times of day against original consumption figures. This will assist (CTL006)(including after hours) to identify where energy savings future management decisions regarding yourcan be made. An example checklist is shown on energy priorities. Technology overviewspage 20, or get further ideas about walk rounds Office equipment (CTV005)from the Carbon Trust’s fact sheet, Assessing the Step 6. Continue to manage your business for Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (CTV003)energy use in your building (CTL003). energy efficiency Technology and management guides Enforce policies, systems and procedures to ensure thatStep 3. Prioritise your actions Heating control (CTG002) your business operates efficiently and that savings areDraw up an action plan detailing a schedule of maintained in the future. Creating an awareness campaign (CTG001)improvements that need to be made and when,along with who will be responsible for them.
  22. 22. Office-based companies 22Go online to get moreThe Carbon Trust provides a range of tools, services and information to help youimplement energy and carbon saving measures, no matter what your level of experience.Carbon footprint calculator – Our online calculator will help you Case studies – Our case studies show that it’s often easier and less expensivecalculate your organisation’s carbon emissions. than you might think to bring about real change. www.carbontrust.co.uk/carboncalculator  www.carbontrust.co.uk/casestudiesInterest free loans – Energy Efficiency Loans from the Carbon Trust are a cost Events and workshops – The Carbon Trust offers a variety of eventseffective way to replace or upgrade your existing equipment with a more energy and workshops ranging from introductions to our services, to technical energyefficient version. See if you qualify. efficiency training, most of which are free. www.carbontrust.co.uk/loans  www.carbontrust.co.uk/eventsCarbon surveys – We provide surveys to organisations with annual energy bills Publications – We have a library of free publications detailing energy savingof more than £50,000*. Our carbon experts will visit your premises to identify energy techniques for a range of sectors and technologies.saving opportunities and offer practical advice on how to achieve them.  www.carbontrust.co.uk/publications www.carbontrust.co.uk/surveysAction plans – Create action plans to implement carbon and energy Need further help?saving measures. Call our Customer Centre on 0800 085 2005 www.carbontrust.co.uk/apt Our Customer Centre provides free advice on what your organisation can do to save energy and save money. Our team handles questions ranging from straightforward requests for information, to in-depth technical queries about particular technologies.* Subject to terms and conditions.
  23. 23. The Carbon Trust is a not-for-profit company with the mission to accelerate the move to a low CTV007carbon economy. We provide specialist support to business and the public sector to help cutcarbon emissions, save energy and commercialise low carbon technologies. By stimulatinglow carbon action we contribute to key UK goals of lower carbon emissions, the developmentof low carbon businesses, increased energy security and associated jobs.We help to cut carbon emissions now by:• providing specialist advice and finance to help organisations cut carbon• setting standards for carbon reduction.We reduce potential future carbon emissions by:• opening markets for low carbon technologies• leading industry collaborations to commercialise technologies• investing in early-stage low carbon companies.www.carbontrust.co.uk0800 085 2005 ACT ON CO2 is the Government’s initiative to help individuals understand and reduce their carbon footprint. Visit http://actonco2.direct.gov.uk for more information.The Carbon Trust receives funding from Government including the Department of Energy and ClimateChange, the Department for Transport, the Scottish Government, the Welsh Assembly Governmentand Invest Northern Ireland.Whilst reasonable steps have been taken to ensure that the information contained within this publicationis correct, the authors, the Carbon Trust, its agents, contractors and sub-contractors give no warrantyand make no representation as to its accuracy and accept no liability for any errors or omissions.Any trademarks, service marks or logos used in this publication, and copyright in it, are the propertyof the Carbon Trust. Nothing in this publication shall be construed as granting any licence or right to useor reproduce any of the trademarks, service marks, logos, copyright or any proprietary informationin any way without the Carbon Trust’s prior written permission. The Carbon Trust enforces infringementsof its intellectual property rights to the full extent permitted by law.The Carbon Trust is a company limited by guarantee and registered in England and Wales under Companynumber 4190230 with its Registered Office at: 6th Floor, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3BF.Published in the UK: July 2010. CTV007v2© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO.
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