Departamento de Engenharia Informática                                                                                  FC...
The importance of services                                    Service                                 economies           ...
…energy grids, water systems, wireless mobile networks...    The importance of networks     World Wide Web                ...
Internet                                              Academic citations                                                  ...
…definitions…“A service network is defined as a graph structure  composed of service systems which are nodes   connected b...
_Business services_                  _Business services_                             _Business services_                  ...
OSSN Construction• Similar to LD, SN, and                                                         Global  WWW             ...
Basic Building Blocks          Service System                                   Service Relationship                      ...
Service Systems2013    Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   9
http://www.linked-usdl.org/                        www.internet-of-services.comLinked USDL:CoreLinked USDL:PricingLinked U...
Service DescriptionModeling                                                          http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/2013   Gene...
2013   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   12
:pricing_EC2_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr a price:PricePlan ;              dcterms:description "Price plan ...
Legal     @prefix legal: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-legal#>  :legal_Amazon a legal:TermsAndConditions ;          ...
Standardization• W3C Standards       – HTML, Ajax, HTTP, XML, WSDL, …       – http://www.w3.org/• OASIS Standards       – ...
Service Relationships2013       Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   16
2013   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   17
Centrality: 23        Service Network Analysis2013             Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   18
Self-organization, emergent patterns,                                                           dynamic, complex, etc.,   ...
Networks and Vulnerability• Protecting just 4 nodes  made a system less  vulnerable• Left       – all communications      ...
Examples of questions to ask• We assumes that                                       – Do monopolies or  services are all  ...
Dynamic OSSN• OSSN model       – Linked USDL and OSSR do not provide         constructs to capture the dynamic behavior of...
Preferential Attachment (PA)                System Dynamics (SD)        accounts for                             accounts ...
General System Theory•      A theory [3] successfully applied in many fields of research        –   e.g. by John Von Neuma...
SN and Preferential Attachment                     Self-organizing system• Hypothesis       – Highly connected services in...
OSSN Formal Modeling2012     Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   26
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Use USDL value proposition as a  preferential attachment.       – usdl:valueproposition ...
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Objective       – Forecast the evolution of a service network       – The market share o...
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market  share is represented in  the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to t...
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market  share is represented in  the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to t...
SN and System Dynamics                     Self-organizing system• Explore the applicability of system  dynamics       – U...
SN and System Dynamics   USDL                       Service system Si           +                                         ...
OSSN and System Dynamics• If the two services Si and Sj overuse the shared service Sk,       – It will become depleted and...
Conclusions• Open semantic service networks (OSSN)       – Large scale, open, dynamic, and highly distributed       – Curr...
References3. Von Bertalanffy, L.: General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications. TheInternational Library ...
References•      [CPL+13] Cardoso, J.; Pedrinaci, C. and Leenheer, P. D Open Semantic Service Networks:       Modeling and...
Suggestions & Questions?2013         Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   37
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Open Semantic Service Networks: Modeling and Analysis

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A new interesting research area is the representation and analysis of the networked economy using Open Semantic Service Networks (OSSN). OSSN are represented using the service description language
USDL to model nodes and using the service relationship model OSSR to model edges. Nonetheless, in their current form USDL and OSSR do not provide constructs to capture the dynamic behavior of service networks. To bridge this gap, we used the General System Theory (GST) as a framework guiding the extension of USDL and OSSR to model dynamic OSSN. We evaluated the extensions made by applying USDL and OSSR to two distinct types of dynamic OSSN analysis: 1) evolutionary by using a Preferential Attachment (PA) and 2) analytical by using concepts from System Dynamics (SD). Results indicate that OSSN can constitute the rst stepping stones toward the analysis of global service-based economies.

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Open Semantic Service Networks: Modeling and Analysis

  1. 1. Departamento de Engenharia Informática FCTUC FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS E TECNOLOGIA da UNIVERSIDADE DE COIMBRA Open Semantic Service Networks: Modeling and Analysis Jorge Cardoso (1), Carlos Pedrinaci (2), and Pieter De Leenheer (3;4) (1) CISUC, Department of Informatics Engineering University of Coimbra, Polo II, 3030 Coimbra, Portugal jcardoso@dei.uc.pt (2) Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK c.pedrinaci@open.ac.uk (3) The Network Institute, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands pieter.de.leenheer@vu.nl (4) Collibra nv/sa, Brussels, Belgium // 07/08 February 2013 // International Conference on Exploring Service Science Porto, PortugalCardoso, J.; Pedrinaci, C. and Leenheer, P. D Open Semantic Service Networks: Modeling and Analysis. In 4th International Conference onExploring Service Science (IESS 1.3), pages 141-154, Springer, LNBIP, Porto, Portugal, 2013.
  2. 2. The importance of services Service economies Self-services Consulting IT Services Cloud services Software Manual Semi-automatic Fully Automated2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 2
  3. 3. …energy grids, water systems, wireless mobile networks... The importance of networks World Wide Web Linked Data Social NetworksFinancial/Political Networks Railway Network Food chain Networks 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 3
  4. 4. Internet Academic citations Information Patent citations Software classes Airline routes Networks Word classes Railway routes Preference Roadways WWW Telephone Technological P2P Delivery Networks Electric power grids Electronic circuit Service ScienceHandbook ofService Science (2010) Service Service Networks Networks Network Science Metabolic pathways Social Protein interactions Friendship Networks Genetic regulatory Sexual contact Neural Intermarriages Blood vessels Business Relationships Biological Food webScience on NetworksSpecial Issue (2009) Communication Records Networks Collaboration 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 4
  5. 5. …definitions…“A service network is defined as a graph structure composed of service systems which are nodes connected by one or more specific types of service relationship, the edges.” ”A service system is a functional unit with a boundary through which interactions occur with the environment, and, especially, with other service systems.”!2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 5
  6. 6. _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services__Business services_ _Business services_ Service Network Modeling _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ 2013 _Business services_ Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 6 _Business services_
  7. 7. OSSN Construction• Similar to LD, SN, and Global WWW Glo scale – Leaves decisions in the bal hands of market player Supply – Consumers indicate Supply Networks providers – Increase transparency Supply Chains Single Bottom-up Services Beyond dyads!2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research
  8. 8. Basic Building Blocks Service System Service Relationship Open Semantic Service Relationship (OSSR)• Service description• Follows Linked Data principles • Relationship description• Simplicity for computation and • Interconnects services modeling • Multi-layer• Reuse existing vocabularies • Follows Linked Data principles• Means for publishing and interlinking distributed data • Reuse existing vocabularies• [CPL+13][CM12][CPL+12][CB • Means for interlinking service M+10] descriptions/systems2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 8
  9. 9. Service Systems2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 9
  10. 10. http://www.linked-usdl.org/ www.internet-of-services.comLinked USDL:CoreLinked USDL:PricingLinked USDL:SECLinked USDL:SLA2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 10
  11. 11. Service DescriptionModeling http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 11
  12. 12. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 12
  13. 13. :pricing_EC2_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr a price:PricePlan ; dcterms:description "Price plan for a Small EC2 Reserved Instance in Europe with Windows, lightutilization and a one year contract duration."@en ; @prefix price: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-pricing#> price:hasContractDuration [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "ANN" ] ; price:hasBillingCycle [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "MON" ] ; price:hasPriceComponent :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront , :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly ,:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront a price:PriceComponent; dcterms:title "General costs upfront"@en ; dcterms:description "One-time fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo… price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "69" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "C62" ] . 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 13
  14. 14. Legal @prefix legal: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-legal#> :legal_Amazon a legal:TermsAndConditions ; dcterms:title "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements"@en ; dcterms:description "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements are accessible at http://aws.amazon.com/legal/. Please consult this website for further information"@en ; legal:hasClause [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Customer Agreement" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/agreement"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Services" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/serviceterms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Acceptable Use Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/aup"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Trademark Guidelines" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/trademark-guidelines"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Sites" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/terms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "Privacy Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/privacy"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Tax Help" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/tax-help"@en ] . 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 14
  15. 15. Standardization• W3C Standards – HTML, Ajax, HTTP, XML, WSDL, … – http://www.w3.org/• OASIS Standards – TOSCA, USSI, WS-*, ebXML, … – http://www.oasis-open.org/• OMG Standards – BPMN, UML, CORBA, XMI , … – http://www.omg.org/2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 15
  16. 16. Service Relationships2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 16
  17. 17. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 17
  18. 18. Centrality: 23 Service Network Analysis2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 18
  19. 19. Self-organization, emergent patterns, dynamic, complex, etc., Service Networks Atomic Dyad Ego service systems service networks service networks1 2 3 Service networks 4 Power-law2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 19
  20. 20. Networks and Vulnerability• Protecting just 4 nodes made a system less vulnerable• Left – all communications servers are coupled to the power grid• Right • Circles represent a power grid • Diamonds a communications – Four are decoupled network – Lower vulnerability • Colors show the probability that a node fails after 14 servers fail Source: C.M. Schneider et al/arxiv.org 2011; Map: Geoatlas/graphi-ogre, adapted by T. Dubé2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research http://www.sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/343939/description/When_Networks_Network 20
  21. 21. Examples of questions to ask• We assumes that – Do monopolies or services are all oligopolies exist in the energy sector in the US? interdependent – Service are provided and services consume – Is the financial service other services network stronger or weaker than it was 5 years ago?• SNA can ask and answer questions such – What service sector has as: the stronger competition in Georgia?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 21
  22. 22. Dynamic OSSN• OSSN model – Linked USDL and OSSR do not provide constructs to capture the dynamic behavior of service networks – In other words, they can only capture static snapshots of service networks• This is a limitation of several approaches – E3value [12], e2service [13], SNN [14], Allee modl [15], value chains, value nets, and value networks [17].2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 22
  23. 23. Preferential Attachment (PA) System Dynamics (SD) accounts for accounts for Unified Service Open Semantic Description Language Service Relationship (*- USDL) (OSSR) models modelsService system Service network models Open Semantic Service Network (OSSN) influences General System Theory (GST)
  24. 24. General System Theory• A theory [3] successfully applied in many fields of research – e.g. by John Von Neumann in computing and Ed Yourdon in structured analysis and design• Internal Relationships (R1) – Cause-effect relations between the internal elements of a service system – E.g., participants, to information, to resources, to legal aspects, and to pricing – Change quality of a business process activity -> change in the cost of another related activity• External Relationships (R2) – Establishing cause-effect relations between internal- and external service systems – e.g., quality level delivered by one service depends on the quality of the other service• Understanding Change (R3) – Time needs to be an integral modeling element – Network may grow by adding relationships -— randomly, but by attraction or preference not to certain nodes. [8]2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 24
  25. 25. SN and Preferential Attachment Self-organizing system• Hypothesis – Highly connected services increase their connectivity faster than less connected ones – Preferential attachment (PA) phenomenon – Only local information• Preferential attribute – e.g. price, quality, or availability2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 25
  26. 26. OSSN Formal Modeling2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 26
  27. 27. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Use USDL value proposition as a preferential attachment. – usdl:valueproposition – Service value is judged from the perspective of consumers as they compare services among the alternatives.• Let us assume – price is the value proposition (local rule)2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 27
  28. 28. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Objective – Forecast the evolution of a service network – The market share of each service is:2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 28
  29. 29. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market share is represented in the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to the market if the conditions are not changed*?• According to Bass model, the leading service will reaches a fixedpoint market share according to:*the value propositions of remain the same2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 29
  30. 30. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market share is represented in the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to the market if the conditions are not changed*?• According to Bass model, the leading service will reaches a fixedpoint market share according to:*the value propositions of remain the same2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 30
  31. 31. SN and System Dynamics Self-organizing system• Explore the applicability of system dynamics – Using mathematical expressions to model the relationships of SN – Instead of looking at causes and their effects in isolation (e.g. PA)• The next figure – Service systems S , S , S ,i j k – Links illustrating internal and external relationships2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 31
  32. 32. SN and System Dynamics USDL Service system Si + USDL Si KPI = Sk KPI = + Si KPI = Net gains Resource Limit # services + + -OSSR + + OSSR - KPI Gain per Service Total Services Individual system Sk + ServiceOSSR • Positive Feedback (+) - Reinforcement and amplification + + • Negative Feedback (-) Counteracts perturbations and Sj KPI = + Sj KPI = Net gains stabilizes # services + OSSR Causal links connect KPIs USDL Service system Sj from different services’ and within services. a) (’Tragedy of the Commons’ archetype )
  33. 33. OSSN and System Dynamics• If the two services Si and Sj overuse the shared service Sk, – It will become depleted and all the providers will experience diminishing benefits• Services Si and Sj – To increase net gains, both providers increase the availability of service instances – As the number of instances increases, the margin decreases and there is the need to increase even more the number of instances available – As the number of instances increases, the stress on the availability of service Sk is so strong that the service collapses or cannot respond anymore as needed – At that point, service Si and Sj can no longer fully operate and the net gain is dramatically reduced for all the parties involved as shown in the following figure Si2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 33 Time
  34. 34. Conclusions• Open semantic service networks (OSSN) – Large scale, open, dynamic, and highly distributed – Currently static• General System Theory provides requirements for dynamic OSSN – Introduces internal & external relationships between services – Add time and information that triggers network evolution – Requires to extend the Unified Service Description Language (USDL) model – Requires to extend the Open Semantic Service Relationship (OSSR) model• Implications – Evolutionary and analytical analysis of dynamic OSSN – Stepping stones for creating algorithms to understand service networks2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 34
  35. 35. References3. Von Bertalanffy, L.: General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications. TheInternational Library of Systems Theory and Philosophy. Braziller (2003)8. Yule, U.: A mathematical theory of evolution based on the conclusions of dr. j. c. willis. Phil. Trans.Roy. Soc. Lond. 213(2), 21–87 (1925)12. J. Gordijn, E. Yu, and B. van der Raadt, e-service design using i* and e3value modeling, IEEESoftware, vol. 23, pp. 26-33, 2006.13. H. Akkermans, Z. Baida, J. Gordijn, N. Pena, A. Altuna, and I. Laresgoiti, Value webs: Usingontologies to bundle real-world services," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 57--66, Jul.2004.14. O. Danylevych, D. Karastoyanova, and F. Leymann, Service networks modelling: An soa & bpmstandpoint, Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 1668--1693, jul 2010.15. V. Allee, Reconfiguring the value network," Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1-6,2000.16. N. Weiner and A. Weisbecker, A business model framework for the design and evaluation ofbusiness models in the internet of services, in Proceedings of the Annual SRII Global Conference,Washington, DC, USA, 2011, pp. 21-33.17. R. C. Basole and W. B. Rouse, Complexity of service value networks: Conceptualization andempirical investigation, IBM Systems Journal, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 53-70, 2008.2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 35
  36. 36. References• [CPL+13] Cardoso, J.; Pedrinaci, C. and Leenheer, P. D Open Semantic Service Networks: Modeling and Analysis. In 4th International Conference on Exploring Service Science (IESS 1.3), pages 141-154, Springer, LNBIP, Porto, Portugal, 2013.• [Car13] Cardoso, J. Modeling Service Relationships for Service Networks. In 4th International Conference on Exploring Service Science (IESS 1.3), pages 114-128, Springer, LNBIP, Porto, Portugal, 2013.• [CM12] Cardoso, J. and Miller, J. A Internet-Based Self-Services: from Analysis and Design to Deployment. In The 2012 IEEE International Conference on Services Economics (SE 2012), IEEE Computer Society, Hawaii, USA, 2012.• [CPL+12] Cardoso, J.; Pedrinaci, C.; Leidig, T.; Rupino, P. and Leenheer, P. D Open semantic service networks. In The International Symposium on Services Science (ISSS 2012), pages 1-15, Leipzig, Germany, 2012.• [CBM+10] Cardoso, J.; Barros, A.; May, N. and Kylau, U. Towards a Unified Service Description Language for the Internet of Services: Requirements and First Developments. In IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, IEEE Computer Society Press, Florida, USA, 2010.2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 36
  37. 37. Suggestions & Questions?2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 37

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