Open Semantic Service Networks

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To address the emerging importance of services and the relevance of relationships, we have developed and introduced the concept of Open Semantic Service Network (OSSN). OSSN are networks which relate …

To address the emerging importance of services and the relevance of relationships, we have developed and introduced the concept of Open Semantic Service Network (OSSN). OSSN are networks which relate services with the assumption that firms make the information of their services openly available using suitable models. Services, relationships and networks are said to be open (similar to LOD), when their models are transparently available and accessible by external entities and follow an open world assumption. Networks are said to be semantic when they explicitly describe their capabilities and usage, typically using a conceptual or domain model, and ideally using Semantic Web standards and techniques. One limitation of OSSNs is that they were conceived without accounting for the dynamic behavior of service networks. In other words, they can only capture static snapshots of service-based economies but do not include any mechanism to model reactions and effects that services have on other services and the notion of time

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  • 1. Open Semantic Service Networks models, theory, applications Jorge Cardoso Dept. Engenharia Informatica/CISUC University of Coimbra Coimbra, Portugal jcardoso@dei.uc.pt // 7 August 2012 // Institute of Architecture of Application Systems (IAAS) University of Stuttgart, Germany2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 1
  • 2. Open Semantic Service Networks
  • 3. The importance of networks World Wide Web Linked Open Data (LOD) Social networks …energy distribution grids, food web, water systems, wireless mobile networks...2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 3
  • 4. A new type of networks Academic citations Patent citations Internet Word classes Software classes Preference Airline routes Railway routes Technological Information WWW P2P Roadways Networks Networks Telephone Delivery Metabolic pathways Electric power grids Protein interactions Electronic circuit Genetic regulatory Neural Social Biological Blood vessels Food web Networks Networks Friendship Sexual contact Intermarriages Business RelationshipsCommunication Records Service Collaboration Networks 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 4
  • 5. Networked economy Global service networksFrom processes to services2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 5
  • 6. The mobile ecosystem is characterized by a large and complex network of companies interacting with each other, directly and indirectly, to provide a broad array of mobile products and services to end-customers._Thomson’s Financial SDC Platinum DB(alliances and joint ventures)_The Connexiti database(supplier, customer, and competitors) Firms and their relation in the converging mobile ecosystem.Rahul C. Basole, Visualization of Interfirm Relations in a Converging Mobile Ecosystem, 7th International 6Conference on Mobile Business, 2008.
  • 7. Research on services• Software and IT perspective – WSDL, SOA, ITIL, …• Sales, communications and business models perspective – Marketing, pricing, channels, …• Design perspective – Blueprinting, personas, customer journey, …2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 7
  • 8. Software and IT perspective• Service architectures – SOA and SoaML• Service description languages – WSDL , OWL-S, and WSMO• Business-oriented descriptions – e3value, e3service, business models• Best practices – ITIL and CMMI for Services2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 8
  • 9. SoaML OWL-S WSDLServices as _functions_Services as _business_ ITIL 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 9 e3value
  • 10. _Business services_Consulting IT Services Cloud services Manual Semi-automatic Fully Automated
  • 11. Driving forces2012 Unified Service Description Language 11
  • 12. _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services__Business services_ _Business services_ How to make it happen? _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_
  • 13. Open Semantic Service Networks• Constructed by … – Accessing, retrieving and combining information from service and relationship models.• Networks are said to be open… – Their models are openly and transparently available and accessible by external entities and follow an open world assumption.• Networks are said to be semantic … – When they explicitly describe their capabilities using a conceptual or domain model, and optionally using semantic Web standards2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 13
  • 14. /Building blocks/ _1. Modeling services _2. Services relationships _3. Populating models _4. Service networks _5. Analysis and reasoning
  • 15. Seeing services as products? _Paradigm shift _Models, _Laws and _Specs1. Business perspective adopts a service-dominant logic2. ICT perspective adopts service-oriented modeling toenable automate2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 15
  • 16. Modeling services • Common vocabulary • Structure for vocabulary • Multidisciplinary • Complex • People, information and technology • Service system • Internal and external • USDL – Unified Service Description Language2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 16
  • 17. *-USDL family• a-USDL/2009 – Initial version of USDL ready in 2009. – Later renamed to a-USDL (pronounced alpha-USDL). – http://www.genssiz.org/research/service-modeling/alpha-usdl/• USDL/2011 – A W3C Incubator group was created USDL was adapted and extended based on industry feedback at the end of 2011. – http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/usdl/• Linked-USDL/-- – In order to make the specification gain a wider acceptance, a version called Linked-USDL emerged using Semantic Web principles Iits development is still in progress. – http://linked-usdl.org/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 17
  • 18. WSDL vs USDL Made for c omputers (S O A) Made for people (IoS ) Addres s P rovider P rotocols P ort C ons umer Addres s T ec hnic al Arguments B undling P orts D ata type Marketing us ines s B T ec hnic al … WS DL L egal US DL … … O perational O perations F unctionality R es ources …2012 Unified Service Description Language 18
  • 19. http://www.genssiz.org2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 19 http://www.genssiz.org/research/service-modeling/alpha-usdl/
  • 20. /a-USDL/ the specification USDL
  • 21. /a-USDL/ Service Service Attributes 1 A Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID ) that identifies uniquely serviceKey a service with a worldwide spectrum. The identifier allows to reference services unambiguously. The type of service being represented. A service can be of type serviceType atomic, unstructured bundle and process bundle. serviceName The name of the service. serviceVersion The version number of a service. Relations Business A Service has 0 or 1 Business perspective.Business USDL Technical Operational A Service has 0 or 1 Operational perspective. Technical A Service has 0 or 1 Technical perspective. Operational udescription A Service has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <serviceKey> C0E6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA-70E212685A40 </serviceKey> <serviceType> Atomic </serviceType> <serviceName> EcoCalculator </serviceName> <serviceVersion> v.43.5.637 </serviceVersion> <business> … </business> <operational> … </operational> <technical> … </technical> <udescription> … </udescription> </service>
  • 22. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusiness Business Attributes -- -- Relations Provider The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Provider. Consumers The Business perspective has 0 or more ConsumerProfile. serviceLevel The Business perspective has 0 or 1 ServiceLevel subperspective. Marketing The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Marketing subperspective. Legal The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Legal subperspective. Interaction The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Interaction subperspective. Bundling The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Bundling. The Business perspective has 0 or more PerspectiveExtension perpectiveExtensionBusiness USDL Technical subperspective. udescription A Business has 0 or 1 UDescription. Operational Examples <service> <business> <provider> … </provider> <consumers> … </consumers> <serviceLevel> … </serviceLevel> <marketing> … </marketing> <legal> … </legal> <interaction> … </interaction> <bundling> … </bundling> <perpectiveExtension> … </perpectiveExtension> <udescription> … </udescription> </business> … </service>
  • 23. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessProvider Provider Attributes A Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID) that identifies the providerKey provider with a worldwide spectrum. Every provider is uniquely identified. The name of the provider. For example, the name of a private providerName company or a governmental organization. providerAddress The physical address of the provider. The name of the person authorized for the provisioning of the personName service. Phone The phone number of the contact Email The email address of the contact The logical address of the provider. For example, the Web site www where additional information can be foundBusiness USDL Technical Relations Provider A Business perspective has one Provider. Operational udescription A Provider has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <business> <provider> <providerKey> C0E6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA-70E212685A40 </providerKey> <providerName> SAP Research </providerName> <providerAddress> Chemnitzer Str 48, Dresden, Germany </providerAddress> <personName> Xorge Cardozo </personName> <phone> ++49 (351) 123-1234 </phone> <email> xorge.cardozo@sap.com </email> <www> http://www.sap.com/ </www> <udescription> … </udescription> </provider> </business> … </service>
  • 24. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessServiceLevel ServiceLevel Attributes -- -- Relations Performance A ServiceLevel has zero or one Performance fact. Dependability A ServiceLevel has zero or one Dependability fact. Security A ServiceLevel has zero or one Security fact. Rating A ServiceLevel has zero or one Rating fact. Udescription A ServiceLevel has 0 or 1 UDescription.Business Technical Examples USDL <service> Operational <business> <serviceLevel> <performance> … </performance> <dependability> … </dependability> <security> … </security> <rating> … </rating> <udescription> … </udescription> </serviceLevel> </business> … </service>
  • 25. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessMarketing Marketing Attributes -- -- Relations Price A Marketing subperspective has one or 1 Price. Channels A Marketing subperspective has one or 1 Channels. Certifications A Marketing subperspective has one or 1 Certifications. Udescription A Marketing has 0 or 1 UDescription. ExamplesBusiness Technical <service> USDL <business> Operational <marketing> <price> … </price> <channels> … </channels> <certifications> … </certifications> <udescription> … </udescription> </marketing> </business> … </service>
  • 26. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessMarketingChannel Channel Attributes The type of the channel. For example, documentation, video, channelType images, etc. channelName The name of the channel. A URI where the media associated with the channel can be Uri found. Relations Channels A Marketing subperspective has zero or 1 Channels. Udescription A Channel has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <business>Business Technical USDL <marketing> <channels> Operational <channel> <channelType> Documentation </channelType> <channelName> User Guide for the EcoCalculator service </channelName> <uri> http://www.sap.com/services/EcoCalculator/EcoC-user-guide.pdf </uri> <uri> http://www.sap.com/services/EcoCalculator/EcoC-how-to.pdf </uri> <udescription> … </udescription> <channel> </channel> <channelType> Video </channelType> <channelName> Promotional video of the EcoCalculator service </channelName> <uri> http://www.youtube.com/query=?SAP-EcoC </uri> <udescription> … </udescription> </channels> </marketing> </business> </facts>
  • 27. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessChannel Channel Attributes The type of the channel. For example, documentation, video, channelType images, etc. channelName The name of the channel. A URI where the media associated with the channel can be Uri found. Relations Channels A Marketing subperspective has zero or 1 Channels. Udescription A Channel has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <business>Business Technical USDL <marketing> <channels> Operational <channel> <channelType> Documentation </channelType> <channelName> User Guide for the EcoCalculator service </channelName> <uri> http://www.sap.com/services/EcoCalculator/EcoC-user-guide.pdf </uri> <uri> http://www.sap.com/services/EcoCalculator/EcoC-how-to.pdf </uri> <udescription> … </udescription> <channel> </channel> <channelType> Video </channelType> <channelName> Promotional video of the EcoCalculator service </channelName> <uri> http://www.youtube.com/query=?SAP-EcoC </uri> <udescription> … </udescription> </channels> </marketing> </business> </facts>
  • 28. /a-USDL/ ServiceOperational Operational Attributes -- -- Relations functionality The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Functionality. classifications The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Classifications. phases The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Phases. milestones The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Milestones. operations The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Operations. Udescription An Operational perspective has 0 or 1 UDescription.Business Technical Examples USDL <service> Operational <operational> <functionality> … </functionality> <classifications> … </classifications> <milestones> … </milestones> <phases> … </phases> <operations> … </operations> <udescription> … </udescription> </operational> </service>
  • 29. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessTechnicalExecution TechnicalExecution Attributes -- -- Relations technicalInvocation A Technical perspective has zero or 1 TechnicalInvocation. technicalExecution A Technical perspective has zero or 1 TechnicalExecution. udescription A Technical perspective has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <technical>Business Technical <technicalInvocation> … </technicalInvocation> USDL <technicalExecution> … </technicalExecution> Operational <udescription> … </udescription> </technical> … </service>
  • 30. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessTechnicalInvocation TechnicalInvocation Attributes -- -- Relations A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more transportProtocol TransportProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more messagingProtocol MessagingProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more metadataExchangeProtocol MetadataExchangeProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more securityProtocol SecurityProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more reliableMessagingProtocol ReliableMessagingProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or moreBusiness Technical transactionProtocol USDL TransactionProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more managementProtocol Operational ManagementProtocol. technicalInvocation A Technical perspective has zero or more TechnicalInvocation. udescription A TechnicalInvocation perspective has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <technical> <technicalInvocation> <transportProtocol> … </transportProtocol> <messagingProtocol> … </messagingProtocol> <metadataExchangeProtocol> … </metadataExchangeProtocol> <securityProtocol> … </securityProtocol> <reliableMessagingProtocol> … </reliableMessagingProtocol > <transactionProtocol> … </transactionProtocol> <managementProtocol> … </managementProtocol> <udescription> … </udescription> <technicalInvocation> … </service>
  • 31. USDLXML Schema
  • 32. USDL import com.USDL.*; public class USDLTest { protected static void example() throws Exception { Java API // create a new, empty XML document USDL2 schema = USDL2.createDocument(); // create the root element <Service> and add it to the document serviceType uservice = schema.service.append(); // create the properties associated with a service … uservice.serviceName.append().setValue("SAP Service"); uservice.serviceVersion.append().setValue("v12-23-34"); // add an universal description to a service udescriptionType description = uservice.udescription.append(); description.name.append().setValue("1040NR-EZ Service"); … description.concept.append().setValue("http://www.gtsec.com/taxes/forms/form1040nr-ez.asp"); description.language.append().setValue("en"); // create a business dimension businessType business = uservice.business.append(); // create a provider dimension providerType provider = business.provider.append(); // update the provider dimension provider.providerKey.append().setValue("AAA6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA-6AB12685A40 "); provider.providerName.append().setValue("SAP AG"); … provider.email.append().setValue("xorge.cardozo@sap.com"); provider.www.append().setValue("http://www.sap.com"); // set the schema location (this is optional) schema.setSchemaLocation("USDL.xsd"); // save the instance created© SAP 2008 schema.saveToFile("SAP-1040NR-EZ-Service.xml", true);/ Page 32
  • 33. USDL www.internet-of-services.com2012 Unified Service Description Language 33
  • 34. /Data model/ /Schema/ /Vocabulary/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 34
  • 35. http://www.linked-usdl.org/ www.internet-of-services.com2012 Unified Service Description Language 35
  • 36. 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 36
  • 37. 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 37
  • 38. Example http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 38
  • 39. :pricing_EC2_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr a price:PricePlan ; dcterms:description "Price plan for a Small EC2 Reserved Instance in Europe with Windows, light utilization and a one yearcontract duration."@en ; price:hasContractDuration @prefix price: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-pricing#> [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "ANN" ] ; price:hasBillingCycle [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "MON" ] ; price:hasPriceComponent :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront , :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly ,:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront a price:PriceComponent ; dcterms:title "General costs upfront"@en ; dcterms:description "One-time fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo… price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "69" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "C62" ] .:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly a price:PriceComponent ; dcterms:description "Hourly fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo :resource_EC2_DataCentre_EU , :resource_EC2_Windows ; price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "0.069" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "HUR" ] .
  • 40. Core 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 40
  • 41. Core 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 41
  • 42. <#service_EC2_Small> a usdl:Service ; dcterms:created "2012-05-18"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2012-05-22"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:title "EC2 instance small"@en ; usdl:hasNature usdl:Automated ; usdl:hasProvider :provider_Amazon ; usdl:hasLegalCondition :legal_Amazon ; usdl:hasPartMandatory <#service_Support_Basic> ; usdl:hasPartOptional <#service_Support_Bronze> , <#service_Support_Silver> , <#service_Support_Gold> , <#service_Support_Premium> ; gr:quantitativeProductOrServiceProperty :resource_EC2_Small_MainMemory , :resource_EC2_Small_ComputeUnit , :resource_EC2_Small_Storage ; gr:qualitativeProductOrServiceProperty :resource_EC2_Small_IO , :resource_EC2_PrivateIP , :resource_EC2_PublicIP .:resource_EC2_Small_MainMemory a cloud:MainMemory ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "4L" ; gr:hasValue "1700" .:resource_EC2_Small_ComputeUnit a cloud:CPU ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "A86" ; gr:hasMinValue "1.0" ; gr:hasMaxValue "1.2" ; gr:valueReference [ a cloud:NumberOfCores ; gr:hasValue "1" ] .2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 42
  • 43. SLA 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 43
  • 44. SLA 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 44
  • 45. :slp_Support_Silver a usdl:ServiceLevelProfile ; dcterms:title "Bronze support service level profile" ; sla:hasServiceLevel :slo_Support_Silver_ResponseTime .:slo_Support_Silver_ResponseTime a sla:GuaranteedState ; dcterms:title "Response time" ; sla:serviceLevelExpression [ a sla:ServiceLevelExpression ; dcterms:description "Maximum period in which responseis sent."@en ; sla:hasVariable :var_Support_Silver_ResponseTime ] .:var_Support_Silver_ResponseTime a sla:Variable ; rdfs:label "Fastest guaranteed response" ; sla:hasDefault [ a support:ResponseTime ; gr:hasValue "4" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "HUR" ] .2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 45
  • 46. Legal @prefix legal: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-legal#> :legal_Amazon a legal:TermsAndConditions ; dcterms:title "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements"@en ; dcterms:description "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements are accessible at http://aws.amazon.com/legal/. Please consult this website for further information"@en ; legal:hasClause [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Customer Agreement" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/agreement"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Services" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/serviceterms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Acceptable Use Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/aup"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Trademark Guidelines" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/trademark-guidelines"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Sites" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/terms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "Privacy Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/privacy"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Tax Help" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/tax-help"@en ] . 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 46
  • 47. Standardization• W3C Standards – HTML, Ajax, HTTP, XML, WSDL, … – + USDL (?) – http://www.w3.org/• OASIS Standards – TOSCA, USSI, WS-*, ebXML, … – + USDL (?) – http://www.oasis-open.org/• OMG Standards – BPMN, UML, CORBA, XMI , … – + USDL (?) – http://www.omg.org/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 47
  • 48. Expressing rich service relationships • Model connections between services • Requirements – rich, – include business information, – computer-understandable, – allow automatic extraction and construction of service networks.2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 48
  • 49. The relationship problem…• Relations provided by RDFS, FOAF, SIOC, … – rdfs:subClassOf, owl:EquivalentClass, owl:sameAs, foaf:knows, rdfs:seeAlso, …• Are limited and not suitable to connect all the world’s services.• One approach – Connect services via multiple types of connection layers – Capture the richness and characteristics of services• This goes well beyond the connection of services treated simply as unidimensional nodes2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 49
  • 50. US USDL DL Limitations of existing approaches <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam> owl:sameAs <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/...> ; owl:sameAs <http://sws.geonames.org/2759793> ; ... (?) <http://sws.geonames.org/2759793> owl:sameAs <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam> wgs84_pos:lat "52.3666667" ; wgs84_pos:long "4.8833333"; geo:inCountry <http://www.geonames.org/countries/#NL> ; ... 50
  • 51. OSSR model2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 51
  • 52. The smallest network: a dyad OSSR OSSR USDL USDL2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 52
  • 53. Populating models • How to bootstrap service networks? – Web scraping, crawling, Web mining, and crowdsourcing – Snowballing process (identify only providers -- recursively)t – Advertisements in service marketplaces (e.g. SDB*) – Databases (Thomson’s Financial SDC Platinum and Connexiti) – Native descriptions (e.g. USDL) *http://sdbmarketplace.cloudapp.net/ http://sdb.sapo.pt/en/index.html 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 53
  • 54. OSSN bootstrap&evolution• Where will the tipping point be*? time ? *the moment of critical mass, the threshold, the boiling point2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 54
  • 55. Characteristics • ~ WWW • No central control • Fully distributed • Trust? Fusion? Provenance? …?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 55
  • 56. Constructing service networks • Facts – Globally distributed models • Task – Accessed, retrieved, store and integrated models • Requirements – Parallel approaches and scalable storage systems are indispensable.2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 56
  • 57. OSSN construction• Top-down/bottom- 3 up?• Similar to LOD, SN, and WWW 2 – Leaves decisions in the hands of market player – Consumers indicate 1 providers – Increase visibility Bottom-up2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 57
  • 58. Applications and tools• Crawlers with load-balancing capabilities – e.g. LDSpider• Efficient RDF repository – e.g. Virtuoso and Sesame• Parallel algorithms2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 58
  • 59. Service network reasoning • Analytical, mining and reasoning algorithms – Provide insights on how worldwide economies operate – Forecast and control2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 59
  • 60. OOSN and its theories• Topics: – Empirically studying properties of OSSN – Modeling the OSSN mathematically.• Benefits: – Simulation • When real data is missing (before the tipping point) – Evolution • How will the OSSN change in the future?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 60
  • 61. Questions to ask• We assumes that – Do monopolies or services are all oligopolies exist in the energy sector in the US? interdependent – Service are provided and services consume – Is the financial service other services network stronger or weaker than it was 5 years ago?• SNA can ask and answer questions such – What service sector has as: the stronger competition in Georgia?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 61
  • 62. OSSN classification Atomic Dyad service systems service networks 1 2 Ego service networks Service networks 3 42012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 62
  • 63. OSSN Some theory…• Power laws and/or scale-free networks – Computer science, physics, ecology, linguistics, economics, etc.• What makes a new power law model sufficiently interesting? – Strong connection to an observed process • networked service-based economies – Many models claim this, but few demonstrate it convincingly.• Theory perspective on OSSN: – Know the right model of service networks, to analyze and control future behavior. – Given a proposed underlying model, OSSN can help to validate it. 63
  • 64. OSSN and power law• Let … – N be an OSSN – Xr be the proportion of services with degree (OSSR) r in N.• If Xr ~ Cr-α – N has power law degree distribution – A.k.a. “heavy tailed” or “scale free”• Has the holistic OSSN the scale free property?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 64
  • 65. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Hypothesis – Highly connected services increase their connectivity faster than less connected ones – Preferential attachment phenomenon• Other preferential attributes can be used – e.g. price, quality, or availability2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 65
  • 66. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Use USDL value proposition* as a preferential attachment. – usdl:valueproposition – Service value is judged from the perspective of consumers as they compare services among the alternatives.• Let us assume – price is the value proposition2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 66
  • 67. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Objective – Forecast the evolution of a service network – The market share of each service is:2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 67
  • 68. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market share is represented in the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to the market if the conditions are not changed*?• According to Bass model, the leading service will reaches a fixedpoint market share according to:*the value propositions of remain the same2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 68
  • 69. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market share is represented in the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to the market if the conditions are not changed*?• According to Bass model, the leading service will reaches a fixedpoint market share according to:*the value propositions of remain the same2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 69
  • 70. OSSN and System Dynamics• Explored the applicability of system dynamics – Using mathematical expressions to model the relationships of OSSNs – Instead of looking at causes and their effects in isolation (e.g. PA)• The next figure – Service systems S , S , S ,i j k – Links illustrating internal and external relationships2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 70
  • 71. OSSN and System Dynamics Service system Si + Si KPI = Sk KPI = + Si KPI = Net gains Resource Limit # services + + - OSSR + + OSSR - KPI Gain per Service Total Services Individual system Sk + Service OSSR - + + Sj KPI = + Sj KPI = Net gains # services + Service system Sj • OSSR Causal links connect KPIs from different services’ a) and within services. (’Tragedy of the Commons’ archetype )
  • 72. OSSN and System Dynamics• If the two services Si and Sj overuse the shared service Sk, – It will become depleted and all the providers will experience diminishing benefits• Services Si and Sj – To increase net gains, both providers increase the availability of service instances – As the number of instances increases, the margin decreases and there is the need to increase even more the number of instances available – As the number of instances increases, the stress on the availability of service Sk is so strong that the service collapses or cannot respond anymore as needed – At that point, service Si and Sj can no longer fully operate and the net gain is dramatically reduced for all the parties involved as shown in the following figure Si2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 72 Time
  • 73. Current projects2012 USDL roadmap 73
  • 74. Current projects• Service delivery broker – Industry specific. “one size fits all” does not fit everyone… Explore domain extensions to USDL• Linking LoD and OSSN – Services use data and data is in the LOD• “Plug-and-Process” – Services driven by ITIL processes• Moonrise – Bootstrap service networks2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 74
  • 75. Current projects• Import/export USDL – Service delivery broker. Interoperability of marketplaces• Mashups – Services can also be sold has bundles. Explore the mashups of services. Demonstrate their value for business.• Visual modeling – Explore infographics to uncover the potential of USDL. Explore dynamic content information representation.• Social networks and OSSN – Explore how SN can capture/disseminate OSSR and OSSN2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 75
  • 76. Interoperability2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 76
  • 77. Thank you for listening• Accessing retrieving and constructing OSSN/to/• Analyze, manage, and control service- based economies• Questions?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 77
  • 78. End2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 78