Challenges for Open Semantic             Service Networks            models, theory, applications                         ...
Open Semantic Service Networks
The importance of networks   World Wide Web            Linked Open Data (LOD)                        Social networks      ...
A new type of networks                                                                           Academic citations       ...
Networked economy Global service networksFrom processes to services2012             Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Servi...
The mobile ecosystem is characterized by a large and complex network of  companies interacting with each other, directly a...
Research on services• Software and IT perspective       – WSDL, SOA, ITIL, …• Sales, communications and business  models p...
Software and IT perspective• Service architectures       – SOA and SoaML• Service description languages       – WSDL , OWL...
SoaML              OWL-S                                           WSDLServices as _functions_Services as _business_      ...
_Business services_Consulting         IT Services     Cloud services Manual           Semi-automatic   Fully Automated
Driving forces2012     Unified Service Description Language   11
_Business services_                 _Business services_                        _Business services_                        ...
Open Semantic Service Networks• Constructed by …       – Accessing, retrieving and combining information from         serv...
/Building blocks/    _1. Modeling services                 _2. Services relationships                     _3. Populating m...
Seeing services as products? _Paradigm shift      _Models,      _Laws and      _Specs1. Business perspective adopts a serv...
Modeling services        •     Common vocabulary        •     Structure for vocabulary        •     Multidisciplinary     ...
*-USDL family• a-USDL/2009       – Initial version of USDL ready in 2009.       – Later renamed to a-USDL (pronounced alph...
WSDL vs USDL            Made for c omputers (S O A)                      Made for people (IoS )   Addres s                ...
http://www.genssiz.org2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research                        19           ...
/a-USDL/   the specification                       USDL
/a-USDL/                                                                     Service                              Service ...
/a-USDL/                                             ServiceBusiness                              Business                ...
/a-USDL/                                           ServiceBusinessProvider                              Provider          ...
/a-USDL/                                       ServiceBusinessServiceLevel                              ServiceLevel      ...
/a-USDL/                                         ServiceBusinessMarketing                              Marketing          ...
/a-USDL/                                    ServiceBusinessMarketingChannel                              Channel          ...
/a-USDL/                                             ServiceBusinessChannel                              Channel          ...
/a-USDL/                                                    ServiceOperational                              Operational   ...
/a-USDL/                                     ServiceBusinessTechnicalExecution                              TechnicalExecu...
/a-USDL/                                        ServiceBusinessTechnicalInvocation                              TechnicalI...
USDLXML Schema
USDL    import com.USDL.*;    public class USDLTest { protected static void example() throws Exception {                  ...
USDL       www.internet-of-services.com2012     Unified Service Description Language   33
/Data model/                                                            /Schema/                                          ...
http://www.linked-usdl.org/       www.internet-of-services.com2012      Unified Service Description Language              ...
2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   36
2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   37
Example                                         http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service ...
:pricing_EC2_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr a price:PricePlan ;                dcterms:description "Price pla...
Core 2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   40
Core 2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   41
<#service_EC2_Small> a usdl:Service ;               dcterms:created "2012-05-18"^^xsd:date ;               dcterms:modifie...
SLA 2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   43
SLA 2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   44
:slp_Support_Silver a usdl:ServiceLevelProfile ;        dcterms:title "Bronze support service level profile" ;        sla:...
Legal     @prefix legal: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-legal#>  :legal_Amazon a legal:TermsAndConditions ;          ...
Standardization• W3C Standards       – HTML, Ajax, HTTP, XML, WSDL, …       – + USDL (?)       – http://www.w3.org/• OASIS...
Expressing rich service            relationships         • Model connections between           services         • Requirem...
The relationship problem…•      Relations provided by RDFS,       FOAF, SIOC, …        – rdfs:subClassOf,          owl:Equ...
US       USDL       DL     Limitations of existing approaches          <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam>            ...
OSSR model2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   51
The smallest network: a dyad                  OSSR                                 OSSR       USDL                        ...
Populating models            • How to bootstrap service              networks?                – Web scraping, crawling, We...
OSSN bootstrap&evolution• Where will the tipping point be*?                                       time                    ...
Characteristics                  • ~ WWW             • No central control              • Fully distributed       • Trust? ...
Constructing service networks        • Facts            – Globally distributed models        • Task            – Accessed,...
OSSN construction• Top-down/bottom-                                                            3  up?• Similar to LOD, SN,...
Applications and tools• Crawlers with load-balancing  capabilities       – e.g. LDSpider• Efficient RDF repository       –...
Service network                        reasoning       • Analytical, mining and         reasoning algorithms           – P...
OOSN and its theories• Topics:       – Empirically studying properties of OSSN       – Modeling the OSSN mathematically.• ...
Questions to ask• We assumes that                                       – Do monopolies or  services are all              ...
OSSN classification                Atomic                                    Dyad            service systems              ...
OSSN Some theory…• Power laws and/or scale-free networks   – Computer science, physics, ecology, linguistics, economics,  ...
OSSN and power law• Let …       – N be an OSSN       – Xr be the proportion of services with degree (OSSR)         r in N....
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Hypothesis       – Highly connected services increase their         connectivity faster ...
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Use USDL value proposition* as a  preferential attachment.       – usdl:valueproposition...
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Objective       – Forecast the evolution of a service network       – The market share o...
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market  share is represented in  the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to t...
OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market  share is represented in  the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to t...
OSSN and System Dynamics• Explored the applicability of system  dynamics       – Using mathematical expressions to model t...
OSSN and System Dynamics                              Service system Si            +    Si KPI =                          ...
OSSN and System Dynamics• If the two services Si and Sj overuse the shared service Sk,       – It will become depleted and...
Current projects2012         USDL roadmap   73
USDL & TOSCA2012       USDL roadmap   74
The_Goal = /USDL + TOSCA/                               4. Browse                               and Select                ...
TOSCA and USDL              Different conceptual goals       TOSCA                                                        ...
TOSCA and USDL             Different conceptual goals       TOSCA                                                       US...
TOSCA and USDL             Different conceptual goals       TOSCA                                                       US...
TOSCA and USDL                     Combination of both concepts                    Functions Interfaces &  functional     ...
TOSCA and USDL                     Combination of both concepts                 Declarative                               ...
USDL to support TOSCA-based          marketplaces                          TOSCA                         Container        ...
<> rdf:type usdl:ServiceDescription ;           rdfs:label "SurgarCRM description" ;           dcterms:title "SurgarCRM de...
Current projects• Service delivery broker       – Industry specific. “one size fits all” does not fit everyone… Explore   ...
Current projects• Import/export USDL       – Service delivery broker. Interoperability of marketplaces• Mashups       – Se...
Interoperability2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   85
Thank you for listening• Accessing retrieving  and constructing  OSSN/to/• Analyze, manage,  and control service-  based e...
End2012   Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research   87
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Challenges for Open Semantic Service Networks : models, theory, applications

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// 21 August 2012 //

Business Process Technology (BPT)
Hasso Plattner Institut
University of Potsdam, Germany

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Challenges for Open Semantic Service Networks : models, theory, applications

  1. 1. Challenges for Open Semantic Service Networks models, theory, applications Jorge Cardoso Dept. Engenharia Informatica/CISUC University of Coimbra Coimbra, Portugal jcardoso@dei.uc.pt // 21 August 2012 // Business Process Technology (BPT) Hasso Plattner Institut University of Potsdam, Germany2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 1
  2. 2. Open Semantic Service Networks
  3. 3. The importance of networks World Wide Web Linked Open Data (LOD) Social networks …energy distribution grids, food web, water systems, wireless mobile networks...2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 3
  4. 4. A new type of networks Academic citations Patent citations Internet Word classes Software classes Preference Airline routes Railway routes Technological Information WWW P2P Roadways Networks Networks Telephone Delivery Metabolic pathways Electric power grids Protein interactions Electronic circuit Genetic regulatory Neural Social Biological Blood vessels Food web Networks Networks Friendship Sexual contact Intermarriages Business RelationshipsCommunication Records Service Collaboration Networks 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 4
  5. 5. Networked economy Global service networksFrom processes to services2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 5
  6. 6. The mobile ecosystem is characterized by a large and complex network of companies interacting with each other, directly and indirectly, to provide a broad array of mobile products and services to end-customers._Thomson’s Financial SDC Platinum DB(alliances and joint ventures)_The Connexiti database(supplier, customer, and competitors) Firms and their relation in the converging mobile ecosystem.Rahul C. Basole, Visualization of Interfirm Relations in a Converging Mobile Ecosystem, 7th International 6Conference on Mobile Business, 2008.
  7. 7. Research on services• Software and IT perspective – WSDL, SOA, ITIL, …• Sales, communications and business models perspective – Marketing, pricing, channels, …• Design perspective – Blueprinting, personas, customer journey, …2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 7
  8. 8. Software and IT perspective• Service architectures – SOA and SoaML• Service description languages – WSDL , OWL-S, and WSMO• Business-oriented descriptions – e3value, e3service, business models• Best practices – ITIL and CMMI for Services2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 8
  9. 9. SoaML OWL-S WSDLServices as _functions_Services as _business_ ITIL 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 9 e3value
  10. 10. _Business services_Consulting IT Services Cloud services Manual Semi-automatic Fully Automated
  11. 11. Driving forces2012 Unified Service Description Language 11
  12. 12. _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services__Business services_ _Business services_ How to make it happen? _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_ _Business services_
  13. 13. Open Semantic Service Networks• Constructed by … – Accessing, retrieving and combining information from service and relationship models.• Networks are said to be open… – Their models are openly and transparently available and accessible by external entities and follow an open world assumption.• Networks are said to be semantic … – When they explicitly describe their capabilities using a conceptual or domain model, and optionally using semantic Web standards2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 13
  14. 14. /Building blocks/ _1. Modeling services _2. Services relationships _3. Populating models _4. Service networks _5. Analysis and reasoning
  15. 15. Seeing services as products? _Paradigm shift _Models, _Laws and _Specs1. Business perspective adopts a service-dominant logic2. ICT perspective adopts service-oriented modeling toenable automate2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 15
  16. 16. Modeling services • Common vocabulary • Structure for vocabulary • Multidisciplinary • Complex • People, information and technology • Service system • Internal and external • USDL – Unified Service Description Language2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 16
  17. 17. *-USDL family• a-USDL/2009 – Initial version of USDL ready in 2009. – Later renamed to a-USDL (pronounced alpha-USDL). – http://www.genssiz.org/research/service-modeling/alpha-usdl/• USDL/2011 – A W3C Incubator group was created USDL was adapted and extended based on industry feedback at the end of 2011. – http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/usdl/• Linked-USDL/-- – In order to make the specification gain a wider acceptance, a version called Linked-USDL emerged using Semantic Web principles Iits development is still in progress. – http://linked-usdl.org/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 17
  18. 18. WSDL vs USDL Made for c omputers (S O A) Made for people (IoS ) Addres s P rovider P rotocols P ort C ons umer Addres s T ec hnic al Arguments B undling P orts D ata type Marketing us ines s B T ec hnic al … WS DL L egal US DL … … O perational O perations F unctionality R es ources …2012 Unified Service Description Language 18
  19. 19. http://www.genssiz.org2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 19 http://www.genssiz.org/research/service-modeling/alpha-usdl/
  20. 20. /a-USDL/ the specification USDL
  21. 21. /a-USDL/ Service Service Attributes 1 A Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID ) that identifies uniquely serviceKey a service with a worldwide spectrum. The identifier allows to reference services unambiguously. The type of service being represented. A service can be of type serviceType atomic, unstructured bundle and process bundle. serviceName The name of the service. serviceVersion The version number of a service. Relations Business A Service has 0 or 1 Business perspective.Business USDL Technical Operational A Service has 0 or 1 Operational perspective. Technical A Service has 0 or 1 Technical perspective. Operational udescription A Service has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <serviceKey> C0E6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA-70E212685A40 </serviceKey> <serviceType> Atomic </serviceType> <serviceName> EcoCalculator </serviceName> <serviceVersion> v.43.5.637 </serviceVersion> <business> … </business> <operational> … </operational> <technical> … </technical> <udescription> … </udescription> </service>
  22. 22. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusiness Business Attributes -- -- Relations Provider The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Provider. Consumers The Business perspective has 0 or more ConsumerProfile. serviceLevel The Business perspective has 0 or 1 ServiceLevel subperspective. Marketing The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Marketing subperspective. Legal The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Legal subperspective. Interaction The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Interaction subperspective. Bundling The Business perspective has 0 or 1 Bundling. The Business perspective has 0 or more PerspectiveExtension perpectiveExtensionBusiness USDL Technical subperspective. udescription A Business has 0 or 1 UDescription. Operational Examples <service> <business> <provider> … </provider> <consumers> … </consumers> <serviceLevel> … </serviceLevel> <marketing> … </marketing> <legal> … </legal> <interaction> … </interaction> <bundling> … </bundling> <perpectiveExtension> … </perpectiveExtension> <udescription> … </udescription> </business> … </service>
  23. 23. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessProvider Provider Attributes A Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID) that identifies the providerKey provider with a worldwide spectrum. Every provider is uniquely identified. The name of the provider. For example, the name of a private providerName company or a governmental organization. providerAddress The physical address of the provider. The name of the person authorized for the provisioning of the personName service. Phone The phone number of the contact Email The email address of the contact The logical address of the provider. For example, the Web site www where additional information can be foundBusiness USDL Technical Relations Provider A Business perspective has one Provider. Operational udescription A Provider has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <business> <provider> <providerKey> C0E6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA-70E212685A40 </providerKey> <providerName> SAP Research </providerName> <providerAddress> Chemnitzer Str 48, Dresden, Germany </providerAddress> <personName> Xorge Cardozo </personName> <phone> ++49 (351) 123-1234 </phone> <email> xorge.cardozo@sap.com </email> <www> http://www.sap.com/ </www> <udescription> … </udescription> </provider> </business> … </service>
  24. 24. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessServiceLevel ServiceLevel Attributes -- -- Relations Performance A ServiceLevel has zero or one Performance fact. Dependability A ServiceLevel has zero or one Dependability fact. Security A ServiceLevel has zero or one Security fact. Rating A ServiceLevel has zero or one Rating fact. Udescription A ServiceLevel has 0 or 1 UDescription.Business Technical Examples USDL <service> Operational <business> <serviceLevel> <performance> … </performance> <dependability> … </dependability> <security> … </security> <rating> … </rating> <udescription> … </udescription> </serviceLevel> </business> … </service>
  25. 25. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessMarketing Marketing Attributes -- -- Relations Price A Marketing subperspective has one or 1 Price. Channels A Marketing subperspective has one or 1 Channels. Certifications A Marketing subperspective has one or 1 Certifications. Udescription A Marketing has 0 or 1 UDescription. ExamplesBusiness Technical <service> USDL <business> Operational <marketing> <price> … </price> <channels> … </channels> <certifications> … </certifications> <udescription> … </udescription> </marketing> </business> … </service>
  26. 26. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessMarketingChannel Channel Attributes The type of the channel. For example, documentation, video, channelType images, etc. channelName The name of the channel. A URI where the media associated with the channel can be Uri found. Relations Channels A Marketing subperspective has zero or 1 Channels. Udescription A Channel has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <business>Business Technical USDL <marketing> <channels> Operational <channel> <channelType> Documentation </channelType> <channelName> User Guide for the EcoCalculator service </channelName> <uri> http://www.sap.com/services/EcoCalculator/EcoC-user-guide.pdf </uri> <uri> http://www.sap.com/services/EcoCalculator/EcoC-how-to.pdf </uri> <udescription> … </udescription> <channel> </channel> <channelType> Video </channelType> <channelName> Promotional video of the EcoCalculator service </channelName> <uri> http://www.youtube.com/query=?SAP-EcoC </uri> <udescription> … </udescription> </channels> </marketing> </business> </facts>
  27. 27. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessChannel Channel Attributes The type of the channel. For example, documentation, video, channelType images, etc. channelName The name of the channel. A URI where the media associated with the channel can be Uri found. Relations Channels A Marketing subperspective has zero or 1 Channels. Udescription A Channel has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <business>Business Technical USDL <marketing> <channels> Operational <channel> <channelType> Documentation </channelType> <channelName> User Guide for the EcoCalculator service </channelName> <uri> http://www.sap.com/services/EcoCalculator/EcoC-user-guide.pdf </uri> <uri> http://www.sap.com/services/EcoCalculator/EcoC-how-to.pdf </uri> <udescription> … </udescription> <channel> </channel> <channelType> Video </channelType> <channelName> Promotional video of the EcoCalculator service </channelName> <uri> http://www.youtube.com/query=?SAP-EcoC </uri> <udescription> … </udescription> </channels> </marketing> </business> </facts>
  28. 28. /a-USDL/ ServiceOperational Operational Attributes -- -- Relations functionality The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Functionality. classifications The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Classifications. phases The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Phases. milestones The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Milestones. operations The Operational perspective has 0 or 1 Operations. Udescription An Operational perspective has 0 or 1 UDescription.Business Technical Examples USDL <service> Operational <operational> <functionality> … </functionality> <classifications> … </classifications> <milestones> … </milestones> <phases> … </phases> <operations> … </operations> <udescription> … </udescription> </operational> </service>
  29. 29. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessTechnicalExecution TechnicalExecution Attributes -- -- Relations technicalInvocation A Technical perspective has zero or 1 TechnicalInvocation. technicalExecution A Technical perspective has zero or 1 TechnicalExecution. udescription A Technical perspective has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <technical>Business Technical <technicalInvocation> … </technicalInvocation> USDL <technicalExecution> … </technicalExecution> Operational <udescription> … </udescription> </technical> … </service>
  30. 30. /a-USDL/ ServiceBusinessTechnicalInvocation TechnicalInvocation Attributes -- -- Relations A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more transportProtocol TransportProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more messagingProtocol MessagingProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more metadataExchangeProtocol MetadataExchangeProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more securityProtocol SecurityProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more reliableMessagingProtocol ReliableMessagingProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or moreBusiness Technical transactionProtocol USDL TransactionProtocol. A TechnicalInvocation subperspective has zero or more managementProtocol Operational ManagementProtocol. technicalInvocation A Technical perspective has zero or more TechnicalInvocation. udescription A TechnicalInvocation perspective has 0 or 1 UDescription. Examples <service> <technical> <technicalInvocation> <transportProtocol> … </transportProtocol> <messagingProtocol> … </messagingProtocol> <metadataExchangeProtocol> … </metadataExchangeProtocol> <securityProtocol> … </securityProtocol> <reliableMessagingProtocol> … </reliableMessagingProtocol > <transactionProtocol> … </transactionProtocol> <managementProtocol> … </managementProtocol> <udescription> … </udescription> <technicalInvocation> … </service>
  31. 31. USDLXML Schema
  32. 32. USDL import com.USDL.*; public class USDLTest { protected static void example() throws Exception { Java API // create a new, empty XML document USDL2 schema = USDL2.createDocument(); // create the root element <Service> and add it to the document serviceType uservice = schema.service.append(); // create the properties associated with a service … uservice.serviceName.append().setValue("SAP Service"); uservice.serviceVersion.append().setValue("v12-23-34"); // add an universal description to a service udescriptionType description = uservice.udescription.append(); description.name.append().setValue("1040NR-EZ Service"); … description.concept.append().setValue("http://www.gtsec.com/taxes/forms/form1040nr-ez.asp"); description.language.append().setValue("en"); // create a business dimension businessType business = uservice.business.append(); // create a provider dimension providerType provider = business.provider.append(); // update the provider dimension provider.providerKey.append().setValue("AAA6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA-6AB12685A40 "); provider.providerName.append().setValue("SAP AG"); … provider.email.append().setValue("xorge.cardozo@sap.com"); provider.www.append().setValue("http://www.sap.com"); // set the schema location (this is optional) schema.setSchemaLocation("USDL.xsd"); // save the instance created© SAP 2008 schema.saveToFile("SAP-1040NR-EZ-Service.xml", true);/ Page 32
  33. 33. USDL www.internet-of-services.com2012 Unified Service Description Language 33
  34. 34. /Data model/ /Schema/ /Vocabulary/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 34
  35. 35. http://www.linked-usdl.org/ www.internet-of-services.com2012 Unified Service Description Language 35
  36. 36. 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 36
  37. 37. 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 37
  38. 38. Example http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 38
  39. 39. :pricing_EC2_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr a price:PricePlan ; dcterms:description "Price plan for a Small EC2 Reserved Instance in Europe with Windows, light utilization and a one yearcontract duration."@en ; price:hasContractDuration @prefix price: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-pricing#> [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "ANN" ] ; price:hasBillingCycle [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ; gr:hasValueInteger "1" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "MON" ] ; price:hasPriceComponent :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront , :priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly ,:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Upfront a price:PriceComponent ; dcterms:title "General costs upfront"@en ; dcterms:description "One-time fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo… price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "69" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "C62" ] .:priceComponent_Small_EU_Windows_ReservedInstance_Light_1yr_General_Hourly a price:PriceComponent ; dcterms:description "Hourly fee for general usage of the instance."@en ; price:isLinkedTo :resource_EC2_DataCentre_EU , :resource_EC2_Windows ; price:hasPrice [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "USD" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "0.069" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "HUR" ] .
  40. 40. Core 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 40
  41. 41. Core 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 41
  42. 42. <#service_EC2_Small> a usdl:Service ; dcterms:created "2012-05-18"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2012-05-22"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:title "EC2 instance small"@en ; usdl:hasNature usdl:Automated ; usdl:hasProvider :provider_Amazon ; usdl:hasLegalCondition :legal_Amazon ; usdl:hasPartMandatory <#service_Support_Basic> ; usdl:hasPartOptional <#service_Support_Bronze> , <#service_Support_Silver> , <#service_Support_Gold> , <#service_Support_Premium> ; gr:quantitativeProductOrServiceProperty :resource_EC2_Small_MainMemory , :resource_EC2_Small_ComputeUnit , :resource_EC2_Small_Storage ; gr:qualitativeProductOrServiceProperty :resource_EC2_Small_IO , :resource_EC2_PrivateIP , :resource_EC2_PublicIP .:resource_EC2_Small_MainMemory a cloud:MainMemory ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "4L" ; gr:hasValue "1700" .:resource_EC2_Small_ComputeUnit a cloud:CPU ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "A86" ; gr:hasMinValue "1.0" ; gr:hasMaxValue "1.2" ; gr:valueReference [ a cloud:NumberOfCores ; gr:hasValue "1" ] .2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 42
  43. 43. SLA 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 43
  44. 44. SLA 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 44
  45. 45. :slp_Support_Silver a usdl:ServiceLevelProfile ; dcterms:title "Bronze support service level profile" ; sla:hasServiceLevel :slo_Support_Silver_ResponseTime .:slo_Support_Silver_ResponseTime a sla:GuaranteedState ; dcterms:title "Response time" ; sla:serviceLevelExpression [ a sla:ServiceLevelExpression ; dcterms:description "Maximum period in which responseis sent."@en ; sla:hasVariable :var_Support_Silver_ResponseTime ] .:var_Support_Silver_ResponseTime a sla:Variable ; rdfs:label "Fastest guaranteed response" ; sla:hasDefault [ a support:ResponseTime ; gr:hasValue "4" ; gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "HUR" ] .2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 45
  46. 46. Legal @prefix legal: <http://www.linked-usdl.org/ns/usdl-legal#> :legal_Amazon a legal:TermsAndConditions ; dcterms:title "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements"@en ; dcterms:description "Amazon Web Services LLCs legal statements are accessible at http://aws.amazon.com/legal/. Please consult this website for further information"@en ; legal:hasClause [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Customer Agreement" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/agreement"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Services" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/serviceterms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Acceptable Use Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/aup"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Trademark Guidelines" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/trademark-guidelines"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Sites" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/terms"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "Privacy Policy" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/privacy"@en ] , [ a legal:Clause ; legal:name "AWS Tax Help" ; legal:text "http://aws.amazon.com/tax-help"@en ] . 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 46
  47. 47. Standardization• W3C Standards – HTML, Ajax, HTTP, XML, WSDL, … – + USDL (?) – http://www.w3.org/• OASIS Standards – TOSCA, USSI, WS-*, ebXML, … – + USDL (?) – http://www.oasis-open.org/• OMG Standards – BPMN, UML, CORBA, XMI , … – + USDL (?) – http://www.omg.org/2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 47
  48. 48. Expressing rich service relationships • Model connections between services • Requirements – rich, – include business information, – computer-understandable, – allow automatic extraction and construction of service networks.2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 48
  49. 49. The relationship problem…• Relations provided by RDFS, FOAF, SIOC, … – rdfs:subClassOf, owl:EquivalentClass, owl:sameAs, foaf:knows, rdfs:seeAlso, …• Are limited and not suitable to connect all the world’s services.• One approach – Connect services via multiple types of connection layers – Capture the richness and characteristics of services• This goes well beyond the connection of services treated simply as unidimensional nodes2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 49
  50. 50. US USDL DL Limitations of existing approaches <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam> owl:sameAs <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/...> ; owl:sameAs <http://sws.geonames.org/2759793> ; ... (?) <http://sws.geonames.org/2759793> owl:sameAs <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam> wgs84_pos:lat "52.3666667" ; wgs84_pos:long "4.8833333"; geo:inCountry <http://www.geonames.org/countries/#NL> ; ... 50
  51. 51. OSSR model2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 51
  52. 52. The smallest network: a dyad OSSR OSSR USDL USDL2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 52
  53. 53. Populating models • How to bootstrap service networks? – Web scraping, crawling, Web mining, and crowdsourcing – Snowballing process (identify only providers -- recursively)t – Advertisements in service marketplaces (e.g. SDB*) – Databases (Thomson’s Financial SDC Platinum and Connexiti) – Native descriptions (e.g. USDL) *http://sdbmarketplace.cloudapp.net/ http://sdb.sapo.pt/en/index.html 2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 53
  54. 54. OSSN bootstrap&evolution• Where will the tipping point be*? time ? *the moment of critical mass, the threshold, the boiling point2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 54
  55. 55. Characteristics • ~ WWW • No central control • Fully distributed • Trust? Fusion? Provenance? …?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 55
  56. 56. Constructing service networks • Facts – Globally distributed models • Task – Accessed, retrieved, store and integrated models • Requirements – Parallel approaches and scalable storage systems are indispensable.2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 56
  57. 57. OSSN construction• Top-down/bottom- 3 up?• Similar to LOD, SN, and WWW 2 – Leaves decisions in the hands of market player – Consumers indicate 1 providers – Increase visibility Bottom-up2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 57
  58. 58. Applications and tools• Crawlers with load-balancing capabilities – e.g. LDSpider• Efficient RDF repository – e.g. Virtuoso and Sesame• Parallel algorithms2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 58
  59. 59. Service network reasoning • Analytical, mining and reasoning algorithms – Provide insights on how worldwide economies operate – Forecast and control2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 59
  60. 60. OOSN and its theories• Topics: – Empirically studying properties of OSSN – Modeling the OSSN mathematically.• Benefits: – Simulation • When real data is missing (before the tipping point) – Evolution • How will the OSSN change in the future?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 60
  61. 61. Questions to ask• We assumes that – Do monopolies or services are all oligopolies exist in the energy sector in the US? interdependent – Service are provided and services consume – Is the financial service other services network stronger or weaker than it was 5 years ago?• SNA can ask and answer questions such – What service sector has as: the stronger competition in Georgia?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 61
  62. 62. OSSN classification Atomic Dyad service systems service networks 1 2 Ego service networks Service networks 3 42012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 62
  63. 63. OSSN Some theory…• Power laws and/or scale-free networks – Computer science, physics, ecology, linguistics, economics, etc.• What makes a new power law model sufficiently interesting? – Strong connection to an observed process • networked service-based economies – Many models claim this, but few demonstrate it convincingly.• Theory perspective on OSSN: – Know the right model of service networks, to analyze and control future behavior. – Given a proposed underlying model, OSSN can help to validate it. 63
  64. 64. OSSN and power law• Let … – N be an OSSN – Xr be the proportion of services with degree (OSSR) r in N.• If Xr ~ Cr-α – N has power law degree distribution – A.k.a. “heavy tailed” or “scale free”• Has the holistic OSSN the scale free property?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 64
  65. 65. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Hypothesis – Highly connected services increase their connectivity faster than less connected ones – Preferential attachment phenomenon• Other preferential attributes can be used – e.g. price, quality, or availability2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 65
  66. 66. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Use USDL value proposition* as a preferential attachment. – usdl:valueproposition – Service value is judged from the perspective of consumers as they compare services among the alternatives.• Let us assume – price is the value proposition2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 66
  67. 67. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• Objective – Forecast the evolution of a service network – The market share of each service is:2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 67
  68. 68. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market share is represented in the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to the market if the conditions are not changed*?• According to Bass model, the leading service will reaches a fixedpoint market share according to:*the value propositions of remain the same2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 68
  69. 69. OSSN and Preferential Attachment• The service market share is represented in the figure at t = 3.• What will happen to the market if the conditions are not changed*?• According to Bass model, the leading service will reaches a fixedpoint market share according to:*the value propositions of remain the same2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 69
  70. 70. OSSN and System Dynamics• Explored the applicability of system dynamics – Using mathematical expressions to model the relationships of OSSNs – Instead of looking at causes and their effects in isolation (e.g. PA)• The next figure – Service systems S , S , S ,i j k – Links illustrating internal and external relationships2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 70
  71. 71. OSSN and System Dynamics Service system Si + Si KPI = Sk KPI = + Si KPI = Net gains Resource Limit # services + + - OSSR + + OSSR - KPI Gain per Service Total Services Individual system Sk + Service OSSR - + + Sj KPI = + Sj KPI = Net gains # services + Service system Sj • OSSR Causal links connect KPIs from different services’ a) and within services. (’Tragedy of the Commons’ archetype )
  72. 72. OSSN and System Dynamics• If the two services Si and Sj overuse the shared service Sk, – It will become depleted and all the providers will experience diminishing benefits• Services Si and Sj – To increase net gains, both providers increase the availability of service instances – As the number of instances increases, the margin decreases and there is the need to increase even more the number of instances available – As the number of instances increases, the stress on the availability of service Sk is so strong that the service collapses or cannot respond anymore as needed – At that point, service Si and Sj can no longer fully operate and the net gain is dramatically reduced for all the parties involved as shown in the following figure Si2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 72 Time
  73. 73. Current projects2012 USDL roadmap 73
  74. 74. USDL & TOSCA2012 USDL roadmap 74
  75. 75. The_Goal = /USDL + TOSCA/ 4. Browse and Select 6. Use 5. Provision Service Instance 3. Publish Service Template 2. Create 1. Create2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 75
  76. 76. TOSCA and USDL Different conceptual goals TOSCA USDLDescribes the structure of an Describes the functional and non-application and its management functional requirements, capabilities,(which is executable) and interfaces of an applicationGoal: Goal:Portability and full- Description of the interfaces andautomated management of properties of an application to make itapplications searchable, comparable, and tradable2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 76
  77. 77. TOSCA and USDL Different conceptual goals TOSCA USDL Functions Pricing Bindings Legal Operations Service Level … … Topology Management Plans Interfaces & Non-functional functional capabilities capabilities2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 77
  78. 78. TOSCA and USDL Different conceptual goals TOSCA USDL Functions Pricing Bindings Legal Operations Service Level … … Topology Management Plans „New WSDL“ Interfaces & „New WS-Policy“ Non-functional for any services functional for any services (with capabilities capabilities domain-specific Modules: Pricing,…)2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 78
  79. 79. TOSCA and USDL Combination of both concepts Functions Interfaces & functional Bindings capabilities Operations … Pricing Topology Management PlansNon-functional Legal capabilities CSAR Service Level … 2012 USDL TOSCA 79
  80. 80. TOSCA and USDL Combination of both concepts Declarative Declarative Imperative Functions Interfaces & functional Bindings capabilities Operations … Declarative Pricing Topology Management PlansNon-functional Legal capabilities CSAR Service Level … 2012 USDL TOSCA 80
  81. 81. USDL to support TOSCA-based marketplaces TOSCA Container Cloud Provider Marketplace2012 81
  82. 82. <> rdf:type usdl:ServiceDescription ; rdfs:label "SurgarCRM description" ; dcterms:title "SurgarCRM description" ; dcterms:description "Description of SurgarCRM (www.sugarcrm.com) cloud-based system to show the integration USDL-TOSCA." ; dcterms:contributor [ a foaf:Person ; foaf:name "Jorge Cardoso" ; foaf:firstName "Jorge" ; foaf:lastName "Cardoso" ] ; dcterms:created "2012-08-14"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2012-08-18"^^xsd:date ; owl:versionInfo "002" .:SugarCRM_Edition a rdfs:Class , skos:Concept ; rdfs:subClassOf gr:QualitativeValue ; skos:prefLabel "SurgarCRM Software Packages Editions" ; skos:editorialNote "SurgarCRM declares their editions as qualitative measure in the categories: Professional, Coporate, Enterprise and Ultimate." ; skos:narrower :SugarCRM_Professional , :SugarCRM_Corporate , :SugarCRM_Enterprise , :SugarCRM_Ultimate .:SugarCRM_Professional a rdfs:Class , skos:Concept ; rdfs:subClassOf gr:QualitativeValue ; skos:prefLabel "SurgarCRM Software Packages Edition Corporate" ; skos:broader :SugarCRM_Edition ; skos:narrower :SugarCRM_Corporate .
  83. 83. Current projects• Service delivery broker – Industry specific. “one size fits all” does not fit everyone… Explore domain extensions to USDL• Linking LoD and OSSN – Services use data and data is in the LOD• “Plug-and-Process” – Services driven by ITIL processes• Moonrise – Bootstrap service networks2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 83
  84. 84. Current projects• Import/export USDL – Service delivery broker. Interoperability of marketplaces• Mashups – Services can also be sold has bundles. Explore the mashups of services. Demonstrate their value for business.• Visual modeling – Explore infographics to uncover the potential of USDL. Explore dynamic content information representation.• Social networks and OSSN – Explore how SN can capture/disseminate OSSR and OSSN2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 84
  85. 85. Interoperability2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 85
  86. 86. Thank you for listening• Accessing retrieving and constructing OSSN/to/• Analyze, manage, and control service- based economies• Questions?2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 86
  87. 87. End2012 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 87
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