3D in Games3D Monster Maze was the first ever game released on a commercial games machine that was in 3D.It was developed by Malcolm Evans in 1981 for the Sinclair ZX81 platform. The game awarded pointsfor each step the player took without getting caught by the Tyrannosaurus Rex that hunted them inthe 16 by 16 cell, randomly generated maze.Transition to 3DThe fifth generation is most noted for the rise of fully 3D games. While there were games prior thathad used three dimensional environments, such as Virtua Racing and Star Fox, Virtua Racing.Star FoxIt was in this era that many game designers began to move traditionally 2D and pseudo-3D genresinto full 3D. Super Mario 64 on the N64, Crash Bandicoot, and Spyro the Dragon on the PlayStationand Nights into Dreams... on the Saturn, are prime examples of this trend. Their 3D environmentswere widely marketed and they steered the industrys focus away from side-scrolling and rail-styletitles, as well as opening doors to more complex games and genres. Games like Goldeneye 007, TheLegend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time or Virtua Fighter were nothing like shoot-em ups, RPGs or fightinggames before them. 3D became the main focus in this era as well as a slow decline of cartridges infavour of CDs, which allowed much greater storage capacity than what was previously possible.Current TrendsThe use of hyper-realistic 3D technology within games is now seen as a standard element, (barringthe current interest in retro styling) bringing ever more realistic worlds and narratives to life. Gameshave evolved into interactive films, for example,The Batman Franchisehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glQ7fTxaWPIThe Uncharted Serieshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZJwkfwTaedY&feature=player_detailpageThe ever-increasing download speeds capable through wireless and mobile networks and thedevelopments made in the field of motion/gesture control, mean that 3D technology will have a bigpart to play in the ways in which games are played and displayed.
3D in AnimationFirst 3D AnimationThis historical video was recently re-discovered after being lost for many years. It was produced in1972 and is believed to be the worlds first computer-generated 3D animation.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jjbax5HYHLQIt was created by Ed Catmull, a true pioneer of 3D technology, who was a computer scientist at theUniversity of Utah (birthplace of the famous Utah teapot.) If the name sounds familiar, its because afew years later he was one of the founders of Pixar.Pixars Tin Toyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtFYP4t9TG0Tin Toy is a 1988 American computer-animated short film produced by Pixar and directed by JohnLasseter. The short film, which runs five minutes, stars Tinny, a tin one-man-band toy, attempting toescape from Billy, a destructive baby. The third short film produced by the companys small animationdivision, it was a risky investment: due to low revenue produced by Pixars main product, theeponymous computer to manage animations, the company was under financial constraints.Lasseter pitched the concept for Tin Toy by storyboard to Pixar owner Steve Jobs, who agreed tofinance the short despite the companys struggles, which he kept alive with annual investment. Thefilm was officially a test of the photo realistic render man software, and proved new challenges to theanimation team, namely the difficult task of realistically animating Billy. Tin Toy would later gainattention from Disney, who sealed an agreement to create Toy Story, which was primarily inspired byelements from Tin Toy.The short premiered in a partially completed edit at the SIGGRAPH convention in August 1988 to astanding ovation from scientists and engineers. Tin Toy went on to claim Pixars first Oscar with the1988 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, becoming the first CGI film to win an Oscar. Withthe award, Tin Toy went far to establish computer animation as a legitimate artistic medium outsideSIGGRAPH and the animation-festival film circuit. Tin Toy was selected for preservation in the UnitedStates National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, oraesthetically significant" in 2003.Accessing the TechnologyAlthough traditional forms of animation like cell and stop-motion are still popular (and often producedusing computer technology), the availability and affordability of high-end 3D software has allowedindividuals to access the technology and make creative animations that are of a professional quality.Stories can be told using the freedom 3D space gives the animator. This has led to an explosion ofself-published animations and subsequent networking. Freelancers are able to develop shortanimations for the childrens TV market and advertising, competing on an equal footing with largerproduction companies.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdUUx5FdySsTechniques3D Animation is carried out by key-framing the camera, lights and objects within a scene. Charactermovement is created by using rigging or motion capture techniques.
RiggingSkeletal animation is a technique in computer animation in which a character is represented in twoparts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical setof interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh.While this technique is often used to animate humans or more generally for organic modelling, it onlyserves to make the animation process more intuitive and the same technique can be used to controlthe deformation of any object — a spoon, a building, or a galaxy.This technique is used in virtually all animation systems where simplified user interfaces allowsanimators to control often complex algorithms and a huge amount of geometry; most notably throughinverse kinematics and other "goal-oriented" techniques. In principle, however, the intention of thetechnique is never to imitate real anatomy or physical processes, but only to control the deformationof the mesh data.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hg6jvHjvHGkMotion CaptureMotion capture is the process of recording the movement of objects or people. It is used in military,entertainment, sports, and medical applications, and for validation of computer vision and robotics.In film making and video game development, it refers to recording actions of human actors, and usingthat information to animate digital character models in 2D or 3D computer animation. When it includesface and fingers or captures subtle expressions, it is often referred to as performance capture. Inmany fields, motion capture is sometimes called motion tracking, but in film making and games,motion tracking more usually refers to match moving.3D in Film and TVhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wK1Ixr-UmMFirst 3D Animation in a FilmAs shown earlier, notice the rotating palm and face made of polygons. Its the worlds first 3Danimation rendered in 1972 by Ed Catmull and Fred Park, at that time young scientists at theUniversity of Utah. Four years later this animation was eventually discovered by some Hollywoodexecutive and included into the 1976 sci-fi movie Future world. Today, Ed Catmull is known as a co-founder and president of Pixar Studios.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfRAfsK5cvUThe first revolutionary use of 3D imagery in a movie was in Jurassic Park released in 1993, almost allof the dinosaurs were created in using 3D CGI in and shown in the live-action scenes of the movie:It is now common place for 3D composites to feature within TV and films – characters, SFX -explosions etc.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lc0UehYemQA
Pans Labyrinth – 2006http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5d4f1nyLggBatman Beginshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zdFsoUF-FgMarvels Avengers Assemblehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1hPpG4s3-O4Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often tocreate the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. Live-action shooting forcompositing is variously called "chroma key", "blue screen", "green screen" and other names. Today,most, though not all, compositing is achieved through digital image manipulation. Pre-digitalcompositing techniques, however, go back as far as the trick films of Georges Méliès in the late 19thcentury; and some are still in use. All compositing involves the replacement of selected parts of animage with other material, usually, but not always, from another image. In the digital method ofcompositing, software commands designate a narrowly defined colour as the part of an image to bereplaced. Then every pixel within the designated colour range is replaced by the software with a pixelfrom another image, aligned to appear as part of the original. For example, a TV weather person isrecorded in front of a plain blue or green screen, while compositing software replaces only thedesignated blue or green colour with weather maps.3D Animation on TVhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3PZO_lCBkw3D featured rarely on television until 1994 when a Canadian production company called MainframeEntertainment based in Vancouver released a CGI TV series called Reboot. The series was creditedto be the first ever full-length, completely computer-animated TV series. The program was unique atthe time it was released since the first fully 3D animated movie hadn’t yet been released, so itattracted a lot of attention not only from the audience but also drew the attention of older people toodue to its originality and technical vocabulary.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fuNY5nYo0gYThe setting is in the inner world of a computer system known by its inhabitants as Mainframe. It wasdeliberately chosen due to technological constraints at the time, as the fictional computer worldallowed for blocky looking models and mechanical animation. Mainframe is divided into six sectors:Baud way, Kits, Floating Point Park, Beverly Hills, Wall Street, and Getty Prime. The names ofMainframes sectors are homages to famous neighbourhoods, mostly in New York City or LosAngeles.As the cost of production has fallen, the use of 3D within TV has mushroomed. Production valueshave started to mirror those of the film industry.24http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SzYQ_gRDnnYPrimevalhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdeBxEuQieY3D in Education3D technology is used effectively to create educational tools and content, enhancing traditionaleducation methods or by providing virtual classrooms. For example, Gaia 3D Viewer:The Gaia 3D Viewer has been designed with the classroom in mind. The simple interface requires notraining and teachers are able to start teaching lessons in 3D straight away. Different Viewer optionsoffer a variety of capabilities allowing maximum flexibility in the classroom. Gaia offers a variety oflessons covering all subjects from Biology to History and Geography. Each lesson can be enhancedby the teacher with the capability to quickly and easily embed external assets directly into the lessonsprovided. The full environments, such as the Roman City and Pond Ecosystem, allow teachers andpupils to explore and discover in a virtual environment. Using the camera function in the Viewer,teachers may individually determine and control the path they wish to travel inside any selected 3Denvironment. For instance, take the classroom on a virtual tour of ancient Giza or on an underwaterhunt for tadpoles.
3D in ArchitectureArchitects are able to use 3D technology to plan buildings and environments and producevisualisations of the finished designs:Constructionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=qtfcNykNVYUFly – Throughhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2SX8SggAKM&feature=player_embedded3D in EngineeringEngineers use 3D technology to design and test plant and equipment:Kame Engineering - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZA60wVLYpM&feature=player_embeddedNet Engineering - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=6AVAzGQMxEg3D in Medicine3D technology is used within the medical sector for training purposes, but most importantly, in theimaging of the body:CT - 3D Imaging - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=og3t1i9gSG0MRI - 3D Imaging - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=XwUn64d5Ddk3D in Meteorology3D technology is used to model weather systems to help understand upcoming patterns, particularlyin the case of extreme weather conditions:http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=EbqVojwLo8c3D in Product Design3D technology is used by designers to develop and visualise new products:3FDSassy CupThis is the advert for one of the products, the Sassy Cup developed by 3FD -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PKb-eU6wAU&feature=player_embedded