APES Unit 2 Test Review

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A little presentation I made to study for APES. I hope you enjoy

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  • APES Unit 2 Test Review

    1. 1. APES Unit 2 Test Review Made by Jordan Randles
    2. 2. Bellringer ReviewThe most abundant element in theatmosphere is NitrogenPhotosynthesis is when plants absorb light togain energyEnergy cannot be lost but is converted toheatThe Ozone Hole does not increase surfacetemperature because it has UV rays, and UVrays do not produce heat
    3. 3. Bellringer ReviewUsually endangered species arespecialists because they cannot keep upwith changeLimiting factors for plants in therainforest include: light, phosphorus,nitrogen and potassiumCommensalism, mutualism, parasitism
    4. 4. Bellringer ReviewThe biomes, chaparral and grasslands,are adapted to intermediate wildfiredisturbanceHumans interfere with the carbon cycleby burning fossil fuels and cutting trees
    5. 5. Water Cycle This consists of evaporation, precipitation and transpiration. Evaporation and precipitation act as mutual distillation. Humans draw too much water, clear vegetation that disrupts the natural cycle and increase flooding by draining wetlands.
    6. 6. Carbon Cycle There is more warm CO2 than cold CO2. Terrestrial and aquatic producers remove CO2. Oxygen consuming producers, consumers and decomposers carry out aerobic respiration which releases CO2. Humans take away trees that absorb CO2 and burn too many fossil fuels
    7. 7. Nitrogen Cycle N2 makes most of the atmosphere. Lighting and rocks with nitrogen fix bacteria emit N2. denitrification is when bacteria breaks down nitrogen into simpler form. Human destruction of forests releases nitrogen. Humans add excess nitrates to bodies of water, remove nitrogen from top soil when we harvest and burn on clear grasslands.
    8. 8. Nitrogen CycleNitrogen Cycle: Vital for organismsNitrogen Fixing: converting atmosphericnitrogen gas to useful ammonia and ammoniumNitrification: converting ammonium intonitrites and nitratesDenitrification: the opposite of nitrificationAmmonification: converting organic nitrogento ammonium
    9. 9. Phosphorus CycleKnown as a sedimentary cycle, it is foundin sediments and rocksThese rocks rise in ridges and mountainsand then weathers away by erosionbecoming available to other organisms tousePlants can use it on the soil, and animalseat these plants
    10. 10. Producers and Consumers Producers ConsumersUse Photosynthesis and Use cellular respiration to break Chemosynthesis down complex organic compounds into cellular energy Divided into groups: Primary Secondary Third and higher level and Decomposers
    11. 11. Energy First Law of Thermodynamics: Only about 10% of useable Energy input always equals energy is transferred energy output from level to level. Ecological Efficiency is this Second Law of Thermodynamics: percentage Energy always goes from a moreuseful to a less useful form when itchanges from one form to another Law of Conservation of Matter: We cannot create or destroy matter
    12. 12. Notes in a Nutshell Feedback Loop: causes a system toThe top three ecosystems for NPP: change further in the same direction Tipping Point: the level at which a problem causes anSwamp/ irreversible shift to Rainforest Estuary the behavior of a Marsh system NPP is the net primary productivity Synergy: interaction which is the remaining energy at the bet ween t wo or more factors so thatrate at which an ecosystems producers the combined effect capture and store a given amount of is greater than the sum of individual chemical energy as biomass effects
    13. 13. NichesGeneralists have a broad niche Specialists have a small niche They prefer variable They prefer constantconditions because generalists conditions because there is less can adapt competition
    14. 14. Nonnative Species and Indicator SpeciesOther names for nonnative Indicator Species species: exotic, alien and invasive They can show when events are coming such asNonnative species can spread temperature change, habitat so rapidly because they lack loss, pesticides, plant issues, predators and disease etc. Frogs are unique because they are vulnerable to all types of water impurities
    15. 15. Keystone and Foundation Species Keystone species have a Foundation species createlarge effect on types and the or enhance their habitats abundance of other species which benefit others Keystone influences Foundation alters habitat function
    16. 16. Interactions Predators and prey have to Species compete whenadapt, and when they have to there is an overlap in they partition resources resource useGausss principle states that no 2 species cannot occupy theexact same niche for very long
    17. 17. PopulationMost animals cluster where resourcesare available, for a better chance offinding prey, protection from predatorsin numbers and also temporary groupsfor matingUniform dispersion allows room forothers to grow
    18. 18. Population Equation for population change: (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)Populations will no grow indefinitely because they are limitedby limiting factors such as light, water, space, nutrients, food and competition
    19. 19. Genetic Variation Steps to EVOLUTIONDevelopment of genetic variation due tomutations in reproductive cellsNatural Selection Selecting genetically based traits that enhances a species’ ability to sur vive & reproduce These traits must be heritable
    20. 20. Changing ConditionsIf environmental conditions change, organisms have three options to either adapt, migrate or become extinct
    21. 21. Directional SelectionDirectional Selection is when organisms shift in one direction (such as towards one extreme)
    22. 22. Stabilizing SelectionStabilizing Selection is when organisms fall into the average and there are small amounts of the extremes
    23. 23. Disruptive SelectionDisruptive Selection is when organisms fall into both of the extremes
    24. 24. Types of ExtinctionBackground extinction is when one tofive species per million species go extincteach yearMass extinction can be global,catastrophic events that is far abovethe more natural rate of one to fivespecies per year
    25. 25. Ecosystem ServicesAn ecosystem service is the benefitsthat humans obtain from naturalecosystemsAn intrinsic value is one that dependson personal opinion
    26. 26. Natural EcosystemsNatural Ecosystems help remove impuritiesfrom our environment, which provides us withmore time to deal with climate change than weother wise would’veExamples include: Pollination of food crops,natural pest control, they filter harmfulpathogens and chemicals from the water, andadd billions of dollars of revenue to ser vicesthat it would have been costly to do other wise
    27. 27. Ecological SuccessionEcological succession is the gradualchange in species composition in a givenareaThere are t wo types of succession,primary succession and secondarysuccession
    28. 28. Primary Succession They start to form soil by trapping wind-blown soil particles and tiny pieces of detritus and add it to their own wastes and dead bodies. As the lichens spread over the rock moss starts growing in theBefore producers move into an area cracks, and once theypioneers such as lichens and mosses spread they form a mat must be present on bare rock, that traps moisture and a newly cooled lava,etc. layer of nutrients forms
    29. 29. Secondary Succession With soil already there, new vegetation can begin to grow within a few weeks. The seeds are imported by winds, birds, and other animals.Includes abandoned farmland, burned or cut forests, heavily polluted streams, land that has been flooded, etc.
    30. 30. TermsFacilitation: When one species bettersan area for another species but itselfInhibition: When early species hindergrowth of other speciesTolerance: When late successionalplants are largely unaffected by plantsat earlier stages of succession
    31. 31. Limiting factors forMarine EcosystemsTemperatureDissolved OxygenAvailability of food and lightNutrients
    32. 32. Zones of Freshwater Streams and RiversZone Clarity Speed Temp DO Source Zone clear fast cold very high Transition Zone med med med med Flood-Plain Zone low slow high low
    33. 33. Review Study! The Final (or test) is coming!Study the following Your notebook Your bellringers (if you have them...) Your study guide(s) Your APES BOOK (see teacher for chapters)
    34. 34. by Jordan Randles

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