AP Environmental Science: Unit 1 Test Review

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If you're in an APES class, you may find this a helpful review for unit 1

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  • AP Environmental Science: Unit 1 Test Review

    1. 1. Unit 1AP Environmental Science Test Review
    2. 2. Ecological FootprintsWhat is an Ecological Footprint?An ecological footprint allows us to calculate humanpressure on the planet, which measures how much landand water area a human population requires to producethe resource it consumes and to absorb it’s carbondioxide missions.Did you know it takes the earth 1 year and 6 monthsto replace what we use in one year?The Average American uses 5 earths to keep up withtheir lifestyle
    3. 3. Effects of DeforestationDeforestation effects the water cycle andthe soil resources Water Cycle: dries up freshwater resources, decreases humidity and no more lumber is produced Soil: The soil cannot hold as much water
    4. 4. Notes in a NutshellA Country’s economic growth is measured by GDPChanges in economic growth is measured by per Capita GDPSustainable yield is when you take just what you needGlobal Warming is the degradation of renewable natural resourcesand servicesThe Tragedy of the Commons is a book written to warn of theoverexploiting of shared renewable resources and its solutions arethe following: Limits Laws Make Common or Open Access Resources Private
    5. 5. Notes in a Nutshell (contd.)There were three major cultural events The Agricultural Revolution The Industrial-Medical Revolution The Information-Globalization Revolution
    6. 6. Notes in a Nutshell (contd.)Point pollution is detectableNonpoint pollution is not detectableNature will break substances down if it isbiodegradable, it will not if it is nondegradablePollution is damaging to wildlife, the environment,human health, and substances made of stone andmetals, it is a nuisance and disrupts life supportsystemsPollution cleanup is output, while prevention is input
    7. 7. Notes in a Nutshell (contd.)The Five Basic Causes of EnvironmentalProblems Population growth Wasting resources Poverty Market prices don’t include environmental cost People don’t know how nature works
    8. 8. Notes in a Nutshell (contd.)Affluence, the great quantities that aretaken from natural capital, offers highlevels of consumption and wasteCompanies often don’t pay for theenvironmental cost of resource use, thetaxpayers pay for it (Economy may bestimulated, but degradation is the longterm loss
    9. 9. Notes in a Nutshell (contd.)5% - 10% of the population can bring amajor social changeWe have to (1) rely on solar energy, (2)have biodiversity, (3) maintainpopulation control and (4) activelyparticipate in nutrient cycling (TheFour Scientific Principles ofSustainability)
    10. 10. Notes in a Nutshell (contd.)Atmosphere: The AirHydrosphere: The WaterLithosphere: The Land/RockBiosphere: Life
    11. 11. Notes in a Nutshell (contd.)Water Cycle, Evaporation, precipitation andtranspirationThe atmosphere from bottom to top, troposphere(weather), stratosphere (ozone), mesosphere(meteor burning), Thermosphere or Ionosphere(aurora borealis)Greenhouse Gases, which heat up the loweratmosphere, H20, CO2, CH4, N2ONitrogen and Oxygen are not Greenhouse gases
    12. 12. Notes in a Nutshell (contd.)Weather is short term conditions, butclimate is long term conditions (trendsof hundreds of years)[most important forclimate: temperature and precipitation]The seasons are caused by the tilt of theearth’s axis and the intensity of the sun’srays at a particular angle at a particularside of the earth
    13. 13. Two reasons the wind blowsUneven heating of the earth’s surface.Confused? Take a look.
    14. 14. Two reasons the wind blowsRotation of the earth on its axis. Huh?See video below. Coriolis effect
    15. 15. Water Cycle
    16. 16. Water Cycle
    17. 17. Greenhouse Effect
    18. 18. Ocean CurrentsDriven by prevailing winds, the earth’srotation and redistribution of heat fromthe sun
    19. 19. AirThe windward side of a mountain israinyThe leeward side of a mountain is dry
    20. 20. El NinoEl Nino are unusually warm oceantemperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.Storms, diseases and halted upwellingresult
    21. 21. Earth SystemsCore: A dense mass largely made of nickel and some ironMantle: Contains molten rock of magma that slowlycirculates in convection cellsAsthenosphere: Is located in the outer part of the mantle,is composed of semi-molten, ductile rockLithosphere: A brittle outmost layer of the planet that isapproximately 100 km thick (60 mi) which includessolid upper mantle and the crust. They are made of plates,which over tile convection cells and there is soil at the top
    22. 22. Earth SystemsHot spots form from radioactive decay ofvarious isotopes, which produce heat frommantle3 Major processes of the earth’s geologic cycle Tectonic Cycle Rock Cycle Soil Formation
    23. 23. Earth SystemsPlate Tectonics: The earth’s lithosphere isdivided into plates, most of which are inconstant motionSubduction is the process of one plate passingunder anotherVolcanoes are formed when a plate moves over ageologic hot spot, then heat from the risingmantle plume melts the crust, which is a ventin the earth’s surface
    24. 24. Plate BoundariesDivergent: Plates move away from eachother, like a conveyor beltConvergent: Plates move towards eachother. Creates mountains when moredense plates move onto lighter platesTransform: Plates move past each other,which causes continental movement
    25. 25. Earth SystemsEarthquakes happen among fault lines,which is a fracture in rock wheremovement occurred, and the epicenter ofan earthquake is the exact point on thesurface of earth directly above thelocation where the rock rupturesDid you know 20% of power plantsoperate near places with seismic activity?
    26. 26. Earth SystemsRock Cycle: Constant formation anddestruction of rock
    27. 27. Rocks Rock!Igneous: Rocks that form directly from magmaSedimentary: They form when sediments suchas muds, sands, or gravels are compressed byoverlying sedimentsMetamorphic They form when sedimentaryrocks, igneous rocks, or other metamorphicrocks dare subjected to high temperatures andpressures
    28. 28. Rocks Rock!See video on rock types
    29. 29. ErosionErosion is the physical removal of rockfragments. Wind, water and ice causesit as well as living organisms. Humanscontribute by deforestation,overgrazing, unmanaged constructionactivity and road building
    30. 30. GEOCYCLETopsoil provides support, water, air andnutrientsThree types of weathering, bothchemical ,physical/mechanical and theorganic processes
    31. 31. SoilSoil type is determined by climate, vegetation, drainage, timeand parent materialSoil is made up of 25% air, 25% water, 45% mineral matter,and 5% organic matterOrganic matter is also called humusA layer is rich and dark while the B layer is white and lighterin colorThe main physical properties are texture, porosity, permeabilityand humusThe main chemical properties are pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, andpotassium
    32. 32. Soil ConservationTerracing: cutting steps into the side of a hillContour planting: planting perpendicular to theslopeStrip cropping: use two types of cropsAgroforestry (alley cropping): strips of trees aroundstrips of cropWindbreaks: a fence of trees around the cropsConservation tillage: Some of the remains of thecultivation for the last year is left on the ground

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