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Chapter 15 Part 2/2 Powerpoint

Chapter 15 Part 2/2 Powerpoint

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  • 1. Chapter 15
    Part 2/2
    Jordan Laing Per. #2
    Laura Collazos
  • 2. Science
    Never was there a time when faith in natural science was held so firmly, by so many people, so opportunistically, and with so few reservations as in the half-century before WWI
    Partly because science was the basis for the industrialization movement
    A lot of new inventions; in the 30 years after 1875, the number of patents multiplied in all the modern countries (tripled in U.S., quadrupled in Germany)
  • 3. Basic scientific thinking was also evolving, around the 1860s
    1859: Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species
    Made evolutionary philosophy very popular
    Other people had previously brought up evolution, such as Hegel and Marx, into theories of metaphysics and human society, but Darwin branded evolution with the seal of science, qualifying it in many people’s minds
    Hegel, Marx,
    other philosophers…
  • 4. Darwin’s Theory:
    By evolution meant that all species of living organisms are mutable and subject to change
    All species have developed by successive small changes from species that came before them
    All life was interrelated and subject to the same laws (correlates with scientific thought of the period)
    Controversially, this included human beings (1871: The Descent of Man)
    “Survival of the fittest” through “natural selection”
    One of these men is Charles Darwin…the other is Albus Dumbledore.
    Choose Wisely.
  • 5.
  • 6. Darwin’s theories caused a great outcry
    Scientists, like biologist T.H. Huxley who is famous for coining the term “agnostic” and became known as “Darwin’s bulldog” rushed to defend him from enraged clergymen
    There were fears that human dignity, morality, and religion would collapse because Darwin said humans were descended from monkeys
    It was true that evolution did not match the Book of Genesis, but the two ideas were not irreconcilable as the Old Testament was already generally regarded as symbolic anyway
    Evolutionary biology’s most profound effect was to change the conception of nature
    Instead of being harmonious, Darwin claimed that it was characterized by struggle, “nature red in tooth and claw”
    Creatures that could not adapt would die and their species would simply cease to exist
    Here, Darwinism merged with realpolitikand the idea of the necessity of toughness and perseverance, adding that only the “fit” would survive
  • 7. Darwin:Man is descended from apes
    The Church:
  • 8. Social Darwinists sprang up all over Europe and the United States
    Applied “survival of the fittest” to human society
    Claimed some people were naturally superior to others, such as whites to blacks, or the Nordics to the Latins
    Said those higher up in the world, whether it be people of the upper class, big businesses, or powerful nations, were there because they had proven themselves to be fitter
    Time to workout
  • 9. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who experimented with the cross-pollination of pea plants, in the process discovering information about heredity and hybridization
    Published in findings in 1866, but they were ignored until 1900 (16 years after his death), when they became the basis for the study of genetics
    Physical anthropologists became more interested in the several human “races,” some of which they considered to be superior in genetic inheritance and survival value
    Public became more race-conscious than ever before
    Cultural anthropologists believed no culture or society was better than any other, all being adaptations to an environment, or a matter of custom
    Anthropology seemed to undermine traditional religious beliefs
    Sir James Frazer’s The Golden Bough demonstrated that some of Christianity’s most sacred practices were not unique and could be found among numerous premodern societies
    Only the thinnest lines divided magic from religion
  • 10. Frazer: Religion is like magic…
    The Church:
  • 11. Psychology also had upsetting implications
    Launched in the 1870s as a natural science by the German Wilhelm Wundt
    A prominent psychologist was Ivan Pavlov, who used dogs to research conditioning - the idea that much behavior was based on conditioned responses
    The most significant psychologist was the Viennese Sigmund Freud, who founded psychoanalysis
    Studied the causes of current behavior and the power of the subconscious
    Just as disconcerting for people because it suggested that human behavior was out of individuals’ conscious control
  • 12. In the late 1890s, physics saw a revolutionary transformation
    Many individuals studied the nature of matter and energy
    Becquerel discovered that uranium emitted particles or rays of energy;
    Curies, J. J. Thompson, and Rutherford showed that atoms were complex and that some were “radioactive”
    Max Planck showed that energy was emitted or absorbed in units called quanta
    NielsBohr postulated an atom with a nucleus of protons surrounded by electrons
    Becquerel, Curies,
    Thompson, etc…
    Biggest Shock:
    • 1905 – 1916: publishing of Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity
    • 13. Denied the absolute character of time, space, and motion in his theory of relativity
    • 14. New view of the universe, challenging Euclid and Newton, creating nuclear physics.
  • 15. Philosophy and the Arts
    From science, emerged agnosticism – the truth of certain claims is unknown and unknowable
    Herbert Spencer said that evolution unified all philosophy and was equally applicable to biology, sociology, government, and economics
    Society was evolving toward the freedom of the individual, with governments serving only to maintain that freedom and should not interfere too much, especially to aid the weak and unfit
    Friedrich Nietzsche strongly disagreed with , claiming that mankind was base, but from it would emerge the Superman who would lead and dominate the masses.
    Rejected Christian ideals (humility, patience, love, hope); the true virtues were courage, love of danger, beauty of character, and intellectual excellence
    Writers like Zola in France and Ibsen in Denmark turned away from romanticism to a portrayal of real social problems, especially of the working
    The arts found themes in irrationalism and the subconscious
  • 16. Religion felt threatened by the sciences (especially by Darwin who expressed a world without the need of God and by scriptural critics who analyzed the Bible for inconsistencies and explained away miracles as myth
    The Church
    General trend of people turning to materialistic progress rather than spiritual values
    Uprooting of society from country to city often broke religious ties
    Protestants especially declined, since they were most solidly rooted in the Bible
    They split into modernists and fundamentalists
    Protestants were slow to face the social problems and injustices of the economic system.
  • 17. Announcing of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary (1854)
    Pope Pius IX in 1864 denounced a long list of ideas, including rationalism and faith in science, in his Syllabus of Errors.
    Proclamation of the dogma of papal infallability
    The popes lost their temporal powers in the unification of Italy (granted Vatican City in 1929), but gained independence from national or secular authority
    Pope Leo XIII proclaimed in de RerumNovarumthe need for social justice for the working poor, accepting private property, and criticizing the materialism and irreligion of Marx; said Socialism could be Christian
  • 18. For the Jewish, Reform Judaism was the counterpart to Christian modernism
    European liberalism brought full citizenship to Jews, but this also caused many to give up their distinctive Jewish way of life
    Anti-Semitism spread through Europe, spurred by Jewish competition and fear of Jewish
    Brutal programs in Russia and the Dreyfus case in France forced Jews to re-examine their identity, and many began to believe in Theodore Herzl’s idea of Zionism (1897) - a national home for the Jews in Palestine
  • 19. Waning of Class Liberalism
    Classical liberalism
    traced back to John Locke
    reached a peak 18th century with Stuart Mill and Gladstone.
    Men could become freestanding human being
    John Locke: I liked freedom before it was popular.
  • 20. Rational Individual
    The individual is not just formed by class, race, church, nation or state. Independent.
    Free use of reason, apart from their own interests.
    Opposed imposing force
  • 21. Religion TOLERATION
    Any or no Faith but churches and clergy cannot interfere in public affairs.
    Government should be constitutional and limited
    UMS and majority rule
    Economics LAISSEZ FAIRE
    Individuals business with one another.
    Uniformity of mankind
    International or non-national economic system.
  • 22. Signs of Wane
    Pure liberalism only as a doctrine
    Before 1914 Europe was mostly liberal
    1880 Changing conceptions of human behavior and new interests on irrational
  • 23. Decline of 19th century Liberalism: Economic Trends
    Free economy produced hardships for workers and producers
    European farmers and later industry demanded tariff protection.
    German Junkers and the Rhineland industrialist joined forces to extort tariff from Bismarck.
    1880 decline of free trade
    Workers: We want more money.
    The World:
  • 24. Revival of List
    Industrial Rev. spread  Less buying of manufactures from England and no longer only sold raw materials in return
    German economist Friedrich List
    National System of Political Economy (1840)
    Free trade good for Britain only
    Agrarian suppliers of unfinished goods not strong or independent.
    Germany, U.S., Japan Competing for world market Colonies Imperialism
  • 25. The World: Hey Britain, here’s some more money. SIKE!
    The British:
  • 26. Economic Nationalism
    Division between politics and economics was fading
    1900 Nonmercantilism(ECONOMIC NATIONALISM) arose to subordinate economic activity to political ends as done in 17th and 18th centuries.
    Tariffs, trade rivalries and internal regulation to strengthen nations.
  • 27. New Liberalism and Welfare State
    Individual workers formed labor unions
    Business interests began to merge to concentrate in monopolies, trusts or cartels
    Individual Competition
    Politicians more involved in economy
    Factory Codes were more detailed and enforced
    Social Insurance, initiated by Bismarck
    Regulated purity of foods and drugs.
  • 28. New Liberalism and Welfare State
    SOCIAL SERVICE STATE assuming responsibility for the social and economic welfare of the mass of its own subjects
    Accepted the enlarged role of gov’t in social and economic matters
    Sought to establish economic competition by gov’t action against monopolies and trusts
    Favored workers and other disadvantaged people
    Improvement of the worker’s lot vindicated the old humanitarian concern of liberalism w/ dignity of individual
    Undermined by Social Darwinism
    Social Darwinists: Yo, don’t worry workers, we gotchu..SIKE!
  • 29. Challenges to Liberalism
    Some of the new trends in philosophy, psychology, and the arts were at odds with liberalist values
    Humans are not rational and ideas were part of cultural conditioning. ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM
    Parties/nations with conflicting interests can never agree on a program beneficial for both. Thought cannot overcome difficulties, so one would dismiss arguments of adversaries
    Science: Hey Liberalism!
  • 30. Intellectual Currents
    Stress, will , intuition, impulse and emotion place a new value on violence and conflict
    Realism Unrealistic faith in the constructive value of struggle and a tough mindedness rejections of ideals
    Marx:class warfare motivating power of history
    Nietzsche: manly warfare
    Social Darwinism: Glorified Success
    Sorel: All violence is good (Syndicalism) Myth of strike to keep people ready for action. Fascism
  • 31. Popularity of Struggle
    Glorifying Struggle in 19th century
    Struggle was positive, progress accomplished
    Historical Events proved war was good
    1900-1941 Signs that older liberalism was on the wane
    Liberal Party abandoned laissez-faire policy in sponsoring labor legislation after 1906
    Labour Party initiated system of party solidarity
    Railway and coal strikes disclosed power of organized labor
    Liberal Party:
  • 32. Persistence of Liberalism
    • Tariffs existed
    • 33. Nationalism was heightened
    • 34. Racist ideas common
    • 35. Anti-Semitism vocal
    • 36. Laissez-faire disappearing
    • 37. Revolutionaries preached catastrophism
    • 38. Doctrines promoted War
    • 39. Goods still circulated freely in world trade
    • 40. Totalitarianism still strong
    • 41. Little political importance
    • 42. Jews’ rights protected (except in Russia)
    • 43. Social Legislation (Humanitarian)
    • 44. Social democrats and Working people were revisionists
    • 45. Until 1914 gov’t tried to prevent War