Intellectuals: Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Louis Blanc, Ferdinand Lassalle, and thousand of lees famous names. They thought of society as a whole , they saw the economy as a complex social system, they thought of the future in long-run, and their time scale allowed for historical epochs to come and go.
Workers can always organize most easily when employer are most in need of their services.“New Model” was successful; unions took roots; and the two governing parties in England, reassured by the unexpected moderation of working class representatives, combined to give the town workers the vote in 1867. Unions of unskilled workers began to form in the 1880’s especially in 1889 with the great London dock strike.
British Labour Party formed at turn of century by the joint efforts of trade unions officials and middle-class intellectuals.Origin and rapid growth were due in large measure to a desire to defend the unions as established and respected institutions.
Held unions financially responsible for business losses incurred by an employer during strike.1906 new Labour party overruled Taff Vale decision by sending 29 members to Parliament.
heterogeneous group included; the secretary of British carpenters’ union, Robert Applegrath; the aging Italian revolutionary, Mazzini; and Karl Marx.With union officials absorbed in union business, leadership of the Association gradually passed to Marx, who used it as a means of publicizing the ideas about to appear in his CapitalDenounced the German Lassalleans for their willingness to cooperate with Bismarck, arguing that it was not the business of socialist to cooperate with the state but to seize it.Bakunin believed the state to be the cause of the common man’s afflictions but Marx believed the state was only a product of economic conditions, a tool in the class struggle, a weapon of the propertied interests, so that the true target for revolutionary action must be not the state but the capitalist economic system
Members of the First International watched with great excitement the Paris Commune of 1871,which they hoped might be an opening act of a European working-class upheaval.Commune had been bloody and violent , an armed rebellion against the democratically elected National Assembly of France.First International faded out in 1872
Notes: Fabians were workers who stood by their trade unions and middle-class critics of capitalism. They were very English and very un-Marxist. They joined with the unions to form the Labour Party.
Notes: The psychology and influence of labor unions within the parties were increased. Real wages are estimated to have risen about 50% in industrialized countries, contradicting Marx's anticipations, from 1870 to 1900.
Notes: Jean Jaurès was a Socialist leader in the Chamber of Deputies. Eduard was a Social Democratic member of the Reichstag & author of Evolutionary Socialism (1898).
Notes: Workers in these countries had the least to lose and were most in need of sensational doctrines.
Notes: In 1904, they prevailed over the Second International, condemning Frenchman Alexandre Millerand who accepted a post in a French cabinet.
Ariel ch 15
Ch. 15 — European Civilization, 1871-1914 Society and Culture<br />Ariel Ruiz<br />Mauricio Bendana<br />
Opponents of Liberalism<br />The artisan and laboring classes never agreed with rising capitalist sentiments and “bourgeois” liberalism.<br />The English Chartists<br />Karl Marx<br />
Workers and Intellectuals<br />Middle class and educated people who took up the workers’ cause, the “intellectuals” of the movement tended more to socialism than unionism.<br />Actual workers<br />Barely educated<br />Physical danger of constant exposure to unprotected machinery<br />15 minutes of lunch<br />Worker looked on the intellectuals as outsiders, however welcomed<br />Intellectuals looked on the workers as shortsighted and timid, however in need of much help.<br />
“New Model” Unionism<br />Prosperity of 1850’s favored the formation of unions<br />“New Model” unionism was introduced by the Amalgamated Society of Engineers in 1851<br />Policy was to take the unions out of politics<br />New leaders proposed<br />To become reasonable with employers<br />Avoid strikes<br />Accumulate union funds<br />Build up membership<br />“New Model” unionism was successful <br />By 1900 2 million union members in Great Britain 850,000 in Germany and 250,000 in France.<br />
The British Labour Party<br />British Labour Party formed at turn of century<br />Labor unions of Europe were often led by socialist political parties<br />Britain labor unions brought the Labour Party into existence<br />Allowed for Labour Party to become less socialistic than working parties on the continent<br />
The Taff Vale decision<br />Unions threaten in the 1901 ruling of the Taff Vale decision<br />Held unions financially responsible for business losses <br />In preparations for the election of 1900 steps were taken to bring together unions and all existing labor and socialist organization into a labor representation committee<br />Taff Vale decision unified all ranks and precipitated the modern Labour party<br />1906 new Labour party overruled Taff Vale decision<br />
The First International<br />1864 International Working Men’s Association took place in London<br />Sponsored by heterogeneous group<br />Leadership gradually passed to Marx<br />Marx:<br />made Mazzinians unwelcome<br />denounced the German Lassalleans<br />drove Bakunin from the International<br />
The Paris Commune<br />Members of the First International watched with great excitement the Paris Commune of 1871.<br />Members infiltrated the Commune <br />Commune actually destroyed the First International <br />French Provisional Government repressed the Commune with such terrified ferocity<br />Commune had been bloody and violent <br />Marx praised it as a stage in the international class war<br />
The Second International<br />At the Gotha conference of 1875, Marxian and Lassallean socialist joined together to form the German Social Democratic party.<br />1880 socialist parties sprouted in many countries<br />Socialist parties came together to establish an international league in 1889 known as the Second International<br />Met every three years and lasted until 1914<br />
Fabian Socialism in England<br />The Fabian Society (1883)<br />George Bernard Shaw<br />H. G. Wells<br />Sidney<br />Beatrice Webb<br />Content with small and immediate satisfactions.<br />
Parliamentary Socialism on the Continent<br /> Less revolutionary form of Marxism<br />Except for the Russian Social Democratic party, since they had no parliamentary gov't.<br />In practice, this mainly helped employees work for orderly legislation benefiting workers - social insurance, factory regulation, minimum wages, or maximum hours.<br />
The Revisionists <br />1890's: Marxism underwent a movement of revisionism.<br />Led in France by Jean Jaurès.<br />Led in Germany by Eduard Bernstein.<br />Held that no revolution nor dictatorship was necessary to transform capitalism in the workers' favor. (Democracy would be the new medium)<br />
Syndicalism<br />Tendency to "opportunism" among really revolutionary Marxist spirits.<br />Frenchman, Georges Sorel.<br />Postulated that workers' unions may one day be in COMPLETE control of country.<br />Through a full strike of all industries at the same time.<br />Had most influences where unions were weakest: Italy, Spain, and France.<br />French General Confederation of Labor (1895)<br />
Orthodoxy vs. Revisionism<br />Revival of Marxist fundamentals vs. revisionists.<br />Germany: Karl Kautsky arraigned revisionists as compromisers who betrayed Marxism.<br />Gov't posts unacceptable until WWI.<br />Lenin (at a party congress in London) demanded to stamp out revisionism. Majority vote was his.<br />Majority were called Bolsheviks<br />Minority were called Mensheviks.<br />
Marxism Transformed<br />In Europe's inner zone, revolutionary Marxism quieted down, for the most part, to doctrines of social democracy.<br />By 1914, the working class as a whole was not in a revolutionary mood.<br />There were 3 main reasons for revolutionary zeal hoped for in 1848 dying down:<br />Capitalism began to work for workers, raising their living standards.<br />Workers now had the vote and Democracy and could benefit from gov't.<br />Workers' interests were watched over by organized and increasingly powerful unions, granting them larger portions of the national income.<br />
Suffragettes Seek the Vote<br />National American Woman Suffrage<br />Women’s Social and Political Union (Britain)<br />Legislative proposals to gov’t.<br />Mass meetings and protests.<br />Emmeline Pankhurst.<br />Hunger strikes.<br />Support grew during WWI.<br />