The four step can be defined as 1) stating the objectives, 2) selecting learning experiences, 3) organizing learning experiences and 4) evaluating the curriculum.
TYLER OBJECTIVE MODEL Emily Durbin Elouise R. Ford Tressa Brooks Hunter
OBJECTIVES Explore the evolution of the Tyler Objective Model Describe the model and its major components Define the primary terms used in the theory Discuss the primary strengths and drawbacks of the model Describe how this model can be applied in nursing education
EVOLUTION OF THE MODEL Click the link below for a brief history of the evolution of the Tyler model: http://tylerobjectivemodel.weebly.com
MAJOR COMPONENTS The Tyler Model is often referred to as the ‘objective model’ because of it’s objective approach to educational evaluation It emphasizes consistency among objectives, learning experiences, and outcomes Curriculum objectives indicate both behavior to be developed and area of content to be applied (Keating, 2006)
Tyler’s Four Principles of TeachingPrinciple 1: Defining Appropriate Learning Objectives
Tyler’s Teaching Principles cont’d Principle 3: Organizing Learning Experiences to Have a Maximum Cumulative Effect
Tyler’s Teaching Principles cont’dPrinciple 4: Evaluating the Curriculum and Revising Those Aspects That Did Not Prove to be Effective (Keating, 2006)
PRIMARY TERMS OF THETHEORY Stating Objectives (Denham, 2002) The progressive emphasizes the importance of studying the child to find out what kinds of interests he has, what problems he encounters, what purposes he has in mind. The progressive sees this information as providing the basic source for selecting objectives
PRIMARY TERMS OF THETHEORY Selecting Learning Experiences (Denham, 2002) Tyler believes that students learn through exploration Like his mentor, John Dewey, Tyler believes teachers should encourage children to become actively engaged in discovering what the world is like
PRIMARY TERMS OF THETHEORY Organizing Learning Experiences (Denham, 2002) Central to Tyler’s Model is effectively organizing the learning activities Students need concrete experiences to which the readings are meaningfully connected Three major criteria are required in building organized learning experiences: continuity, sequence and integration
PRIMARY TERMS OF THETHEORY Evaluating the Curriculum (Denham, 2002) The process of assessment is critical to Tyler’s Model and begins with the objectives of the educational program The process of evaluation is essentially the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction
STRENGTHS OF MODEL Involves the active participation of the learner (Prideaux, 2003) Objectives are clearly defined in the purposes. These purposes are translated into educational objectives. (www.coedu.usf.edu/agents/dlewis/publicatio ns/tyler.htm) Simple linear approach to development of behavioral objectives (Billings & Halstead, 2009)
CRITICISMS OF THE TYLERMODEL Narrowly interpreted objectives (acceptable verbs) Difficult and time consuming construction of behavioral objectives Curriculum restricted to a constricted range of student skills and knowledge
CRITICISMS OF THE TYLERMODEL(CONT.) Critical thinking, problem solving and value acquiring processes cannot be plainly declared in behavioral objectives (Prideaux, 2003)
CRITICISMS OF THE TYLERMODEL(CONT.) Learning experiences are individual and are not totally within the power of the teacher to select The teacher can control the learning experience through the manipulation of the environment, which results in stimulating situations sufficient to evoke the kind of learning outcomes desired (www.neiu.edu/~aserafin/New %20Folder/TYLER.html)
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING CURRICULUM Behavioral objectives no longer the “gold standard” another prescriptive model has emerged since 1980s, outcomes based education Outcome based education focus on student behavior instead of staff, defines outcomes obtained by student Program designers include statements of intent as broad curriculum aims and specific objectives (Prideaux, 2003)
REFERENCESDenham, T.J. (2002). Comparison of two curriculum/Instructional Design Models: Ralph W. Tyler and Siena College Accounting Class, ACCT205. Retrieved from ERIC Database. (ED 471734)Northeastern Illinois University. (n.d.). Classical Model. Ralph Tyler, 1949, Book Summary. Retrieved from www.neiu.edu/~aserafin/New%20Folder/TYLER.htmlUniversity of South Florida College of Education. (n.d.). Ralph Tyler’s little book. Retrieved from www.coedu.usf.edu/agents/dlewis/publications/tyler.htm
REFERENCES(CONT.)Billings, D. M. & Halstead, J.A. (2009).Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty. St. Louis, Missouri: Saunder ElsevierKeating, S. (2006). Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Prideaux, D. (2003). Curriculum design: ABC of learning and teaching in medicine. British Medical Journal, 326(7383), 268- 270. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1125124/? tool=pubmed
MAJOR COMPONENTS Tyler stated his curriculum rationale in terms of four questions which must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction : What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
MAJOR COMPONENTS(CONT.) What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
MAJOR COMPONENTSThese questions can be turned into a four step process (www.neiu.edu/~aserafin/New %20Folder/TYLER.html): Stating Objectives Selecting Learning Experiences Organizing Learning Experiences Evaluating the Curriculum