Queer & Trans Indigenous Histories
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Queer & Trans Indigenous Histories

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Queer & Trans indigenous histories outside of Europe, particularly focusing on indigenous histories and traditions in Africa and North America. The presentation provides historical and current ...

Queer & Trans indigenous histories outside of Europe, particularly focusing on indigenous histories and traditions in Africa and North America. The presentation provides historical and current examples of diverse genders and sexuality from cultures around the world.

I've been fortunate to have access to this knowledge, I've been grateful to learn from Two Spirit and First Nations healers, elders and activists. These histories and stories have always existed and they have only recently re-emerged after centuries of genocide. These are the histories my European ancestors set out to destroy.

Recent histories and current realities cannot be separated from colonial era anti-homosexuality laws that were imposed by Britain and other European imperial powers around the world. It's also important that when looking at diverse histories we don't present it as an us and them situation, indigenous and racialized cultures are not stuck in the past, their histories and realities are constantly evolving just as ours are today.

Please read the full presentation description, context and additional resources here: http://www.jonnysopotiuk.ca/2014/02/24/queer-histories/.

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Queer & Trans Indigenous Histories Queer & Trans Indigenous Histories Presentation Transcript

  • Queer & Trans 
 Indigenous Histories " 
 Pre-colonization, European colonialism + imperialism, Process of decolonization Jonny Sopotiuk, February 2014
  • Acknowledgements" ! “The limitations of allies are enormous and important to hold alongside our willingness to act. As allies, we’re not the ones who shoulder the burden. Allies need to stay ever mindful that the potential fall out or backlash for our actions as allies will fall on the oppressed people, not us.”
 ― Vikki Reynolds, Vancouver-based Ally and Activist
  • Cakes Da Killa - Goodies Goodies. (VIDEO) View slide
  • Presentation Format" ! 1. Current Context 2. European Colonialism 3. Africa 4. Asia - Middle East / West Asia - East Asia / South East Asia - Oceania / South West Pacific 5. Central + South America 6. North America (Turtle Island) 7. Decolonization View slide
  • Current Context" ! “Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world.” 
 ― Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed
  • LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS IN THE WORLD ILGA, THE INTERNATIONAL LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANS AND INTERSEX ASSOCIATION Greenland Alaska Iceland Finland Russia Sweden Estonia 3 entities Denmark Canada Lithuania Latvia Poland Belarus Ireland Netherlands Germany Belgium Czech. Rep. Europe: Slovakia Ukraine Lux. Austria Kazakhstan Washington Moldova 41 countries Switzerland Slovenia Hungary Mongolia Maine Croatia Romania Wisconsin and 10 entities New Hampshire France Vermont Bosnia & Herz. Serbia Massachussets Oregon Mont. Kos. Bulgaria Georgia Andorra New York North Rhode Island Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Iowa Illinois Italy Connecticut Fyrom Portugal Spain Korea Armenia Azerb. Albania Nevada New Jersey Delaware Turkmenistan Washington, D.C. Turkey Tajikistan Colorado Maryland Greece Japan South Malta California Syria Gibraltar Cyprus China U.S.A. Korea Afghanistan Lebanon Tunisia Israel Morocco 32 states Iran Iraq Ghaza Nepal 19 states Jordan Canary Islands Kuwait Pakistan Coahuila Bhutan Algeria The Bahamas Libya Bahrain Egypt Dominican Rep. Qatar Bangladesh Saudi Mexico Taiwan U. A. E. Cuba Virgin Islands Arabia 10 states Myanmar Lao Federal District Haiti Mauritania India Jamaica Puerto Rico Vietnam Oman Mali Niger Sudan Belize Antigua & Barbuda Cape Verde St Kitts & Nevis Thailand Dominica Philippines Honduras Eritrea Yemen Senegal St. Vincent Chad St. Lucia Guatemala Gambia Burkina Grenada 6 cities El Salvador Cambodia Barbados Djibouti Faso Guinea-Bissau Trinidad and Tobago Nicaragua Benin Guinea South Costa Rica Palau Sri Lanka Ghana Nigeria Sierra Leone Venezuela Guyana Sudan Ethiopia Panama Ivory Coast Suriname Central African Maldives Liberia Togo Brunei French Guiana Aceh Province Republic Malaysia Colombia Cameroon Somalia Singapore Equatorial Guinea Uganda Congo Kenya Sao Tome & Principe Indonesia Rwanda Ecuador Gabon Seychelles Dem. Rep. Burundi of the Congo South Sumatra Peru Tanzania Timor-Leste Brazil Papua New Guinea 14 entities Comoros Malawi Angola Norway U. K. Hawaii May 2013 www.ilga.org PERSECUTION DEATH PENALTY 5 countries and parts of Nigeria and Somalia Zambia IMPRISONMENT 71 countries and 5 entities* Death penalty Imprisonment from 14 years to a life-long sentence unclear: legislation not specifically homophobic but which can be used as such “Propaganda law” restricting freedom of expression and association imprisonment, no precise indication of the length / banishment Iraq: persecution by organised nonstate agents / India: law awaiting court ruling Kiribati Samoa Tuvalu Mozambique Cook Islands Vanuatu Bolivia imprisonment up to 14 years Nauru Solomon Islands Namibia Paraguay Zimbabwe Mauritius Western Australia Swaziland Chile South Africa Rosario Uruguay Argentina Buenos Aires RECOGNITION RECOGNITION OF SAME-SEX UNIONS 31 countries and 35 entities* JOINT ADOPTION 14 countries and 38 entities* Marriage Equal (almost equal) substitute to marriage Clearly inferior substitute to marriage Joint adoption Fiji Madagascar Botswana Australia 8 states Lesotho PROTECTION ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS 65 countries and 85 entities* Countries which introduced laws prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation NO SPECIFIC LEGISLATION Norfolk Island Tonga New South Wales Australian Capital Territory Victoria New Zealand Tasmania * These laws are aimed at lesbians, gay men and bisexuals and at same-sex activities and relationships. At times, they also apply to trans and intersex people. This edition of the world map (May 2013) was coordinated by Stephen Barris (ILGA). Design: Eduardo Enoki. Data represented in this map is based on “State-Sponsored Homophobia: a world survey of laws. Criminalisation, protection and recognition of same-sex love - 2013”, an ILGA report by Jingshu Zhu & Lucas Paoli Itaborahy available in various languages on www.ilga.org. ILGA thanks groups which contributed to the annual update. Current legal realities as of May 2013.
  • Oral Traditions" ! “Western discourse has come to prioritize the written word as the dominant form of record keeping and until recently, Westerners have generally considered oral societies to be peoples without history.”
 
 ― Indigenous Foundations, University of British Columbia
  • European Colonialism" ! “When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said 'Let us pray.' We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land.” 
 
 ― Archbishop Desmond Tutu
  • Countries subject to English invasion.
  • British Sodomy Laws" ! - 1553: British Buggery Act. 1837: First draft of Indian Penal Code completed. 1860: British Raj introduce Indian Penal Code, including Section 377, which criminalizes sexual activities “against the order of nature”. 1897-1902: Indian law applied to African colonies. 1950s +1960s: Independence won by most former colonies. 1967: England and Wales decriminalizes most consensual homosexual conduct. ! British Colonies that have since removed the laws: ! - New Zealand (1986), Australia (state by state and territory by territory), Hong Kong (1990 before being returned to China) and Fiji (2005 high court decision). This Alien Legacy. Human Rights Watch.
  • Anthropological Evidence" 
 “Since anthropology emerged along with the expansion of Europe and the colonization of the non-Western world, anthropologists found themselves participants in the colonial system which organized relationships between Westerners and non-Westerners. It is, perhaps, more than a coincidence that a methodological stance, that of the outsider, and a methodological approach, “objectivity,” developed which in retrospect seem to have been influenced by, and in turn to have supported, the colonial system.” ! ― Diane Lewis, Anthropology and Colonialism
  • “The Spanish invader Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475-1519) shown in Central America with his troops, presiding over the execution of Indians, whom he ordered eaten alive by the war dogs for having practiced male love.” ! New York Public Library, Rare Book Room, De Bry Collection, New York.
  • Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Africa" ! “[Homosexuality] is repressed for its perceived symbolism rather than because of its proven harm. …. Thus, it is not the act of sodomy that is denounced… but the so-called sodomite who performs it; not any proven social damage, but the threat that same-sex passion in itself is seen as representing to heterosexual hegemony.” 
 ― South Africa's Constitutional Court justice Albie Sachs
  • LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS IN AFRICA PAN AFRICA ILGA IS THE AFRICAN REGION OF THE INTERNATIONAL LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANS AND INTERSEX ASSOCIATION May 2013 Tunisia Morocco www.ilga.org Canary Islands Algeria Libya Egypt Mauritania Mali Niger Cape Verde Senegal Gambia Guinea-Bissau Guinea Eritrea Djibouti Benin South Sudan Ethiopia Central African Liberia Togo Republic Cameroon Somalia Equatorial Guinea Uganda Congo Kenya Sao Tome & Principe Rwanda Gabon Dem. Rep. Burundi of the Congo Tanzania Sierra Leone PERSECUTION Burkina Faso Sudan Chad Ghana Ivory Coast Nigeria Seychelles DEATH PENALTY Mauritania, Soudan and parts of Nigeria and Somalia IMPRISONMENT 34 countries Death penalty Imprisonment from 14 years to a life-long sentence imprisonment up to 14 years unclear: legislation not specifically homophobic but which can be used as such imprisonment, no precise indication of the length / banishment Zambia Namibia RECOGNITION OF SAME-SEX UNIONS & JOINT ADOPTION South Africa Comoros Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Madagascar Botswana RECOGNITION Marriage Malawi Angola Swaziland Joint adoption PROTECTION ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS 6 countries Countries which introduced laws prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation NO SPECIFIC LEGISLATION South Africa Lesotho *These laws are aimed at lesbians, gay men and bisexuals and at same-sex activities and relationships. At times, they also apply to trans and intersex people. This edition of the world map (May 2013) was coordinated by Stephen Barris (ILGA). Design: Eduardo Enoki. Data represented in this map is based on “State-Sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws: Criminalisation, protection and recognition of same-sex love - 2013”, an ILGA report by Jingshu Zhu & Lucas Paoli Itaborahy available in various languages on www. ilga.org. ILGA thanks groups which contributed to the annual update.
  • Lesotho" ! Traditional Basotho women entered into “mummy-baby” relationships. Young girls were “gradually socialized into adult female roles and relationships by slightly older more experience girls … sexual intimacy is an important aspect of these relationships.” ! As women grow older and start to raise a family, the sexual nature of these relations lessen, but the support network formed and the deep emotional attachment among women remain. SAGE: Questioning Gender: A Sociological Exploration: Robyn Ryle.
  • Mashoga" ! Mashoga is a Swahili term that connotes a range of identities on the gender continuum. While loosely used to indicate gay men, a large proportion of mashoga are biological men who adopt the female gender early in life. They often assume female gender roles and serve a crucial role in wedding ceremonies. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • South Africa" ! It is very common for adolescent boys to visit mine workers, living in all male compounds, to provide sexual services called “thigh sex”. The mine workers often have girlfriends and wives at home. ! In South African townships, adolescent boys (called skesana) commonly entered sexual relationships with older men (called injonga). Eugene J. Patron. Heart of Lavender: In Search of Gay Africa.
  • Asia" ! "The sun may have set on the British Empire, but the empire lives on. It’s amazing how millions of yellow- and brown-skinned people have so absorbed Victorian prudishness that even now, when their countries are independent and they are all happy and proud they’re free from the yoke of the British - they stoutly defend these laws.”
 
 ― Au Waiping, Singapore
  • LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS IN ASIA, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND AND PACIFIC ISLANDS ILGA-ASIA AND ILGA-ANZAPI ARE REGIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANS AND INTERSEX ASSOCIATION May 2013 Kazakhstan Georgia Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Armenia Azerb. Turkmenistan Turkey Tajikistan Syria Cyprus Afghanistan Lebanon Israel Iran Iraq Ghaza Nepal Jordan Kuwait Pakistan Bahrain Saudi Arabia Qatar U. A. E. North Korea Bhutan Bangladesh Taiwan India Lao Vietnam Thailand Yemen Philippines 6 cities Cambodia Palau Sri Lanka Maldives PERSECUTION Aceh Province Malaysia IMPRISONMENT Asia: 18 countries and 3 entities*/ANZAPI**: 8 countries and Cook Islands Imprisonment from 14 years to a life-long sentence imprisonment up to 14 years Brunei Singapore DEATH PENALTY Iran, Yemen and Saudi Arabia Death penalty Japan South Korea China Myanmar Oman www.ilga.org Mongolia imprisonment, no precise indication of the length / banishment Indonesia South Sumatra Timor-Leste Papua New Guinea Nauru Solomon Islands Kiribati Samoa Tuvalu Iraq: persecution by organised non-state agents / India: law awaiting court ruling Cook Islands Vanuatu Fiji RECOGNITION RECOGNITION OF SAME-SEX UNIONS Asia: Israël / ANZAPI**: New Zealand and 9 entities* JOINT ADOPTION Asia: Israël / ANZAPI**: New Zealand and 3 entities* Marriage Australia 8 states Clearly inferior substitute to marriage Norfolk Island New South Wales Equal (almost equal) substitute to marriage Joint adoption Western Australia Australian Capital Territory Victoria PROTECTION ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS Asia: Israël and 7 entities / ANZAPI**: Australia, Fiji, New Zealand and 8 entities* Countries which introduced laws prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation NO SPECIFIC LEGISLATION ** ANZAPI: Australia, New Zealand and Pacific Islands New Zealand Tasmania These laws are aimed at lesbians, gay men and bisexuals and at same-sex activities and relationships. At times, they also apply to trans and intersex people. This edition of the world map (May 2013) was coordinated by Stephen Barris (ILGA). Design: Eduardo Enoki. Data represented in this map is based on “State-Sponsored Homophobia: a world survey of laws. Criminalisation, protection and recognition of same-sex love - 2013”, an ILGA report by Jingshu Zhu & Lucas Paoli Itaborahy available in various languages on www.ilga.org. ILGA thanks groups which contributed to the annual update. Tonga
  • Egypt" ! During the Mamluk Sultanate in what is now Egypt from the 1200s to the 1700s, young girls who we perceived to have masculine traits were celebrated and raised as boys and afforded all of the legal and societal advantages. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Oman " ! The xanith of Oman are considered an intermediate gender in this Islamic nation. They are biological males and do not practice emasculation, but do assume the dress, mannerisms, and some social roles of women. They have masculine names and are referred to in the masculine grammatical gender form. The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association. Serena Nanda.
  • Iran" ! Transsexual rights are actually acknowledged in Iran, where it is still punishable by death to be gay. Due to a decree by the Ayatollah Khomeini, gay and/or transgender men are permitted to live lives as straight women and permitted to undergo sex reassignment surgery, after which their official documents are changed to reflect their new identities. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • India " ! Hijras are physiological males who adopt feminine gender identity, wear women's clothing and other perform feminine gender roles. In the past the term referred to eunuchs or those born intersex or with indeterminate genitalia. ! In India per Hindu mythology, hijras represent the half-male, half-female image of Shiva — an image symbolic of a being that is ageless and sexless. Many hijras live in well-defined, organized, all-hijra communities, led by a guru. ! During the era of the British Raj, authorities attempted to eradicate hijras, whom they saw as "a breach of public decency." Also during British rule in India they were placed under the Criminal Tribes Act 1871 and labelled a "criminal tribe," hence subjected to compulsory registration, strict monitoring and stigmatization. After independence however they were decriminalized in 1952, though the stigma continues. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Indonesia " ! The Bugi people of southern Sulawesi recognize three sexes (male, female, intersex) and five genders: men, women, calabai, calalai, and bissu. Calabai are biological males who embody a feminine gender identity. Calalai are biological females who embody a male gender identity. Bissu are considered a "transcendent gender," either encompassing all genders or none at all. The bissu serve ritual roles in Bugi culture and are sometimes equated with priests. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Phillipines " ! Bakla is a Tagalog term that encompasses an array of sexual and gender identities, but especially indicated a male-born person who assumes the dress, mannerisms, and social roles of a woman. While bakla have existed as a recognized third gender for centuries, more conservative influences in recent decades has marginalized them. ! The bakla actually developed their own language to use with each other, called swardspeak. It is a mixture of Filipino, English and Spanish and is spoken with a "hyperfeminized inflection." Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Southwest Pacific" ! “In our society, the meaning of marriage is universal – it's a declaration of love and commitment to a special person.”
 
 ― Louisa Wall, New Zealand MP with Maori ancestry
  • Sex Change Surgery. National Geographic Society. (VIDEO)
  • Samoa" ! Fa'afafine are biological males who have a strong feminine gender orientation, which the Samoan parents recognize quite early in childhood, and then raise them as female children or rather third gender children. Fa'afafine traditionally assume roles of family care, although they are present in many spheres of Somoan society. ! Fa'afafine are not considered "gay" in Samoan culture, as they may be sexually involved with men, women, or other fa'afafine. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Hawaii" ! The mahu could be biological males or females inhabiting a gender role somewhere between or encompassing both the masculine and feminine. Their social role is sacred as educators and promulgators of ancient traditions and rituals. The arrival of Europeans and the colonization of Hawaii nearly eliminated the native culture, and today mahu face discrimination in a culture dominated by white European ideology about gender. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • New Zealand" ! In Maori culture, wakawahine are men who prefer the company of women and take up traditionally feminine occupations such as weaving. Wakatane denotes a biological female who pursues traditionally male roles, such as becoming a warrior or engaging in physical labor. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Central + South America" ! “When a broad coalition of human-rights activists brought a gay rights charter to the United Nations in 2007, the push was led not by the likes of Sweden or the Netherlands, but by Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil.” 
 
 ―Freedom to Marry
  • GAY AND LESBIAN RIGHTS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN ILGA-LAC IS THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN REGION OF THE INTERNATIONAL LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANS AND INTERSEX ASSOCIATION May 2013 Coahuila Mexico 10 states Federal District www.ilga.org The Bahamas Dominican Rep. Cuba Virgin Islands Jamaica Haiti Puerto Rico Antigua & Barbuda St Kitts & Nevis Dominica Honduras St. Vincent St. Lucia Grenada Barbados Trinidad and Tobago Belize Guatemala El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Guyana Suriname French Guiana Ecuador Peru Brazil PERSECUTION 14 entities IMPRISONMENT 11 countries Imprisonment from 14 years to a life-long sentence imprisonment up to 14 years Bolivia RECOGNITION RECOGNITION OF SAME-SEX UNIONS 5 countries and 2 entities* Paraguay JOINT ADOPTION Argentine, Brazil and Federal District of Mexico Marriage Joint adoption Equal (almost equal) substitute to marriage Clearly inferior substitute to marriage Chile Rosario PROTECTION ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS 9 countries and 28 entities* Countries which introduced laws prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation NO SPECIFIC LEGISLATION * These laws are aimed at lesbians, gay men and bisexuals and at same-sex activities and relationships. At times, they also apply to trans and intersex people. This edition of the world map (May 2013) was coordinated by Stephen Barris (ILGA). Design: Eduardo Enoki. Data represented in this map is based on “State-Sponsored Homophobia: a world survey of laws. Criminalisation, protection and recognition of same-sex love - 2013”, an ILGA report by Jingshu Zhu & Lucas Paoli Itaborahy available in various languages on www.ilga.org. ILGA thanks groups which contributed to the annual update. Uruguay Argentina Buenos Aires
  • Brazil" ! Histories of Brazil (1576) described Native American women in northeastern Brazil who "give up all the duties of women and imitate men, and follow men's pursuits.” These women marry and they treat each other and speak with each other as man and wife. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage. William Eskridge.
  • Peru" ! In pre-colonial Andean culture, the Incas worshipped the chuqui chinchay, a dualgendered god. Third-gender ritual attendants or shamans performed sacred rituals to honor this god. The quariwarmi shamans wore androgynous clothing as "a visible sign of a third space that negotiated between the masculine and the feminine, the present and the past, the living and the dead. Their shamanic presence invoked the androgynous creative force often represented in Andean mythology," according to scholar Michael J. Horswell. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Guevedoche" ! A genetic third sex, passed down in children over generations, exists in the Dominican Republic. With undifferentiated genitalia, they generally are raised as girls, but begin developing male traits at puberty. Instead of changing their gender identities to male, most chose to live as a third gender called guevedoche or machi-embra. The society has accommodated the guevedoche and constructed a third gender with distinct roles for them. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • North America " Turtle Island" ! There are over 155 instances of male two-spirits documented historically with female two-spirits being documented in a third of those.
 
 ― Will Roscoe, 1991, American scholar, activist and writer
  • Independent Lens. Two Spirits. PBS. (VIDEO)
  • George Catlin, Dance to the Berdache, Great Plains (Sac and Fox First Nations). 1800’s.
  • We’wha" ! Famous two-spirit from the Zuni people. Significant documentation based on her befriending anthropologists. We’wha was described as “the strongest character and the most intelligent of the Zuni tribe” and served as a cultural ambassador to the Zuni people. Gender Diverse Cultures Map. Independent Lens. PBS.
  • Coast Salish" ! Regional gender systems varied, even from village to village. Alternative genders were widely observed among coast tribes and Nations with local stories of Two-Spirit people. Among the Tulalip and Nootka peoples there were eight named genders. Alternative Genders in the Coast Salish World: Paradox and Pattern. Jean C. Young.
  • Opaskwayak" ! The Opaskwayak Cree Nation (OCN) located in the Northern Manitoba has a long tradition of supporting diverse gender and sexual identities and expressions. ! Young members of the Nation are encouraged to dance in the gender customs that they felt most comfortable in. The community has the nickname of “the Factory” in the queer First Nations community for the number of Two Spirit people coming out of it. Two Spirited: being GLBT and Aboriginal. ReVision Quest. CBC Radio.
  • Multiple genders in Cree cultures. Albert McLeod.
  • Decolonization" ! “I think the notion of dreaming in a time where we are told that it is foolish, futile or not useful is one of the most revolutionary things we can do. To have our lives determined by our dreams of a free world--instead of reactions to a stateimposed reality--is one of the most powerful tools of decolonization.”
 ― Harsha Walia, Undoing Border Imperialism
  • The Seven Fires" 
 - 1988: First Inter-tribal Native American, First Nations, Gay and Lesbian American Conference held in Minneapolis, Minnesota 1990: Term two-spirited emerges at the third traditional gathering in Winnipeg, Manitoba 2000’s: Two-spirit sweat lodge established in North Vancouver Squamish nation in response to gay bashing on reserve. 2008: Coquille Indian Tribe on the southern Oregon coast, in the U.S. West, adopts a law recognizing same-sex marriage 2009: Award-winning Two-spirits film released. 2010: National Film Board releases: Deb-we-win Ge-kend-am-aan, Our Place in the Circle by Lorne Olson. 2013: 8 indigenous tribes across the USA now recognize same-sex marriages among their members. Multiple Sources. jonnysopotiuk.ca/2014/02/24/queer-histories/
  • Traditional African gay wedding a first. eNCAnews. (VIDEO)
  • Questions?" ! Queer & Trans 
 Indigenous Histories " 
 Pre-colonization, European colonialism + imperialism, Process of decolonization Jonny Sopotiuk, February 2014