Declarative Memory

(HM case)

Neural Science

MS / PhD Integrated Student
Jongmin Yu(jmyu@gist.ac.kr)
Applied Computing L...
1

Basic Terms

2

Declarative memory & HM case

3

Episodic memory

4

Semantic memory

5

Q&A, Reference
본 과제의 기본 정보
Declarative memory

Basic Terms
Long Term memory
Declarative memory

Episodic
Semantic
memory
memory
Explicit ...
본 과제의 기본 정보
Declarative memory

Declarative memory
These different types of long-term memory are stored in different regio...
본 과제의 기본 정보
Declarative memory

Episodic memory
memory of autobiographical events
times, places, associated emotions, and ...
본 과제의 기본 정보
Declarative memory

Semantic memory
Semantic memory refers to the memory ( facts, meanings, conceptsand knowle...
본 과제의 기본 정보
Declarative memory

HM case
Henry Gustav "HM" Molaison
heavy anterograde amnesia
temporally graded retrograde ...
본 과제의 기본 정보
Backgrounds

Summary
Declarative memory
Factual knowledge + memories of past events = Declarative memory
encod...
본 과제의 기본 정보
References

References
Dessertenne F., La tachycardie ventriculaire a deux foyers
opposes variables, Arch. Mal...
Q&A
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Declarative memory

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  • Good morning every one in Neural Science class.I’m Jongmin Yu, announcer of this presentation, presentation topic is ‘Declarative memory’ another case is HM case.
  • Declarative memory’s presentation element is this, First I will explain Background in this topic,And second I will give you that more detail academic knowledge and following example.And last session is summary which I explained, and may be I hope giving Q&A session. Then let’s begin.
  • This is diagram about declarative memory and non-declarative memory called procedural memory. To day I will explain only declarative memory.
  • More detailly, declarative memory have comecharaterictic. Like this.We already know, the long-term memory can classify to two part. And this group is compose of declarative memory, and procedural memory.
  • There are essentially nine properties of episodic memory which collectively, distinguish it from other types of memory. It is possible for other types of memory to exhibit a few of these properties, however, episodic memory is unique in that it is the only type of memory which takes into account all nine of these propertiesEndelTulving originally described episodic memory as a record of a person’s experience that held temporally dated information and spatio-temporal relations.[11] A feature of episodic memory that Tulving later elaborates on is that it allows an agent to travel back in time.[12] A current situation may cue retrieval of a previous episode, so that context that colors the previous episode is experienced at the immediate moment. The agent is provided with a means of associating previous feelings with current situations. Semantic memory, on the other hand, is a structured record of facts, concepts and skills that we have acquired. Semantic information is derived from accumulated episodic memory. Episodic memory can be thought of as a "map" that ties together items in semantic memory. For example, all encounters with how a "dog" looks and sounds like will make up the semantic representation of that word. All episodic memories concerning your dog will then reference this single semantic representation of "dog" and, likewise, all new experiences with your dog will modify your single semantic representation of your dog.
  • Semantic memory refers to the memory or the meaning of something or event, understandings, and other concept-based knowledge, and underlies the conscious recollection of factual information and general knowledge about the world.[1] Semantic and episodic memory together make up the category of declarative memory, which is one of the two major divisions in memory. With the use of our semantic memory we can give meaning to otherwise meaningless words and sentences. We can learn about new concepts by applying our knowledge learned from things in the past.[2] The counterpart to declarative, or explicit memory, is procedural memory, or implicit memory.[3]The cognitive neuroscience of semantic memory is a somewhat controversial issue with two dominant views.On the one hand, many researchers and clinicians believe that semantic memory is stored by the same brain systems involved in episodic memory. These include the medial temporal lobes (MTL) and hippocampal formation. In this system, the hippocampal formation "encodes" memories, or makes it possible for memories to form at all, and the cortex stores memories after the initial encoding process is completed.Recently, new evidence has been presented in support of a more precise interpretation of this hypothesis. The hippocampal formation includes, among other structures: the hippocampus itself, the entorhinal cortex, and the perirhinal cortex. These latter two make up the "parahippocampal cortices". Amnesics with damage to the hippocampus but some spared parahippocampal cortex were able to demonstrate some degree of intact semantic memory despite a total loss of episodic memory. This strongly suggests that encoding of information leading to semantic memory does not have its physiological basis in the hippocampus.[33]
  • Henry Gustav Molaison (February 26, 1926 – December 2, 2008), known widely as H.M., was anAmerican memory disorder patient who had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to surgically remove the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi,parahippocampal cortices, entorhinalcortices,piriform cortices, and amygdalae in an attempt to cure his epilepsy. He was widely studied from late 1957 until his death.[1][2] His case played a very important role in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the development ofcognitive neuropsychology, a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. He resided in a care institute located in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, where he was the subject of ongoing investigation.[3] His brain is kept at UC San Diego where it was sliced into histological sections on December 4, 2009.[4]Molaison was influential not only for the knowledge he provided about memory impairment and amnesia, but also because it was thought his exact brain surgery allowed a good understanding of how particular areas of the brain may be linked to specific processes hypothesized to occur in memory formation. In this way, his case was taken to provide information about brain pathology, and helped to form theories of normal memory function.In particular, his apparent ability to complete tasks that require recall from short-term memoryand procedural memory but not long-term episodic memory suggests that recall from these memory systems may be mediated, at least in part, by different areas of the brain. Similarly, his ability to recall long-term memories that existed well before his surgery, but inability to create new long-term memories, suggests that encoding and retrieval of long-term memory information may also be mediated by distinct systems.Insights into memory formation[edit]Molaison was influential not only for the knowledge he provided about memory impairment and amnesia, but also because it was thought his exact brain surgery allowed a good understanding of how particular areas of the brain may be linked to specific processes hypothesized to occur in memory formation. In this way, his case was taken to provide information about brain pathology, and helped to form theories of normal memory function.In particular, his apparent ability to complete tasks that require recall from short-term memoryand procedural memory but not long-term episodic memory suggests that recall from these memory systems may be mediated, at least in part, by different areas of the brain. Similarly, his ability to recall long-term memories that existed well before his surgery, but inability to create new long-term memories, suggests that encoding and retrieval of long-term memory information may also be mediated by distinct systems.Nevertheless, imaging of Molaison's brain in the late 1990s revealed the extent of damage was more widespread than previous theories had accounted for, making it very hard to identify any one particular region or even isolated set of regions that were responsible for HM's deficits.[9]
  • Declarative memory

    1. 1. Declarative Memory (HM case) Neural Science MS / PhD Integrated Student Jongmin Yu(jmyu@gist.ac.kr) Applied Computing Laboratory Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology 1
    2. 2. 1 Basic Terms 2 Declarative memory & HM case 3 Episodic memory 4 Semantic memory 5 Q&A, Reference
    3. 3. 본 과제의 기본 정보 Declarative memory Basic Terms Long Term memory Declarative memory Episodic Semantic memory memory Explicit memory Counter part of Nondeclarative memory(Procedural memory) ‘Usually what people are referring to when they speak of memory.’ Storing specific personal experiences Procedural memory Priming Skill & habits memory Classical conditioning Non-Associative learning Storing factual information 3
    4. 4. 본 과제의 기본 정보 Declarative memory Declarative memory These different types of long-term memory are stored in different regions of the brain and undergo quite different processes. Factual knowledge + memories of past events = Declarative memory Declarative memories are encoded by the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and perirhinal cortex (all within the medial temporal lobe of the brain) Hippocampus : key structure in episodic or autobiographical memory) Entorhinal cortex : (Brodmann Area’s 28,34) a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation Perirhinal coretex : ( -’s 35,36) receives highly-processed sensory information from all sensory regions There are two types of declarative memory: semantic memory and episodic memory. 4
    5. 5. 본 과제의 기본 정보 Declarative memory Episodic memory memory of autobiographical events times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual knowledge It can be explicitly stated. collection of past personal experiences Nine properties of episodic memory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Contain summary records of sensory-perceptual-conceptual-affective processing. Retain patterns of activation/inhibition over long periods. Often represented in the form of (visual) images. They always have a perspective (field or observer). Represent short time slices of experience. They are represented on a temporal dimension roughly in order of occurrence. They are subject to rapid forgetting. They make autobiographical remembering specific. They are recollectively experienced when accessed. information processed at medial temporal lobe, include hippocampus. 5
    6. 6. 본 과제의 기본 정보 Declarative memory Semantic memory Semantic memory refers to the memory ( facts, meanings, conceptsand knowledge about the external world) the meaning of something or event understandings, and other concept-based knowledge underlies the conscious recollection of factual information general knowledge about the world. = general factual knowledge The semantic memory is generally derived from the episodic memory Process Location : medial temporal lobes (MTL) and hippocampal formation 6
    7. 7. 본 과제의 기본 정보 Declarative memory HM case Henry Gustav "HM" Molaison heavy anterograde amnesia temporally graded retrograde amnesia remove the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi = memory disorder patient Contribution to science very important role in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory understanding of how particular areas of the brain may be linked to specific processes hypothesized to occur in memory formation. 7
    8. 8. 본 과제의 기본 정보 Backgrounds Summary Declarative memory Factual knowledge + memories of past events = Declarative memory encoded by the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and perirhinal cortex Divided by two type Episodic memory memory of autobiographical events times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual knowledge Have a special properties processed at medial temporal lobe, include hippocampus Semantic memory general factual knowledge Process Location : medial temporal lobes (MTL) and hippocampal formation derived from the episodic memory 8
    9. 9. 본 과제의 기본 정보 References References Dessertenne F., La tachycardie ventriculaire a deux foyers opposes variables, Arch. Mal. Coeur. Vaiss. 2, 263–72 (1966) Polo´nski L., Wasilewski J., Elektrokardiografia i Angiografia w Zawale Serca (Electrocardiography and Angiography in Myocardial Infarction) Urban & Partner, Wrocaw (2004) Sokolow M., Lyon T.P., The ventricular complex in right ventricular hypertrophy as obtained by unipolar precordial and limb leads. Am. Heart. J. 38, 273–94 (1949) Waller A.G., A demonstration in man of electromotive changes accompanying the heart’s beat, J. Physiol. 8, 229–34 (1887) 9
    10. 10. Q&A
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