Can individuals be motivated?• Motivating most of you is easy: you are the ‘motivatable’• The big problem: motivating the ‘un- motivatable’• De-skilling work - the factory system• Technology has superseded the worker• Work: it might make you ugly!
Or has something else taken place in the world of work?• Changing views of work and non-work• The ‘golden generation’ (you)• Out-of-balance lives (me)
How useful are our models of motivation?Central questions:• 1. Why does an individual decide to join an organisation?• 2. Why does he or she decide to stay or leave?• 3. Why does he or she decides to perform at the level required by the organisation or not?
Great ‘Motivators’ Julius Caesar Power, Glory, Property• Alexander the Great • Gold, Power & Naivety• Jesus Christ • Love, love, love• Genghis Khan • Murder & Mayhem• Marco Polo • Wanderlust, Curiosity• Napoleon • Ego & Josephine• Hitler • Disappointment & Hate• Pink Floyd? • $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$• Self-interest’ rules?
Dominant ideas about motivation• Content theories (Maslow, ERG, Herzberg etc)• Process theories (Adams, Vroom, etc)
Content Theories• Concerned with the nature of the work e. g is it challenging?• Can it be ‘enriched’ to provide greater satisfaction• Can we re-design work; job enlargement, rotation and ‘enrichment’• Does it work?
Content theories of motivation Needs hierarchy ERG Motivatorhygiene McClelland’s theory theory theory learned needs Self- Need for actualisation achievement Growth Motivators Need for Esteem power Need for Belongingness Relatedness affiliation Safety Hygienes Existence Physiological
Process theories• Cognitive – decision making• Why individuals decide to put in or with hold effort• What are they looking for?• Equitable outcomes Fair rewards
Expectancy theory of motivation E-to-P P-to-O Outcomes expectancy expectancy and valences Outcome 1 + or - Outcome 2 Effort Performance + or - Outcome 3 + or -
Equity theory• Outcome/input ratio –inputs what employee contributes (eg skill) –outcomes what employees receive (eg pay)• Comparison with ‘significant’ others –person/people with whom we compare ratio –not easily identifiable• Equity evaluation –compare outcome/input ratio with the comparison other
Overreward vs underreward inequity Comparison You other OutcomesOverreward Outcomes inequity Inputs InputsUnderreward Outcomes inequity Outcomes Inputs Inputs
Where does this leave us?• Reward is critical in the motivation equation• Intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) rewards• Need to reward individuals for putting in effort
Effective Reward Systems• Must be:• Perceived as fair• Timely• Of significant magnitude• Individualised• Based on current performance• So why don’t organisations do this?
Conclusion• It is difficult (impossible?) to motivate anyone• Best we can do is structure situations where individuals decide to expend energy• Finding the right button to push• But there are so many buttons for a wide variety of people