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  • 1. Furnace Improvements Services Low Cost Value Added Solutions for Fired Heaters Project Case Studies  Increased Capacity  Higher Efficiency  Longer Run Lengths  Lower NOx EmissionsFurnace Improvements Services Inc. A.G. Furnace Improvements Pvt. Ltd. 1600 Highway 6, Suite 480 K-33, Kalkaji Sugar Land, TX 77478 New Delhi – 110019 Tel: (281)980-0325 Tel 1: 91-11-405 8 8696 Fax: (832) 886-1665 Tel 2: 91-11-262-8 6775 Email: info@heatflux.com Web: www.heatflux.com Case Study 183
  • 2. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters No. 4 Platformer Heater Capacity ImprovementIn October 2000, FIS carried out a Platformer Heater Revamp Project for a refinery in CorpusChristi, TX.The four-cell Reformer Heater was originally designed for a heat duty of 181.32 MMBtu/hr, in1970. The heater was operating at 67% thermal efficiency. Client wanted to increase the capacityand improve the efficiency of this heater but didn’t want an air preheater system and neithergenerates steam.The refinery approached the original designer of the heater. They proposed a conventionalscheme to preheat the feed in the convection section. The scheme had four major drawbacks: • Increased of fluid pressure drop • Required grade mounted stack • Required large diameter piping • Cost was very highFIS was contacted by the refinery todevelop an economical scheme forimproving efficiency. FIS redesignedthe heater with our patented “SplitFlow Technology” scheme. In thisscheme the feed is heated parallel inthe convection and radiant sections.This design works very well toincrease capacity and minimizing thepressure drop during the process.FIS scheme was able to increase capacity, FIS Split Flow* Technology applied to Platform Heaterand improve efficiency with the followingadvantages: • Fluid pressure drop decreases • Existing stacks were reused. • Additional piping was only half the size of conventional scheme. • Scheme was nearly half the cost of conventional revamp. Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 3. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersFIS carried out the entirescope of activities from Reformer Heater Data Comparisonconceptualization to Before Revamp Item Units After Revampcommissioning of this (Operating)heater revamp. The heater Capacity BPD 18,000 26,000was successfullycommissioned in October Heat Release MM Btu/hr 234 2252002. After revamp, the Stack Temp. °F 1,092 478capacity of this heater wasimproved from 18,000 BPD Fuel MSCFH 244 242.8 Consumptionto 26,000 BPD. The client is 5.8 Million *very pleased with the heater Fuel Savings $/annum * Based on $6.0 / MMBtuperformance. The heater hasbeen running successfully since 2002. Reformer Heater Before and After Revamp *Split Flow Patented Technology – US 7204 966B2Client CITGOClient Contact Mr. Ed De La CruzTelephone (361) 844-5741Location Corpus Christi, TX Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 4. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 5. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 185 CFHT Efficiency Improvement and NOx Reduction ProjectA northern refinery had a Catalytic Feed Hydrotreater Heater (CFHT) in their Fluid CatalyticCracking (FCC) unit. It is a natural draft vertical cylindrical furnace, with a horizontal overheadconvection section and three up fired low NOx natural draft burners. Client was having tubefailures in this heater and decided to contact Furnace Improvements (FIS). They also wanted toreplace the burners.Furnace Improvements carried out a thorough analysis of the heater. The existing convectionsection was designed with very tight design parameters. It also had a very high heat flux leadingto high skin temperatures and subsequent tube failures. The burners had a very high heat releaserate, and were leading to long flames and flame impingement.FIS redesigned the convection section within one week with a better design overcoming thedrawbacks in the existing design. FIS also replaced the existing burners with six new low NOxburners and re-rate the heater. FIS developed the detail engineering and fabrication drawings forthe convection section and burners replacement. FIS also developed material and burnerspecifications, evaluated the vendor quotations, and witnessed the burner test. CFHT Heater Parameters Before After Parameter Units Revamp Revamp Heat Duty MMBtu/hr 16.70 16.70 Heat Release MMBtu/hr 21.64 19.45 Skin Temp. °F 740 675 Efficiency % 79.57 85.87 Stack Temp. °F 764 537 Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 6. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersAfter the revamp job, the performance of the heater improved as expected. The some of theresults were: • Radiant section skin temperature was reduced from 740°F to 675°F. • Thermal efficiency was improved from 79.5% to 86%. • Stack flue gas temperature was reduced from 764°F to 537°F.The heater was successfully commissioned in October 2003.Client ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. Hiren YagnikTelephone (618) 255-2534Location Roxana, IL ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 7. Furnace Improvements Low Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 187 Reboiler Trim Heaters Efficiency Improvement Project There were two trim heaters, stripper and stabilizer reboiler, in STABILIZER REBOILER HEATER a reforming plant. Convection Section #1 #2 The heaters were originally designed for a heat duty of 12 and 13.8 MM Btu/hr respectively. The convection sections in these heaters were in poor condition. They were operating at very #1 #2 low efficiency. Client contacted Furnace Improvements (FIS) 12- 5" looking to improve the performance of these trim heaters. 9- 8" FIS studied the design and operating conditions of the heaters. FIS solution was to replace the existing convection sections #1 #2 #1 #2 and provide new stacks to increase the capacity of the heaters 5- 3 1/4" Convection Section 5- 3 1/4" Convection Section Before and After Revamp (Before Revamp) (After Revamp) by 10% and improve their thermal efficiency by 7-8%. Trim Heaters Parameters (Stripper / Stabilizer) Before After Before AfterParameter Units Parameter Units Revamp Revamp Revamp Revamp MMBtu/ MMBtu/Heat Duty 13.78 15.14 Heat Duty 12.0 13.20 hr hr Heat MMBtu/ Heat MMBtu/ 18.06 18.29 16.13 16.10 Release hr Release hrEfficiency % 76.4 83.2 Efficiency % 74.4 82.0 Stack Stack °F 813 572 °F 832 575 Temp. Temp. FIS carried out process design, detailed engineering, fabrication drawings, engineering specifications, material requisitions, and supervised field activities. The heaters are running with the enhanced capacity and efficiency since October 2002. Client CITGO Client Contact Mr. Ed De La Cruz Telephone (361) 844-5741 Location Corpus Christi, TX ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 8. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 204Crude Furnace NOx Reduction and Capacity Increase ProjectAn Ohio refinery has a Crude Heater in their CrudeUnit. The Crude Heater is a balanced draft, box type,horizontal tube radiant heater, having a commonconvection section on top. The heater was originallybuilt in 1968 for 423.2 MMBtu/hr heat duty. Theconvection section is designed to preheat oil feedand also super heat steam from 371°F to 450°F.This furnace had 84 up-fired burners having a totalheat release of about 500 MMBtu/hr.Client contacted Furnace Improvements (FIS) toperform an engineering study for NOx reduction onthis furnace and modeled the furnace with UltraLow NOx Burners.During the study it was found that the radiant tubesin this heater had been suffering from high tubemetal temperature and flame impingement. Theconvection section was inefficient; the air preheateroperating temperature was reaching theirmetallurgical limits and the flue gas temperatureleaving the convection section was 300°F higher thandesign.Furnace Improvements modified the convection section and reduced relative coking rates. Therelative coking rates in the existing convection section and the proposed retubed convectionsection are shown in the graph below. The Client accepted our recommendations andimmediately assigned FIS the NOx reduction and performance improvement project.FIS Revamp consists of: • Modifying the radiant section • Retubing the convection section • Burners replacement with Ultra Low NOx burners Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 9. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Relative Coking Rates in Convection Section 0.3 0.25 Relative Coking Rate 0.2 Existing 0.15 Proposed 0.1 0.05 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Tube No.FIS developed the detailed engineering and fabrication drawings for this revamp. We alsodeveloped the detailed specifications for tubes, finning, tube supports, burners, burner supports,fabrication and erection. We floated enquires, evaluated vendor proposals, and maderecommendations for placing a direct purchase order to the vendors. We carried out testing onthe burners and checked the parameters while the heater was running with full capacity. Parameters Units Pre Revamp Post Revamp Capacity BPD 155,900 160,000 Heater Duty (Process + Steam) MMBtu/hr 443.1 450.46 Maximum TMT (rad. /conv.) °F 996 / 1,130 801 / 746The client is able to process more throughput than expected. The tube skin temperatures are verylow. The NOx emissions were reduced to ≈ 0.05 lb/MMBtu. The heater was commissioned in Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 10. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersApril 2004 and has been running successfully ever since.Client PremcorClient Contact Mr. Jim ProrokTelephone (419) 226 2610Location Lima, OH ••• Case Study 210 No.2 Reformer Heater NOx Reduction ProjectA Reformer Heater was designed as a multi-cell heater consisting of five radiant cells, a commonconvection section and five stacks. The heater was originally designed for 12,000 BPD chargerate. It was revamped several times. The existing heater is rated to process 24,000 BPD of feed(Naphtha) at an absorbed heat duty of 160.6 MM Btu/hr, an efficiency of 86.9% with a total of 62burners.Furnace Improvements (FIS) wasapproached to do the study and developoptions to reduce NOx emissions.FIS reviewed the design and operating dataand recommended replacing the existingburners with Next Generation Ultra LowNOx Burners.Two of the cells have staged fuel burners andother three-cells have premix burners. Thefour cells (A, B, C, & D) have 14 burnerseach and the last cell (E) has only 6 burners.FIS installed 15 burners in cells A, B, C, &D. The burners were installed on a staggered pattern to allow maximum flue gas recirculation.Cell E, have the same number of burners as existing.FIS carried out the entire scope of activities from conceptualization to commissioning of thisheater revamp. The heater was successfully commissioned in October 2004. The NOx emissions Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 11. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaterswere reduced to less than 0.03 lbs Btu.Client ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. Brent ColleTelephone (580) 767 2499Location Ponca City, OK ••• Case Study 242 NHT and Platformer Heater Capacity Increase ProjectThe Platformer Heater (H-20/21/22) was originallydesigned for 12,000 BPD operation and rated for 119.6MMBtu/hr process heat duty. The design thermalefficiency of the heater was ~ 88% but it was operatingonly at 80 – 81%.There are three vertical Cylindrical Heaters along withthe Platformer Heaters, which share a commonconvection section and a stack. They are theHydrotreater Charge Heater (H-18), HydrotreaterStripper Reboiler (H-19) and Depropaniser Reboiler(H-23).The heaters were running at 13,000 to 15,000 BPD charge rate. Client wished to revamp theheaters to 18,000 BPD capacity. Furnace Improvements (FIS) was employed to develop the bestcapacity improvement scheme for a #2 Platformer Heater and NHT Heaters.The conventional revamp option was to extend the existing radiant cells. The other option was toinstall a new heater for extra duty required. Both options require a big amount of space and highcost. Heater Existing Heat Revamped Extra Duty Duty DutyFIS’ recommendation was to increase the H-18 11.97 13.50 1.53capacity of the heater based on FIS patented H-19 18.45 23.50 5.05“Split Flow Technology”. The heaters were H-20 27.29 42.50 15.21 Revamping - TrainingH-21 – Troubleshooting 25.10 30.90 5.30 H-22 www.heatflux.com 21.70 23.10 1.40 H-23 15.15 17.40 2.25 Total 119.7 150.90 30.74
  • 12. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heatersrevamped for 18,000 BPD capacity and a design heat duty of 150.4 MMBtu/hr. The revamp costwas one fourth of the alternate design. The heater firing was limited to the design firing rate. Thethermal efficiency of the heaters was increased from 80% to 89%.FIS Revamp consists of: • Replacement of Coils • New Burners and Radiant Floor • New Convection Section • Replacement of Stack DamperThe heater was revamped not only for increased capacity but also for improved thermalefficiency and improved reliability. In addition to this, the Platformer Heater’s burners werereplaced with new Ultra Low NOx flat flame burners and the calculated fuel consumptionsavings are $876,700 per year. Before Revamp After Revamp FIS carried out the entire scope of activities from conceptualization to commissioning of thisheater revamp. The heater was successfully commissioned in November 2005 and has been Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 13. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heatersrunning ever since.Client ValeroClient Contact Mr. Steven GuilloryTelephone (409) 948-7463Location Texas City, TX ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 14. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 247 Combined Feed HeaterThe first new heater job by Furnace Improvements (FIS) wasfor a Corpus Christi refinery. The new vertical cylindricalheater is a combined feed heater with a natural draft. It is usedto heat a mixture of hydrocarbon and hydrogen.The heater was designed for: • Absorbed heat duty - 40MMBtu/hr • Feed Flow Rate – 450,995 lb/hr • 6 Ultra Low NOx Burners • Efficiency - 82%FIS’ scope of services for this heater included design,engineering, fabrication, procurement, supply and projectservices.The heater was successfully commissioned in August 2005.Client CITGOClient Contact Mr. Ed De La CruzTelephone (361) 844-5741Location Corpus Christi, TX ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 15. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 248 Platformer Heater Capacity Improvement ProjectFurnace Improvements (FIS) was employed by arefinery in California to perform a capacityimprovement on a Platformer Heater (H-70-01/02/03).The heater was originally built in 1979. It was designedfor 12 MBPD and rated for 135.58 MMBtu/hr of heatduty and 84.03 MMBtu/hr of process heat duty. Theheater was running at 13,000 to 15,000 BPD chargerate.Client was seeking to revamp the heater for 18,000BPD and process heat duty of 113.01 MMBtu/hr andtotal heat duty of 160.86 MMBtu/hr.The design thermal efficiency of the heater was ~ 88%and was operating at 80- 81%. The stack temperaturewas higher by almost 300°F than design.The conventional revamp option was to extend the existing radiant cells. Extending the radiantcells has the following disadvantages: • Space limitation • Higher firing rates • Very high cost ( requires radiant tubes and new manifolds)FIS’ recommended increasing the capacity of the heater using our patented “Split FlowTechnology”. Advantages of revamped design based on split flow are as follows: • Lower heat flux • Lower firing rates • No radiant section modification • No civil works Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 16. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Design Revamp Extra Duty Re-Rated Convection Heater Heat Duty Heat Duty Required Radiant Duty Duty Section MMBtu/hr 70-H-1 27.68 37.47 9.79 29.01 8.46 70-H-2 33.42 44.66 11.24 34.45 10.21 70-H-3 22.93 30.88 7.95 24.35 6.53 Steam 51.58 47.85 - - 47.85 Generation Total Process 84.03 113.01 28.08 87.81 25.2 DutyThe overall heater efficiency was improved 9%. There was an increased heat duty by 28.08MMBtu/hr, about 33% more than the original design values. The firing rate was well within theoriginal firing rate.FIS carried out the entire scope of activities from conceptualization to commissioning of thisheater revamp. The heater was successfully commissioned in February 2008.Client ValeroClient Contact Mr. Pat LeyelTelephone (562) - 491-7256Location Wilmington, CA ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 17. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 254 Crude Heater NOx Reduction ProjectA refinery has a Crude Heater (191-H-1) in its Atmospheric Vacuum Unit AVU-191. The heaterwas built in 1969 and designed for 160,000 BPD at a total heat duty of 490.7 MMBtu/hr. Theheater was later revamped to process 178,500 BPD of crude and 31,500 BPD of slip stream attotal heat duty of 612.4 MMBtu/hr. Furnace Improvements (FIS) wasapproached to modify the existing CrudeHeater (191-H-1) to enable it to be retrofittedwith a selective Catalytic Reduction Unit(SCR) to reduce NOx emissions to less than0.010 lb/MMBtu. A new SCR and WasteHeat Recovery (WHR) are installed toaccomplish these changes. FIS alsoperformed the CFD analysis to ensure there isproper mixing of Ammonia with flue gases inthe SCR unit and there is uniform distribution offlue gases over the catalyst bed.In the proposed option FIS designed theheater for 260,000 BPD at a firing rate of 727MMBtu/hr (LHV). Crude feed to 191-H-1 is split into two streams: A hot stream (main crudecharge) at 215,000 BPD, 456° F and a cold stream (slip crude stream) at 45,000 BPD, 240° F.The total absorbed heat duty of the Crude Heater is 672.2 MMBtu/hr. The WHR section isdesigned to reduce the flue gas temperature to 300° F as opposed to the current 350° F to 385° F.FIS’ scope included providing engineering services, designing equipment and supplyingmaterials needed to modify the existing Crude Heater and auxiliary equipments. FIS’ scopeincluded the supply of a new waste heat recovery unit, modify the existing heater convection,and upgrade of the FD and ID Fans. The new waste heat recovery is installed and connected tothe new SCR and existing Crude Heater.Crude Heater RevampThe existing slip crude stream in the convection section has 24 rows. Fourteen rows are removedfrom service to achieve the required temperature window for SCR operation. The convection Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 18. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaterssection is divided into two sections: lower and upper, by installing a new horizontal baffle plate.The plate acts as a barrier and forces the flue gases to exit from the lower section to the SCR,WHR and return to the upper section. The blanking plate is a new concept and it’s being done forthe 1st time. This design saved our client between $5- $6 Million.Waste Heat Recovery UnitThe Crude Heater (191-H-1) is supplemented with an outboard WHR unit. The unit is locateddownstream of the SCR unit. The heat transfer area was removed from the heater convectionsection to achieve the required temperature window. This was done to avoid condensationrecovered in the WHR. The design slip crude flow rate through the WHR will be 45,000 BPD(560,000 lb/hr). The outboard WHR unit will heat slip crude stream from 240° F to 470° F. Thecalculated pressure drop across the WHR is 46.9 psig. The flue gas enters the WHR at atemperature of 700° F and leaves at 300° F.Soot BlowersTwenty-eight electric-motor driven soot blowers are provided in the WHR unit. The soot blowersare installed in the WHR to clean the surfaces for any ammonium bisulphate deposits resultingfrom the reaction of excess NH3 and SO3.FD & ID FansThe FD fans are upgraded to increase capacity and reduce the noise across the combustionsystems. The fans are retrofitted with a new impeller, shaft, inlet vanes, inlet cones to match newrotor, inlet damper and silencer and intake hood. The motor is also being upgraded from a 400HP to 500 HP motor. Similarly the four ID fans and motors are upgraded.DampersThere are a total of 16 dampers being provided in the Crude Heater. All the 16 dampers arereplaced because they were not in working condition. The new dampers are installed at theexisting damper locations.Finger Ducts & Expansion JointsNew duct work is installed to the north side of the Crude Heater. The hot flue gas ducting isdesigned to optimally fit from the heater to the new SCR and also from SCR to WHR. The hotflue gas enters the duct, passes through the Ammonia Injection Grid (AIG) and enters the SCR.Expansion joints were also provided on each duct. Cold flue gas ducting was designed to fullyintegrate with the WHR system with the existing convection box (below the existing ID fans).The six cold flue gas ducts tie into heater above the blanking plate. Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 19. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersAmmonia Injection GridThe new AIG was installed in the hot flue gas finger ducts. The AIG is located 10 ft from theheater casing. Ammonia is injected from the bottom through these pipes in the direction of theflue gas flow. NOx in the flue gases reacts with Ammonia over a catalyst to form Nitrogen andwater vapor. Description Before Revamp After Revamp Total Heat Duty, MMbtu/Hr 612.4 672.2 Heater Efficiency (LHV), % 91 92.4 Stack Temperature, °F 350 – 385 300 NOx, lb/MMbtu < 0.01 lb/MMBtuThe total cost of the project for design, engineering, fabrication and supply was $7 Million.Erection has been completed and the heater was commissioned in February 2009.Client ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. David BurkholderTelephone 504-656-3427Location Belle Chasse, LA ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 20. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 255 Reactor Charge Heater (B-301) Capacity Increase ProjectA Port Arthur Refinery has a reactor charge heater in the GFU Unit. The charge heater is avertical cylindrical heater built in 1981 with an air preheating system. It was designed for a totalheat duty of 60 MM Btu/hr.Furnace Improvements (FIS) was employed in March 2005 to rerate the heater. The rerating wasto be done with new process conditions to minimize the pressure drop.FIS rerated the heater for new process conditionsusing our patented “Split Flow Technology”. FISalso utilized the convectional series flow technologyto minimize the pressure drop and hardware changes,therefore, overall minimizing project cost.FIS recommended rearrangement of the number ofpasses or the replacement of the radiant andconvection sections.FIS carried out the entire scope of activities fromconceptualization to commissioning of this heaterrevamp. The heater was successfully revamped inDecember 2006 and restarted operation in January2007. The client is very pleased with the heaterperformance. Before RevampClient ValeroClient Contact Mr. Steve HendersonTelephone (409) 985-1135Location Port Arthur, TX Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 21. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters ••• Case Study 260 Capacity Improvement for Reactor Charge Heater (080-H-001)Furnace Improvements (FIS) was employed to carry out a capacity improvement of the ReactorCharge Heater (080-H-001). The client wanted to increase the process heat duty from 29.95MMBtu/hr to 37 MMBtu/hr. The maximum firing rate limitation was 54 MMBtu/hr.This heater was originally built in 1965 as anatural draft all radiant heater. It was modifiedin 1980 to increase its thermal efficiency from55% to 89% by adding a convection section forsteam generation. The heater was operating at85% efficiency.The revamp options to increase the capacity ofthe heater were:• Replace existing radiant coil and put in a new convection to preheat the process feed.• Revamp using FIS Split Flow Technology. In this option, the process feed is split and heated parallel in radiant and convections sections. The two parallel streams are then combined at the outlet.FIS revamped the heater, for increasing the processing capacity, using “Split Flow Technology.” Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 22. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Parameter Units Design Operating Revamp Total Absorbed Duty MMBtu/hr 47.63 55.48 42.4 Process Duty (Total) MMBtu/hr 29.99 37.68 37.01 Process Radiant Duty MMBtu/hr 29.99 37.68 25.01 Process Convection Duty MMBtu/hr - - 12 Total Fuel Firing Rate MMBtu/hr 53.47 64.83 49.87 Firebox Temperature °F 1540 1630 1511 Radiant Average Heat Btu/hr/ft2 11,820 14,850 11,480 FluxAdvantages of the revamped design based on Split Flow are as follows: a) No radiant section modification – Existing tubes and supports can be used b) Steam generation system can be reused with minimum modifications c) Lowest cost d) Shortest turn-around timeThe heater is operating successfully after revamp. FIS carried out the entire scope of activitiesfrom conceptualization to commissioning of this heater revamp.Client Alon USAClient Contact Mr. Steve Mattingley / Mr. Jeff BromanTelephone (432) 263-9333/ (432) 263-9237Location Big Spring, TX ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 23. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 263B N 744 Boiler NOx Reduction ProjectFurnace Improvements (FIS) was approachedto convert a CO boiler in Unit 40 to be astandalone refinery fuel gas fired boiler, andreduce NOx emissions. The existing boilerwas revamped into a fuel gas fired boiler witha maximum capacity of 400,000 lb/hr ofsteam @ 625 psig, 750 °F and reduced theNOx emissions down to 0.02 lb/MMBTU (16ppm).FIS developed a heat transfer model of the boiler. Analyzed the performance of the boiler withNOx reduction and provided the client with various options for NOx reduction. They selected theoption of ultra low NOx burners with external flue gas recirculation and steam injection into theburners. FIS scope of services included the following: • NOx Reduction System - Ultra Low NOx Burners and FGR Fan: The burners required about 16-17% FGR and 20,000 Lbs/Hr steam injection to reduce the NOx emissions to 0.02 Lb/MMBtu. FIS procured the FGR fan. FIS performed the CFD modeling of the ducting and combustion air – FGR mixbox to ensure that FGR and combustion air are thoroughly mixed before it enters the burners. FIS also performed the CFD modeling of the existing and new ultra low NOx burners to predict the overall combustion scenario, flame patterns, flame lengths etc. • New Economizer: The existing economizer was heavily fouled and the stack temperatures were running about 460 °F. FIS installed a new economizer which increased the efficiency of the boiler by 3%. The additional fuel savings due to increased efficiency will pay out the new economizer in about one year and six months. The lower stack temperature (310 °F) with the new economizer also reduced the size of the FGR fan. • Steam Super Heater Modifications: Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 24. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters FIS performed the heat transfer modeling of the steam super heater and found that the existing heat transfer surface was inadequate and steam temperature will drop to about 680 °F after the revamp. FIS put additional heat transfer surface in the super heater to raise the temperature to 810 °F. • Firebox Modifications: FIS maximized the heat transfer surface in the firebox by sealing the CO ports with water wall panels, and removing the refractory from the floor and the roof. The additional heat transfer surface in the firebox increases the radiant heat duty and lowers the firebox temperature that also helps in reducing NOx to a little extent. • New Attemperator: The existing attemperator was not working. FIS installed a new attemperator to maintain a constant super heat temperature at all boiler loads. Description Before Revamp After Revamp Stack Temperature 460 °F 310 °F Boiler Efficiency (LHV) 87% 90 % Steam Temperature Out Of Boiler 700 – 730 °F 730 – 810 °F Steam Temperature after Not Working 730 - 750 °F Attemperator NOx < 0.02 Lb/MMBtu (HHV)This project was on a fast track. Engineering and procurement of all materials was completed in10 months. The boiler was successfully commissioned in April 2008.Client ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. Steven J. ODonnellTelephone (806) 275-1307Location Borger, TX ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 25. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 266 Alky Heater (H-2) NOx Reduction and Efficiency Improvement ProjectFurnace Improvements (FIS) was hired to perform aturnkey NOx Reduction revamp on an Alky UnitHeater (H-2). The target NOx emission rate was0.035 lb/MMBtu (HHV). The Alky Heater is avertical cylindrical heater with a design heat duty of55 MMBtu/hr. The heater efficiency was very lowat 66%.Excess Oxygen in the firebox was very high at8.5%. The heater floor was in bad shape. The heaterdid not have any stack damper for draft control.FIS’ scope included finalization of thermal designand engineering, procurement of material,fabrication, supply and field installation of theheater.FIS scope of services included:• Modification of Existing Floor: The existing floor was in bad shape, warped and needed to be replaced. The burners were fitted on smaller burner circle diameter to increase the reliability of the heater by minimizing the flame impingement.• Install Eight New Ultra Low NOx Burners (ULNB): FIS rerated the heater using ULNB to reduce NOx emissions. The burners are fired vertically upwards and the NOx emissions are 0.018 lbs/MMBtu. The burners were housed in a common air plenum with a central air intake. The air intake was provided with a pneumatic damper.• Install New Convection Module: Existing convection section efficiency was very low due to a high flue gas temperature Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 26. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters leaving the section. The flue gas temperature decreased to 520o F from 680o F by replacing the convection section. FIS supplied and installed an upgraded convection section.• Installation of New Stack and Damper: FIS replaced the existing stack and installed O2 and temperature indicators for better control of the Oxygen levels and temperatures exiting the stack. The new stack was provided with connected ladders and platforms. The existing stack did not have a damper for draft control. The new stack damper is pneumatically operated. Minimum limit stop has been provided on linkage side of damper frame so as to prevent it from being fully closed. A position transmitter has been provided to know the damper opening position. The stack damper is provided to ensure that the draft at arch is maintained at the design level of (-) 0.1” WC under all operating conditions. Before After Revamp Revamp Duty (MMBtu/hr) 55 60 Efficiency (%) 66 86.2 Firing Rate (MMBtu/hr) 83.3 69.6 Energy savings ($/year) - 782,093 Payback Period (Years) - 1.72After the revamp, the efficiency increased by 20%. The total cost of the project for the designservices, engineering services, fabrication and installation was $1,560,000. The project payoutwas estimated to be less than 2 years. This heater was successfully commissioned in March2008.Client ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. Hiren YagnikTelephone (618) 255-2534Location Roxana, IL ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 27. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 269 H-28 Vacuum Heater Performance Improvement StudyA refinery was facing coking problems in their Vacuum Heater.In addition, they also wanted to revamp the heater to handleCanadian Crude and reduce NOx emissions. FIS did the processstudy and as a result of the study, the client decided to build anew Vacuum heater with an existing heater foundation. The newheater is 4 ft wider.This vacuum heater is a horizontal tube box with a convectionsection. It is designed for a heat duty of 43MMBtu/hr. FIS’scope involves design, engineering, structural analysis andsupply of this heater to the site. The heater has an efficiency of90%.It was successfully commissioned in March 2009. The heaterwas delivered within 7 months of starting the job.A few months after the start up, FIS received the followingfeedback from the client.“.. we talked about the performance of the VF4 H28 heatersince startup. It has been fantastic! The stack temperature is370-380°F and the fuel gas usage has dropped about 40% fromthe old heater. This is one of the most • • • efficient heaters in therefinery. The NOx stack testing came back 0.026 lbNOx/MMBtu, which is also outstanding. They are even tryingto reduce the O2 even lower, from 4% to 3%. Its a lot differentwhen you have a tight firebox. Great job!!!” -ClientClient ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. Hiren YagnikTelephone (618) 255-2534Location Roxana, IL Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 28. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters ••• Case Study 279 Hot Oil Heater, WyomingFurnace Improvements (FIS) was employed to performan engineering study on a Hot Oil Heater (HT-501) at agas plant.The heater was originally designed for a 25 MMBtu/hrduty. FIS analyzed the design and existing condition ofthe heater and developed these options:1. Replacing the heater with a new vertical cylindrical heater.2. Replacing the heater with a new cabin heater having the same plot area as of existing heater.3. Revamping existing heater • Replacing the radiant coils, refractory and radiant tube supports. • Replacing the existing convection section with a new improved convection section. • Replacing burnersThe client opted for option 1 and awarded FIS with acontract for the turnkey supply of new Hot Oil Heaterfor their gas plant.FIS executed the heater process and mechanical design, structural analysis, materialprocurement, fabrication and installation of the Hot Oil Heater in 8 months schedule.FIS also supplied the burner management system and procured all the instrumentation controls ofthe heater. The heater was designed for an increased efficiency of 85% and it was commissionedin August 2007.Client Devon EnergyClient Contact Mr. Craig Shaw / Mr. Richard MyalTelephone (307) 857-2291 / (405) 228-8895 Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 29. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersLocation Riverton, WY ••• Case Study 280 CDHDS Reboiler Heater (H-60) Efficiency Improvement ProjectFurnace Improvements (FIS) was employed to develop an efficiency improvement scheme forCDHDS reboiler heater (H-60).The CDHDS reboiler heater is a vertical cylindricalnatural draft heater built in 2002. The CDHDS reboilerheater (H-60) was designed for a process duty of72 MMBtu/hr, with a design efficiency of 81%. Theheater was operating at an efficiency of 79%, with theflue gas stack temperature of 780°F.FIS reviewed the design and proposed the followingchanges to improve the efficiency: • Adding six rows of steam generation coil in convection section • New stack transition cone • 25 ft of stack extensionIn this scheme, 71,000 lb/hr of 450 # steam condensateis flashed to 150 # 2 phase, vapor-liquid stream.Flashing is completed before it enters the convectionsection.The total heat duty of the heater was increased to 82 MMBtu/hr. The extra 10 MMBtu/hr is absorbedin steam generation coil. Flue gas temperature leaving the stack was reduced at 400°F.The efficiency of the heater was increased to 90%, which brought energy savings ofapproximately USD $ 590,550 per year. The payback period is 1 year 3 months.This project has been successfully commissioned in October 2007. Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 30. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersClient ValeroClient Contact Mr. Steven GuilloryTelephone (409) 948-7463Location Texas City, TX ••• Case Study 283 Vacuum Heater Capacity Increase ProjectFurnace Improvements (FIS) was employed toconduct an engineering study for a refineryvacuum heater (200-H4) in Indiana. As part oftheir expansion project, the refinery needed toincrease the capacity of a cabin vacuum heater.This heater was originally installed in 1949.FIS developed four modification options toincrease the capacity of the vacuum heater. Theclient opted for revamping the radiant section coil,new burners and a new stack.With these modifications, the capacity of theheater was increased from 8,200 to 9,500 BPD.The Heater was successfully commissioned and isworking with increased capacity since May 2008.Client CountryMarkClient Contact Mr. Tariq AsrarTelephone (812) 833-3640 / (812) 838-8186Location Mt. Vernon, IN ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 31. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 286 Hot Oil HeaterFurnace Improvements (FIS) was employed to performan engineering study on a Hot Oil Heater (H-3) inRoxana, IL. FIS submitted the design and was awarded acontract for the turnkey supply of new Hot Oil Heater fortheir BEU unit.The BEU Heater (H-3) is a natural draft, verticalcylindrical heater with a radiant section, convectionsection and stack. The heater is used to heat hot oil. Theheater is designed for a total heat duty of 165 MMBtu/hr.FIS executed the heater process, mechanical design,structural analysis, material procurement and fabricationof this hot oil heater.The client requested an expedited delivery for this heaterto meet their turnaround schedule. • This heater was delivered to the site within 9 months of receipt of order. • The fabrication was done to such an extent that there were no structural welds at the site. All the connections were designed to be bolted connections. • This is a 6 pass heater and radiant panels were designed for each pass to fit in each radiant panel. • The stack outside diameter is 11’ 3 5/8” and the height is 97’ 2”. This stack was shipped in two pieces, which were bolted at the site.This heater was succesfully commissioned in May 2009.Client ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. Hiren YagnikTelephone (618) 255-2534Location Roxana, IL Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 32. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters ••• Case Study 287 CO Boiler Convection ReplacementAn Illinois refinery had a CO boiler in their Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit. The CO boilerwas more than 40 years old. The CO boiler’s convection section is used to preheat the FCCcharge and also generate superheated steam at 600 psig and 710°F.The boiler had three main problems: • Low economizer tube metal temperatures reaching dew point levels • High super heated steam temperature • Problems with tube supports in the hottest zoneThe refinery approached Furnace Improvements (FIS) to provide a new thermal design forreplacing the convection section of the CO boiler. FIS conducted a detailed operation analysis ofthe existing CO boiler and built a model of the existing design. With the model built, we wereable to simulate the current operating conditions and predict the heater performance for thefuture operating conditions.We developed a better design overcoming the drawbacks in the existing CO heater. Theconvection section was redesigned to: • Increase FCC feed flow CO Boiler Convection Section • Improve CO Boiler efficiency Replacement • Prevent cold end corrosion of Before After Item Units economizer Revamp Revamp • Eliminate flow distribution Process Heat Duty MMBtu/hr 81.55 104.91 problems Steam Heat Duty MMBtu/hr 100.90 115.92 Process Flow BPD 41,995 48,000The new design was developed Stack Temp. °F 636 577retaining the existing soot blower Efficiency % 68.0 72.6locations and platform elevations. 0.55 Million* Fuel Savings $ / annum [ $3.0/MM Btu]It was estimated to save the client almost $550,000 per year. The project was successfullyexecuted in February 2008.Client ConocoPhillips Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 33. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersClient Contact Mr. Hiren YagnikTelephone (618) 255-2534Location Roxana, IL ••• Case Study 299 Convection Section Modification in CO (CCU-1 & CCU-2) Heater for SCR InstallationA Refinery has CO heater (CCU/2) in theirFCC unit. It is used to combust the FCC offgas (mainly CO gas) from the spent catalystregenerator unit. The hot flue gasesgenerated from combustion of FCC off gasare used to preheat the oil and generatesuper heated.The client was installing a new SCR unitdownstream of the CO Heater as a part ofthe consent decree agreement to reduce theNOx emissions. The new SCR requires aspecific flue gas inlet temperature, whichwill require reconfiguring the heat transfersurface in the convection section.FIS modeled the convection section for 5 proposed cases and provided a revised design. Theproposed cases were so extreme in nature that it was very difficult to meet the flue gastemperature requirement for all the 5 cases for one design. So, FIS designed the last coil as a trimcoil. The last coil will be use in service when the flue gas temperature exceeds the higher limitand it will be run dry when the flue gas temperature drops below the lower limit. FIS alsoprovided a revised configuration for the oil pre heat coil to limit the oil outlet temperature below730 Deg F to prevent coking.The client wanted the super heated steam temperature to be close to the design so FISreconfigured the super heater surface and provided a revised design. The client approved FISdesign to revamp the convection section. The project was successfully comissioned in August2009.Client ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. Hiren Yagnik Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 34. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersTelephone (618) 255-2534Location Roxana, IL ••• Case Study 290 NOx Reduction of Six Fired HeatersFurnace Improvements was requested to develop a NOx reduction study on six heaters. Theclient wanted their NOx emissions to be reduced to 0.025 lb NOx/MMBtu. These heaters werealso needed to be rerated for new operating conditions.FIS analyzed all the heaters thoroughly, evaluated different schemes and arrived at a conclusionof replacing the existing burners with Ultra Low NOx burners. • Platformer Heater (009-0920,30,40) • Preflash Reboiler Heater (004-0095) • Vacuum Heater (004-0096) • Cat Cracker Heater (007-0093) • Charge & Stripper Reboiler Heater (009-0910) • Charge Heater (012-0090)Preflash ReboilerThe heater was built in 1979 as a vertical cylindricalheater with an absorbed duty of 25 MMBtu/hr and a feedrate of 135,827 lb/hr.Charge / Stripper ReboilerThe heater was built in 1958 and was revamped in 1979with 15 burners on the charge side and 13 burners on theStripper reboiler side.The charge heater has an absorbed heat duty of 10.09MMBtu/hr and a feed rate of 135,501 lb/hr. The stripperreboiler has an absorbed heat duty of 15.49 MMBtu/hr and a feed rate of 264,494 lb/hr.Platformer Heater Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 35. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersThe Platformer was built in 1979 on process requirements set forth by UOP. This PlatformerHeater is a vertical arbor (“U”) tube heater with 3 radiant sections and a common convectionsection and a stack .The heater has an absorbed duty of 115.9 MMBtu/hr. • The numbers of burners will be increased from 30 to 52.Vacuum HeaterVacuum heater is a horizontal tube cabin heater built in 1995. The heater is designed for a feedrate of 351,000 lb/hr and an absorbed duty of 42 MMBtu/hr. This heater had high stacktemperatures. • The numbers of burners will be increased from 6 to 9 burners.Charge HeaterThe heater was built as a vertical cylindrical heater in1964, upgraded in 1979, and purchased, rerated andrelocated from California to El Dorado refinery in 1993.The heater is designed for a feed rate of 26,930 BPD andan absorbed heat duty of 26.48 MMBtu/hr.Cat Cracker HeaterThe Cat Cracker was built as a vertical cylindrical heaterin 1978. The heater was designed for a feed rate of 22,570BPD and an absorbed heat duty of 40 MMBtu/hr.Client Lion OilClient Contact Mr. Jeff CarrTelephone (870) 864 1240Location El Dorado, AR ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 36. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 296 Hydrogen Heater Capacity Improvement ProjectFurnace Improvements (FIS) carried out a HydrogenHeater (77-H-001) revamp project. The HydrogenHeater is a vertical cylindrical heater, built in 1990.The heater was revamped in 2003, for a heat duty of12.48 MMBtu/hr. The heater was operating atefficiency of 78% and an absorbed duty of 11.6MMBtu/hr. The revamp heater design heat duty is14.77 MMBtu/hr.Operating data analysis indicated the following:• Convection section fins are burned out/ fouled, resulting in higher flue gas temperature leaving the convection section.• Flue gas temperature leaving the convection section increases continuously with time. Currently, it is around 100ºF higher than the clean conditions flue gas temperature.The conventional revamp scheme (to preheat thefeed in the convection section) resulted in very highfluid pressure drop. High fluid pressure drop was notfeasible.FIS redesigned the convection section with FIS patented “Split Flow Technology”. In thisscheme the feed was heated parallel in the convection and radiant section. The pressure dropacross the heater reduced even at higher capacity, due to this parallel processing. Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 37. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Hydrogen Heater Data Comparison Item Units Design Operating After Revamp Capacity lb/hr 22,383 16,400 24,560 Absorbed MMBtu/hr 12.46 11.6 14.77 Duty Heat Release MMBtu/hr 16.82 14.9 17.17 Stack Temp. °F 796 790 478 Efficiency % 74.1 77.8 86FIS carried out the entire scope of activities from conceptualization to commissioning of thisheater revamp. The heater was successfully commissioned in May 2009. After revamp, thethermal efficiency of this heater increased from 78% to 86%.Client Alon USAClient Contact Mr. Steve Mattingley / Mr. Jeff BromanTelephone (432) 263-9333/ (432) 263-9237Location Big Spring, TX ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 38. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 303 Capacity Increase and EfficiencyImprovement in Naphtha Stabilizer ReboilerA Texan Refinery requested FIS to rerate the NSR for newprocess conditions. The natural draft heater is a verticalcylindrical with convection section and mounted stack. It hada heat duty of 8.6 MMBtu/hr with an efficiency of 83%.FIS observed that the firebox was small and volumetric heatrelease was high. The proposed process conditions weren’tfeasible with the existing radiant section. Convection sectiontemperatures were high and the stack height was limiting withthe new firing conditions.FIS approach was to extend the radiant section and install anew radiant coil with 50% more radiant area. The heat dutyincrease to 10.8 MMBtu/hr and the efficiency went up to 88%giving fuel savings of US$270,000 per year.FIS worked on the design, detail engineering, fabrication andsupply of the new convection section, stack and radiant coils.This project was completed in a fast track and it wassuccessfully commissioned on September 2009.Client Alon USAClient Contact Mr. Steve Mattingley / Mr. Jeff BromanTelephone (432) 263-9333/ (432) 263-9237Location Big Spring, TX Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 39. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 40. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 314 Capacity Increase for Naphtha Splitter Reboiler ServiceFurnace Improvements (FIS) was employed by a Refinery inIndiana to carry out a heat duty increase project for theNaphtha Splitter Reboiler service. Operating heat duty wasaround 11.74 MMBtu/hr. This was being supplied by NaphthaSplitter Reboiler Heater and by Platformer Heater ConvectionCoil. Naphtha Splitter Reboiler service heat duty needs to beincreased by 5 MMBtu/hr.FIS reviewed the design and operating data for the NaphthaSplitter Reboiler heater (900-H-1) and modeled the heateroperation. Any heat duty increase in this heater is not viable.FIS reviewed also the design and operating data for PlatformerHeater (300-H1/H2/H3). In this heater there are 3 radiant cellsand a common convection section. It is possible to shift part ofthe #1 Inter Heater duty to the radiant cell of the heater and usepart of this convection coil to provide heat duty of NaphthaSplitter service. This will require an increase in the firing rateof the Inter Heater cell. It will need new burners of a highercapacity.Client has an Old Platformer Charge Heater (900-HXX). The heater was abandoned in the favorof the new Platformer heater (300-H1/H2/H3). The inspection of the Old Platformer ChargeHeater from outside showed that it is in good condition. FIS proposes using this heater forproviding the required heat duty requirement for Naphtha Splitter Reboiler service.FIS revamped the old Platformer Charge Heater adding a new radiant section with tubes andhangers and a small convection section. The stack was reused. The capacity was increase from8.38 MMBtu/hr (Naphtha Splitter Reboiler) to 20.12 MMBtu/hr (old Platform Charge Heater). Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 41. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersFIS scope of work includes process design, detail engineering, structural design, mechanicaldesign, GA drawings, Shop fabrication drawings, erection and commissioning supervision.The heater was successfully commissioned in November 2009.Client CountryMarkClient Contact Mr. Tariq AsrarTelephone (812) 833-3640Location Mt. Vernon, IN ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 42. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 329 NOx Reduction and Capacity Increase of H-102 and H-205 HeatersFIS was employed by a texan Refinery todevelop a NOx reduction study for DepantanizerReboilers (H-102 and H-205). Client wished toreduce the NOx emissions from their heaters byinstalling Ultra Low NOx Burners. The targetedNOx emissions from these heaters are 0.035lb/MMBtu (HHV basis).Both heaters are vertical cylindrical heaters withhorizontal convection section and a top mountedstack. They are design for an absorbed heat dutyof 33 and 46 MMBtu/hr.FIS performed the study and found out that theconvection sections were fouled. FIS suggest torevamp the heaters with patented “Split FlowTechnology” to increase capacity by 10%. FISalso suggest to install the ULNB with patented“inclined firing system” to eliminate foulingproblems.FIS is currently working on this project. Theheaters will be commissioned on beginning of 2011.Client Alon USAClient Contact Mr. Steve MattingleyTelephone (432) 263-9333Location Big Spring, TX Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 43. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters ••• Case Study 333 Capacity Increase on CDU-2; Crude & Vacuum Heaters (11/12-F-01)Furnace Improvements (FIS) was employed by an IndianRefinery at Visakhapatnam, to provide recommendationsto increase the capacity of the Crude Heater (11-F-01)and Vacuum Heater (12-F-01) by 15%.The crude heater was commissioned in 1985 for a heatduty of 60 MMBtu/hr. The existing heater was operatingat a thermal efficiency of around 83% which clientwished to improve. The average flue gas temperatureleaving the stack was around 342°C. This was 110°Chigher than the design stack temperature of 230°C.The vacuum heater was commissioned in 1985 for a heatduty of 184 MMBtu/hr. The existing heater wasoperating at a thermal efficiency of around 83% and theclient wished to improve the same. The average flue gastemperature leaving stack was around 308°C. This was78°C higher than the design stack temperature of 230°C.The client was already planning to install a new in-kindconvection section, new stack, and a new tight shut-offdamper during the forthcoming shutdown. FIS analyzedthe design of the Crude Heater (11-F-01) and developed ascheme to increase the capacity and improve theefficiency of both Heaters.FIS proposed to add a new convection section below thenew-in kind convection for both heaters. The proposed Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 44. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heatersconvection will increase the absorbed duty across the convection and will help in reducing thestack temperature to around 276°C in crude heater and 165°C for vacuum heater.The results in both heaters were:  Capacity Increase by 15%  Heat duty Increase by 15%  Efficiency Improve to >90%  Stack Temperature reductionThe heaters were successfully commissioned on July 2010.Client HPCLClient Contact Mr. S. BharathanTelephone (+)91-891-2894814Location Visakhapatnam, India … Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 45. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 335 Platformer Heaters Capacity Improvement and NOx Reduction ProjectFurnace Improvements (FIS) wasemployed to re-rate Heater process usingLow NOx Burners and increase theCapacity on Platformer Heaters (H-4 /H-5).The heaters were originally built in1959. The heaters were changed toforced draft in 1977. Common air pre-heater, induced draft and forced draft fanwere added to pre-heat the combustionair. Process fluid is heated in radiantsections. Convection section is used forsteam generation.Heaters design capacity is 32 MBPD. The client wanted to revamp the heaters for a highercapacity of 40 MBPD.The conventional revamp option has following disadvantages: • Very high cost • Requires large size manifolds and piping • Total pressure drop was very highFIS’ recommended increasing the capacity of the heater using our patented “Split Flowtechnology”.Advantages of revamped design based on split flow are as follows: • Lower heat flux • Lower firing rates • Lower pressure drop • No radiant section modification Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 46. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Design Heat Revamp Heat Extra Duty Heater Section Duty Duty Required MMBtu/hr Process Duty H-4 73.8 82.7 8.9 H-5 72.0 80.5 8.5 H-6 37.5 42.1 4.6 Total 183.3 205.3 22.0 Steam 80.5 51.4 - Generation Firing Rate 292.2 283.7 (-)8.5The process heat duty increased by 22.0 MMBtu/hr. The revamp heaters firing rate shall be 8.5MMBtu/hr lower than existing design. The new design reduces the air preheat temperature to270°F from operating temperature of 600-700°F.FIS carried out the entire scope of activities from conceptualization to commissioning of theseheaters. The project is currently in the execution phase. It is schedule to be commissioned on firstquarter of 2011.Client ConocoPhillipsClient Contact Mr. Hiren YagnikTelephone (618) 255-2534Location Roxana, IL ••• Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 47. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 338 Performance Improvement Project on 3 Platform HeatersA Wyoming Refinery approached Furnace Improvements (FIS) to carry out an engineering studyfor a capacity increase of 3 platformer heaters. The three heaters (H-1003/4/5) were built byRadco in 1990 and were relocated in 2006 to the Refinery. The middle heater (#1 Reheater) has acommon convection and stack for all three heaters.These heaters are draft limiting. The heatersare not able to achieve the desired throughput.FIS analyzed the existing design data and drawings of the Heaters (H-1003/4/5). Theobservations are as follows: • The existing heaters are deficient in design. Arch pressure is positive on all three heaters at design conditions. The arch pressure is (+)0.603 in WC, (+)0.103 in WC and (+)0.123 in WC for H-1003, H-1004 & H-1005 heaters respectively.In this study, FIS proposes 5 recommendations for the revamp of Charge Heater (H-1003), #1Reheater (H-1004) and #2 Reheater (H-1005). The recommendations are based on improving thedraft in all the three heaters. FIS also proposes a recommendation for increasing the capacity ofthe heaters to the target capacity. Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 48. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired HeatersClient chose the stack modification as a revamp option. FIS carried the following majormodifications: • The existing stack and transition cone shall be replaced with a new stack and new transition cone. • The new stack shall be wider and taller than the existing stack. The new stack length shall be 95 ft and 7’-6” outside metal diameter. • The new stack will have new dampers (4 blades) and platforms.FIS scope of work included process design, detail engineering, structural design, mechanicaldesign, GA drawings, Shop fabrication drawings, and supply of new transition cone, stack andplatforms.Client SinclairClient Contact Mr. Mike PalumboTelephone (307) 328-3549Location Casper, WY … Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 49. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters Case Study 339 Capacity Improvement for FRE-APS and FRE-VPS Heaters (31/32-F-01) FIS carried out a Crude Heater Capacity Improvement project for an Indian Refinery in Mumbai. The Client wanted to increase the heater capacity by 15% with a thermal efficiency of more than 90%. FIS proposed addition of a small convection section on top of the existing heater convection section and addition of burners to the heater. The convection section had a coil for vacuum heater as well and the capacity of vacuum heater was increased by 15% too. The study was carried out in 2 weeks and the detail engineering was carried out in 8 weeks. The heater was successfully commissioned on May 2010.Client HPCLClient Contact Mr. Anamitra UpadhyaTelephone (+)91-22-25076496Location Mumbai Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com
  • 50. Furnace ImprovementsLow Cost Solutions for Fired Heaters … Revamping - Training – Troubleshooting www.heatflux.com