Manifest Destiny & Jackson

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Manifest Destiny & Jackson

  1. 1. Manifest Destiny 1820s-1850s
  2. 2. Nationalism and Sectionalism • What do these words mean?
  3. 3. James Monroe (1817-1825) • Virginian (last of the Virginia Dynasty) • Strong Cabinet (Calhoun= Sec. of War, J.Q. Adams= Sec. of State)
  4. 4. Lettin’ the Good Times Roll • “Era of Good Feelings” during James Monroe’s presidency – Short period of political harmony
  5. 5. American System
  6. 6. Transportation • John C. Calhoun “Let us bind the Republic together with a perfect system of roads and canals.” (1817)
  7. 7. Life without transportation • Take 3 min. and imagine what life would be like without roads, canals and trains • Discuss with your partner
  8. 8. We need more American land • In 1818 set the border with Canada • In 1819 the Adams-Onís Treaty gives us Florida
  9. 9. Panic of 1819 • State banks (and the Fed) make loans based on money that is not worth its value
  10. 10. Economic Cycle
  11. 11. The Panic was bad… • In Philadelphia land was valued at $150 an acre in 1815 • It was valued at $35 in 1819
  12. 12. Missouri and Slavery • 1819 was the year of the first major slavery debate • There are 11 slave states and 11 free states in 1819 (perfect balance)
  13. 13. “… and what do you wanna be when you grow up?” • Missouri wants to enter the Union • Will it be slave or free?
  14. 14. Tallmadge Amendment • 1819, no more slave imports & gradual emancipation • Approved in the House, shot down in the Senate
  15. 15. Missouri Compromise • Missouri enters as slave, Maine enters as free • No new slave states above 36° parallel
  16. 16. Monroe Doctrine (1823) • The Americas (Latin America) “are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power.” Stay on your side!!!
  17. 17. Election of 1824 (A biggie!) No one wins a majority in the Electoral College
  18. 18. The “Corrupt Bargain” • Adams or Jackson?? • Henry Clay (fellow Westerner) uses influence to get John Quincy Adams to win
  19. 19. • Henry Clay is immediately named Adams’ Sec. of State • Jackson smells a “corrupt bargain” (selling the presidency to the highest bidder)
  20. 20. • In response Jackson decided to try new political tactics to gain votes – Traveling the country and giving speeches – Portraying himself as a “common man”
  21. 21. Voter Requirements
  22. 22. Increases
  23. 23. • With the help of Martin Van Buren, Jackson has enough support to run in 1828
  24. 24. Election Time (1828)
  25. 25. • 1828 splits the Democratic-Rep. party in two – Those who support Jackson = Democrats – Those in opposition to Jackson= Whigs Democratic- Rep. Democrats Nat. Republicans -> WHIGS
  26. 26. The New “Jackson Coalition” • Planter elite in the South • People on the Frontier • State politicians (spoils system) • Immigrants in the cities
  27. 27. Nationalism in the Courts
  28. 28. Fletcher v Peck (1810) • Can the states nullify individual contracts? • NO! This protects ind. rights over states’ rights
  29. 29. McCullough v Maryland (1819) Federal DOMINATES State
  30. 30. Marshall quote from McCulloch v Maryland (1819) • “The question is, in truth, a question of supremacy. And if the rights of the states to tax the means employed by the general government be conceded [given away], the declaration that the Constitution, and the laws made in pursuance thereof, shall be the supreme law of the land, is empty and unmeaning…”
  31. 31. Dartmouth College v Woodward (1819) • New Hamp. wants to change the charter of Dartmouth • Marshall rules in favor of the college
  32. 32. Gibbons v Ogden (1823) • Who can regulate interstate commerce? • The feds, of course!
  33. 33. Worcester v Georgia (1832) • Cherokee appeal to the Supreme for protection • Fed. Gov’t will protect NAs from any state laws that infringe on their rights
  34. 34. Indian Removal Act (1830) • Jackson’s message to Congress • “…I suggest for our consideration the propriety of setting apart an ample district west of the Mississippi, and without [outside] the limits of any state or territory now formed, to be guaranteed to the Indian tribes as long as they shall occupy it, each tribe having a distinct control over the portion designated for its use.”
  35. 35. Trial of Tears • Five Civilized Tribes sent to OK (800 mi) • The Cherokee refuse!!
  36. 36. Cherokee Removal • Cherokee appeal to the Supreme Court in 1832, and they win! • Chief John Ross
  37. 37. Forced Removal • 1838 President Van Buren sends US army to make the Cherokee move
  38. 38. • “I know what it is to hate. I hate those white soldiers who took us from our home. I hate the soldiers who make us keep walking through the snow and ice toward this new home that none of us ever wanted. I hate the people who killed my father and mother. I hate the white people who lined the roads in their woollen clothes that kept them warm, watching us pass. None of those white people are here to say they are sorry that I am alone. None of them care about me or my people. All they ever saw was the colour of our skin. All I see is the colour of theirs and I hate them.” - Samuel Cloud
  39. 39. Reform • Education- Horace Mann • Teacher training and money towards education
  40. 40. Mentally Ill • Mentally Handicapped- Dorthea Dix • Visited prisons and conducted studies
  41. 41. Abolition • Grimké Sisters • Sojourner Truth
  42. 42. Abolition • William Lloyd Garrison • Frederick Douglas • David Walker • John Brown
  43. 43. Women’s Rights • Lucretia Mott • Susan B. Anthony • Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Harriet Beecher Stowe???
  44. 44. Utopia • Brook Farm • New Harmony
  45. 45. Transcendentalism • Henry David Thoreau (Walden) • Ralph Waldo Emerson
  46. 46. Hudson River school
  47. 47. Religion • Baptists Quakers Shakers • Methodists Mormons

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