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World History Fall 2008

World History Fall 2008



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    Islam Islam Presentation Transcript

    • Islam
    • Muhammad: The Last Prophet
      • Born in Mecca around 570AD
      • Wealthy merchant, but hated the greed of the people
      • ~40 years old heard the voice of Gabriel the Angel
      • His wife, Khadija, convinces him to be a messenger of God .
    • From Mecca to Medina
      • Muhammad is faced with murder threats and moves to the city of Medina (city of the Prophet)
      • This happened 622 , which is the first year of the Muslim calendar
    • And back again…
      • The people welcome Muhammad and his teachings
      • They create communities of Muslims
      • Muhammad returns to Mecca in 630
      • Once there he destroyed the idols in the Kaaba and rededicated it to Islam
      • Muhammad dies 2 years later in 632.
    • Abraham’s Kaaba and Muhammad’s
    • Qu’ran
      • The Qu’ran is the holy text (like the Torah and the Bible)
      • Does not require priests to mediate
      • Muslims believe God (Allah) sent other prophets, but Muhammad is the last and the greatest
      • The Qu’ran is the direct, unchangeable word of God, only in Arabic
    • The 5 Pillars
      • Belief
        • There is no God but God, and Muhammad is His messenger
      • Worship
        • 5 times a day towards the Kaaba in Mecca
      • Fasting
        • No food, drink, smoking or sex b/w sunrise and sunset
      • Almsgiving
        • Give a certain amount of property to charity every year
      • Pilgrimage (Hajj)
        • Travel to Mecca at least once in a lifetime
    • Back to the regularly scheduled program…
      • After Muhammad’s death, there is confusion about his successor.
      • Abu Bakr (father-in-law) became the first Caliph
      • “ If you worship Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. If you worship God, God is alive.”
    • The Big Split
      • Shiite: Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali , is the true successor.
        • Descendents of Ali and Fatima are called Imams . They are divinely inspired leaders, like pastors.
      • Sunni: any male from the sunna , Muslim community, can be a caliph. About 90% of Muslims are Sunni.
    • The empire moves on
      • After Ali’s murder the Umayyad empire takes over
      • It starts in Damascus in Syria, but extends all over the Middle East to Spain.
    • How could they conquer so much?
      • Weak empires: Byzantine empire and Persian empire
      • Fighting with camels and horses
      • They allowed religious freedom to the “ People of the Book ”
    • When empires get too big what happens?
      • Things fall apart, the entire is too hard to control
    • Our Trip to Saudi Arabia
    • Religion
      • Strict version of Sunni Islam
      • Contains both Mecca and Medina
      • NO freedom of religion
    • Muslim women
      • Granted “equality” in the Qu’ran, but given smaller shares of inheritance
      • Told to dress moderately in the Qu’ran
      • In Saudi Arabia All women are required to wear a full black cloak, called an abaya , and a headscarf or headcovering. They can be harassed by the religious police if they do not. Many women also wear a niqāb or face veil.
    • Akon
    • Malcolm X
    • Mos Def
    • Muhammad Ali