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Psy162 slides   27 july 11
Psy162 slides   27 july 11
Psy162 slides   27 july 11
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Psy162 slides 27 july 11

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Psy 162 - Keltner …

Psy 162 - Keltner

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  • 1. Human Happiness Psychology 162 Dacher Keltner University of California, Berkeley www.greatergood.berkeley.edu
  • 2. Syllabus and Requirements <ul><li>Course involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection, narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three empirical books </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative, essay, short ID </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. What is happiness?
  • 4. A Myriad of Things <ul><li>Jen Hiking in the Sierras </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation Understanding self </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue Standing out from others </li></ul><ul><li>Eudamonia Fulfilling duties </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Laughter </li></ul><ul><li>Being in love </li></ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Good grades </li></ul><ul><li>Delicious burrito </li></ul><ul><li>Reunion with family </li></ul><ul><li>Giving </li></ul>
  • 5. Why Study Happiness? (Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005) <ul><li>Experimental, Cross-sectional, Longitudinal data </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Happy Marriages: 5 to 1 ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Happy Children </li></ul><ul><li>Happy Neighborhoods: Happy individuals more likely to engage in community service </li></ul><ul><li>It’ll be good for our culture </li></ul>
  • 6. Happiness and Health <ul><li>Happy nuns at 22 2.5 times less likely to die between 80 and 90 </li></ul><ul><li>Happy about aging adds 7.5 years to life </li></ul><ul><li>Happy at 70 adds 20 months to life </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer health symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer strokes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer fatal accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced allergic reaction </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Happiness at work <ul><li>Most cheerful college students make $25,000/year compared to least cheerful </li></ul><ul><li>Happy workers more productive, better job performance </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness leads to boost in creative thought, problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness makes for more integrative negotiators </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally intelligent managers have more satisfied teams </li></ul>
  • 8. Our culture needs it
  • 9. A right to the pursuit of happiness <ul><li>For economic systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the greatest good” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For political systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the pursuit of happiness” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For ethical systems </li></ul>
  • 10. Virtue Ethics in Classical Thought <ul><li>Aristotle and moderation ( Nichomachean ethics ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anybody can become angry - that is easy, but to be angry with the right person and to the right degree and at the right time and for the right purpose, and in the right way - that is not within everybody's power and is not easy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring your desires down to your present means. Increase them only when your increased means permit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eudamonia: Flourishing expression of core passions, strengths </li></ul><ul><li>The feeling of virtue at the end of life </li></ul>
  • 11. Hedonism: Epicurean philosophy; de Sade <ul><li>Happiness is the sum of our sensory pleasures </li></ul>
  • 12. Utilitarianism: J.S.Mill, Bentham <ul><li>Happiness is found in actions that promote happiness for the greatest number of people </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is an individual right: </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson and The Declaration of Independence on inalienable rights: “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” </li></ul>
  • 13. Happiness in the afterlife <ul><li>Judeo-Christian Thought </li></ul><ul><li>To love is to suffer. To avoid suffering, one must not love. But then, one suffers from not loving. Therefore, to love is to suffer; not to love is to suffer; to suffer is to suffer. To be happy is to love. To be happy, then, is to suffer, but suffering makes one unhappy. Therefore, to be happy, one must love or love to suffer or suffer from too much happiness. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness = impossible to attain </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is found in the release from the body, passion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomkins: positive emotion arises in cessation of negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solomon: Opponent process theory: pleasure the antithesis of pain </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Buddhism <ul><li>Nirvana and the eightfold path </li></ul><ul><li>1. Life as we live it is suffering, frustration </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cause of suffering, clinging, grasping, ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>3. Release: nirvana, disengage from grasping </li></ul><ul><li>4. 8 fold practice/path: action, thought </li></ul><ul><li>Tibetan </li></ul><ul><li>If you want others to be happy, practice compassion, if you want to be happy practice compassion. His Holiness the Dalai Lama </li></ul>
  • 15. Confucianism and Jen (Confucius, Analects, 551 BC – 479 BC ) <ul><li>A person of jen , Confucius observes, “wishing to establish his own character, also establishes the character of others.” </li></ul><ul><li>A person of jen “brings the good things of others to completion and does not bring the bad things of others to completion.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happiness found in respect and reverence, social harmony (Kitayama) </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Taoism and the mysterious way (Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching ) <ul><li>When man is born, he is tender and weak </li></ul><ul><li>At death he is stiff and hard </li></ul><ul><li>All things, the grass as well as trees, are tender and subtle while alive </li></ul><ul><li>When dead, they are withered and dried </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the stiff and the hard are companions of death </li></ul><ul><li>The tender and weak are the companions of life </li></ul><ul><li>If the tree is stiff, it will break </li></ul><ul><li>The strong and the great are inferior, while the tender and the weak are superior </li></ul><ul><li>-happiness not grasped with rational mind and categories </li></ul><ul><li>-return to nature, not intentional striving </li></ul><ul><li>-happiness is contradictory, paradoxical (Opposite of a great truth is a great truth) </li></ul><ul><li>- happiness in natural unfolding of being (Wu-Wei: Not acting) </li></ul>
  • 17. Big Insights <ul><li>Happiness is the central question in many philosophical discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is many things </li></ul><ul><li>Insight into your </li></ul><ul><ul><li>own profile </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Would you choose the happiness device? (Robert Nozick, 1974)
  • 19. Happiness is a set of practices <ul><li>Giving </li></ul><ul><li>Social connection </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation/contemplation </li></ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiveness </li></ul>
  • 20. Predecessors to a Science of Happiness <ul><li>Darwin: Happy nonhumans? </li></ul><ul><li>Freud: pleasure principle, catharsis </li></ul><ul><li>Marx: Alienation </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic movements: self-actualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow, Rogers </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. New Science of Happiness (Positive Psychology: Seligman, Peterson) <ul><li>Uncharted territory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger over gratitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear over compassion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce over long-term marriages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease over positive health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well-funded Psychological Science: -lifting people from -5 to +1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What lifts people from +7 to +8 </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Clarifying the Conceptual Domain (Kahneman, 1999) <ul><li>Well-being: “Overall my life is going well” </li></ul><ul><li>Traits: “I am an enthusiastic person” </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions: “I feel reverence and gratitude” </li></ul><ul><li>Sensations: “This February sun feels good on my skin” </li></ul>
  • 23. Canonical Research Traditions <ul><li>Subjective Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Happy people, traits </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting happiness </li></ul>
  • 24. Overall Well-being (Diener, Myers) <ul><li>Self-report: “Overall how satisfied are you with your life” (Diener) </li></ul>
  • 25. Measurement: Domains and the nuances of happiness (Carol Ryff) <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental mastery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal growth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive relations with others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose in life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 26. Other measures <ul><li>Face and voice </li></ul>
  • 27. The Jen ratio <ul><li>The Good brought out in others/The bad brought out in others </li></ul>
  • 28. Money?
  • 29. Activities done for more money <ul><li>Long commutes </li></ul><ul><li>Leave community for higher paying job </li></ul><ul><li>Long distance relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Long hours </li></ul>
  • 30. Money and Happiness (Myers, Diener) <ul><li>Wealth of country correlates with happiness r = .67 </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth correlates with happiness in poor countries </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth in US correlates .12 with happiness </li></ul><ul><li>37% of Forbes wealthiest less happy than average American </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1957 and 1995 wealth of Americans doubled, happiness unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Lottery winners not more happy than accident victims (Brickman) </li></ul>
  • 31. Age: Stormy youth? Mid Life crisis? (Myers & Diener, 1995)
  • 32. <ul><li>1. Puerto Rico 2. Mexico 3. Denmark 4. Colombia 5. Ireland 6. Iceland 7. N. Ireland 8. Switzerland 9. Netherlands 10. Canada 11. Austria 12. El Salvador 13. Venezuela 14. Luxembourg 15. U.S. 16. Australia 17. New Zealand 18. Sweden 19. Nigeria 20. Norway 21. Belgium 22. Finland 23. Singapore 24. W. Germany 25. France 26. Argentina 27. Vietnam 28. Chile 29. Indonesia 30. Philippines 31. Taiwan 32. Brazil 33. Spain 34. Israel </li></ul>35. Italy 36. Portugal 37. E. Germany 38. Slovenia 39. Japan 40. Czech Rep 41. S. Africa 42. Croatia 43. Greece 44. Peru 45. China 46. Morocco 47. S. Korea 48. Iran 49. Poland 50. Turkey 51. Bosnia 52. Uganda 53. Algeria 54. Bangladesh 55. Egypt 56. Kyrgyzstan 57. Hungary 58. Slovakia 59. Jordan 60. Estonia 61. Serbia 62. Tanzania 63. Azerbaijan 64. Montenegro 65. India 66. Lithuania 67. Macedonia 68. Pakistan 69. Latvia 70. Albania 71. Bulgaria 72. Belarus 73. Georgia 74. Romania 75. Moldova 76. Russia 77. Armenia 78. Ukraine 79. Zimbabwe
  • 33. Countries and Happiness <ul><li>Democracy r = .85 </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality kills (Kawachi, Harvard University) </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Happiness East, West <ul><li>East West </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictory Positive emotion Kitayama </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Social engagement Disengagement Mesquita </li></ul><ul><li>Calmness Excitement Tsai </li></ul><ul><li>Roles Emotions Suh </li></ul>
  • 35. The Big 2: Relationships, Work <ul><li>Relationship literatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendships extremely powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loneliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marriage effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul></ul>
  • 36. Gender, marriage and happiness (Myers, Diener, 1995)
  • 37. Happy people?
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. <ul><li>Table 11.5 . Positive emotionality, as assessed in the magnitude of the smile shown in a photograph at age 20, predicts adult personality, relationship satisfaction, and personal well—being over the next 30 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Measure Positive Emotionality </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Emotionality </li></ul><ul><li>Age 21 -.37** </li></ul><ul><li>Age 27 -.21* </li></ul><ul><li>Age 43 -.21* </li></ul><ul><li>Age 52 -.27** </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Age 21 .33* </li></ul><ul><li>Age 43 .18+ </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Age 27 .19+ </li></ul><ul><li>Age 43 .20* </li></ul><ul><li>Age 52 .29** </li></ul><ul><li>Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Age 21 .20* </li></ul><ul><li>Age 27 .25* </li></ul><ul><li>Age 43 .18+ </li></ul><ul><li>Age 52 .28** </li></ul><ul><li>Marital Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Age 52 .20* </li></ul><ul><li>Source : Harker & Keltner, 2001. Note: ** = p < .01, * = p < .05, + = p < .10. </li></ul>
  • 41. Traits and Happiness <ul><li>Temporal stability: .6 correlation between estimates separated by 6 months to 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Heritability of happiness </li></ul><ul><li>50% of happiness is temperament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40% is cultivated </li></ul></ul>
  • 42. Characteristics of Happy People <ul><li>Optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociable, outgoing, energetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heritable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Less Neuroticism </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual faith </li></ul>
  • 43. Negative Emotion Bias in field <ul><li>Negative more prominent in taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Negative assumed to be more evolved, more rooted in physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Negative assumed to have stronger impact upon adjustment </li></ul>
  • 44. Positive Emotions Broaden and Build (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) <ul><li>Negative emotions narrow thought action </li></ul><ul><li>Positive emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broaden thought repertoires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build relationships </li></ul></ul>
  • 45. Positive emotions <ul><li>More creative word associations </li></ul><ul><li>More integrative negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>More overlap with outgroup members </li></ul><ul><li>Greater similarity to romantic partner </li></ul><ul><li>Better problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Greater donation to strangers </li></ul>
  • 46. POSITIVE EMOTION: A language for the 3 to 1 (own life) and 5 to 1 ratios (Marriage) <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm Approach Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Contentment Satiation </li></ul><ul><li>Social Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Love Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Desire Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion Nurturance </li></ul><ul><li>Pride Elevated Status </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude Reciprocity/Friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Awe Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Distress Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Interest Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Amusement Transformation/Insight </li></ul>
  • 47. Happiness is unknowable (Dan Gilbert) <ul><li>Affective Forecasting and mispredicting happiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenure decisions don’t alter happiness as predicted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romantic breakups don’t either </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore psychological immune system </li></ul></ul>
  • 48. Ignore Psychological Immune System <ul><li>Amazing reslience of humans in face of stress, trauma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diener: events 3 months or greater in past minor effect on well-being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonanno: for many, traumas have minor effects on well-being, adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune neglect </li></ul>
  • 49. Elements of an evolutionary analysis <ul><li>Gene replication </li></ul><ul><li>Selection pressures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrasexual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intersexual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness </li></ul>
  • 50. Examples of Adaptations: Efficient solutions to survival, reproduction related problems Trait Problem Startle response Physical threat Sweet preference Identify nutrition Jealousy Mate guarding Pregnancy sickness Fetus vulnerability Baby’s similarity to dad Paternal uncertainty
  • 51. Origins of Happiness: Are we designed to be happy? <ul><li>Evolution of our Ultrasociality </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>Archeology </li></ul><ul><li>Primate predecessors </li></ul>
  • 52.  
  • 53. Dimensions to our Ultrasociality <ul><li>Care-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict and Reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Fragile Monogamy </li></ul>
  • 54. Take care or die
  • 55.  
  • 56. The Amygdala as Preconscious Evaluator <ul><ul><li>Anatomical description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input from sensory systems prior to hippocampus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence from animals with amygdala lesions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence from fMRI research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to threat, affective salience of stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shut down during love </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 57. Nucleus Accumbens <ul><li>Rich with dopamine receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine: Wanting </li></ul><ul><li>Opiates: Liking </li></ul><ul><li>Activated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pretty faces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food, musice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasurable scenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>winning money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heroin, amphetamines, cocaine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dopamine, Opiate interplay (DePue) </li></ul></ul>
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61. The Frontal Lobes and Executive Control <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Patient work: Orbitofrontal Patients </li></ul><ul><li>fMRI Work </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion Regulation, appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy: mPFC </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary rewards: social status, touch </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions in Decision Making </li></ul>
  • 62. Happiness and Hemispheric Asymmetry <ul><li>The Left Frontal Cortex and Positive Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion Studies: </li></ul><ul><li>approach related positive emotion </li></ul><ul><li>trait happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Studies of Buddhist Monks </li></ul><ul><li>Studies of Meditation </li></ul>
  • 63.  
  • 64.  
  • 65. Vagal Nerve as Love, Happiness Organ (Porges, 1998) <ul><li>Increased positive emotion </li></ul><ul><li>More resilient response to bereavement </li></ul><ul><li>More sympathetic prosocial children </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted more in interactions with strangers </li></ul>
  • 66. <ul><li>Set-point, plasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness machine (Nozick) </li></ul>
  • 67. Some Definitions <ul><li>Compassion: Concern to enhance the welfare of another who suffers or is in need </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy: mirroring or understanding of other’s emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Mimicry: Imitation of others’ emotion, behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Love of Humanity: A belief in the goodness, connectedness of others </li></ul><ul><li>Pity: Feeling of concern for someone felt to be inferior to self </li></ul>
  • 68. Compassion as A Master Emotion? <ul><li>Karen Armstrong: The Great Transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unites communities, religions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Martha Nussbaum: A Moral Emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compassion as pathway to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judgments about punishment, resource distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compassion as trigger of gratitude, respect, modesty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Kindness a Universal Virtue </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation, contemplation: From Experience to Sentiment to Way of Life </li></ul>
  • 69. Compassion deficits? <ul><li>US only culture to practice solitary confinement (Atul Gawande, The New Yorker ) </li></ul><ul><li>US harshest prison sentences (2 million in prison) </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of uninsured in US: 15-20% </li></ul><ul><li>150,000,000 million missing women worldwide: Kristof </li></ul>
  • 70. The War on Compassion <ul><li>FREUDIAN MIND: The very emphasis of the commandment: Thou shalt not kill, makes it certain that we are descended from an endlessly long chain of generations of murderers, whose love of murder was in their blood as it is perhaps also in ours . Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERTARIANISM: If any civilization is to survive, it is the morality of altruism that men have to reject. Ayn Rand </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL THEORY: Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle, hypocritical, and greedy of gain . </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavelli </li></ul><ul><li>EVOLUTIONARY SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST: The natural world is “grossly immoral”. Natural selection “can honestly be described as a process for maximizing short sighted selfishness ” George Williams </li></ul><ul><li>MORAL THEORY: Sympathy as a good natured emotion is always blind and weak . Immanuel Kant </li></ul>
  • 71. Compassion as Opponent (In Western Thought) <ul><li>Compassion belittles recipients </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion entails a loss of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion is inherently subjective, unreliable as an ethical principle </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion as enemy to achievement </li></ul>
  • 72. Darwin: Caregiving species and Survival of the Kindest sympathy, he argued, “ will have been increased through natural selection; for those communities, which included the greatest number of the most sympathetic members, would flourish best, and rear the greatest number of offspring ” (Darwin, 1871/2004, p.130).
  • 73. Emergence of Pro-social Emotion as evolutionarily stable strategy (Axelrod, 1984; Sober & Wilson, 1998) <ul><li>As evolutionarily stable strategy: trait/adaptation that fares will vis-à-vis other strategies (Axelrod, 1984; Sober & Wilson, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Contagious Compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Shift Costs and Benefits of Giving </li></ul><ul><li>It Pays to Be Good </li></ul>
  • 74. It’s not in the face
  • 75. Compassion in the voice? Simon-Thomas et al., in press, Emotion
  • 76.  
  • 77. Touch and the spread of goodness
  • 78. Contagious Compassion <ul><li>Neonate distress reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional, Physiological Convergence in Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude spreads through networks </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Emotion spreads through communities (Fowler, Cristakis) </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Joys (Ehrenreich) </li></ul>
  • 79. Reversing Cost-Benefit Analyses: Compassion promotes Common Humanity with those in need <ul><li>Increase the Gains of Giving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation activates reward regions of the brain (Rilling et al) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving produces more enduring pleasure than receiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving induces Nucleus Accumbens activation (Harbaugh) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase sense of common humanity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded circle: Peter Singer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compassion correlates with policy attitudes that enhance young, sick, elderly </li></ul></ul>
  • 80. Singer: Evolving Circle of Care <ul><li>Bequeath(ed) humans with a sense of empathy – an ability to treat other people’s interests as comparable to one’s own. Unfortunately, by default we apply it only to a very serious narrow circle of friends and family. People outside that circle were treated as subhuman and can be exploited with impunity. But over history the circle has expanded… from village to the clan to the tribe to the nation to other races to other sexes… and to other species. </li></ul>
  • 81.  
  • 82.  
  • 83.  
  • 84.  
  • 85.  
  • 86.  
  • 87.  
  • 88.  
  • 89. Oveis et al., 2009 <ul><li>How similar are you to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers, terrorists, the elderly, conservatives, liberals, doctors, the homeless, and… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>god forbid, Stanford Undergraduates </li></ul></ul>
  • 90. Compassion promotes sense of similarity to the weak (Oveis et al., 2009)
  • 91. Epoch change in RSA Self-reported compassion .33* Self reported pride -.30* Self-other similarity .29*
  • 92. Compassion as an Adaptation Shaped by Natural Selection <ul><li>Health of offspring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Social Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kind kids stronger social networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagreeable individuals targets of gossip (Keltner et al., 2008) </li></ul></ul>
  • 93. Vagal Superstars in a Trust Tournament <ul><li>50 participants played in internet trust game </li></ul><ul><li>Give between 1 and 20 raffle tickets to 12 different individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed individuals for 20 seconds on video </li></ul><ul><li>Gift tripled in value, value to be returned later </li></ul>
  • 94. Vagal Superstars (Oveis et al., 2009) Time 5: 6 months later Resting Vagal Tone: Time 1 Extraversion .40** Agreeableness .32* PANAS Positive Affect .40** PANAS Negative Affect .05 Optimism .30* Pessimism -.21* Health -.21* Spiritual Transformation .26*
  • 95. It Pays to Be Good Vagal Tone Trust Resources Received T = 4.69, p < .01 T = 17.01, p < .001 T = 4.19, p < .01 (T = 1,59, ns)
  • 96. Altruism <ul><li>Compassion is a motive of altruism; distress/anxiety predicts more egoistic action </li></ul><ul><li>Predicts altruism in children: Eisenberg et al., 1989 </li></ul>
  • 97. Caregiving <ul><li>Volunteerism = Uncompensated assistance given to those in need </li></ul><ul><li>31% of US in any year </li></ul><ul><li>Guided by compassion, empathic concern </li></ul><ul><li>Care-givers who care 14 hours/week 36% reduced chance of dying in 7 year period (Stephanie Brown) </li></ul>
  • 98. Emotional disorders as deficits in Self-compassion <ul><li>Self-compassion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See failures kindly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See self as part of larger humanity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold pains in mindful attentiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-compassion predicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced rumination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced neurotic perfectionism </li></ul></ul>
  • 99. Cultivation <ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kabat-Zinn, Fredrickson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family Narratives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oliners: rescuers’ narratives mention altruism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making compassion a sticky concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phil Shaver: priming with compassion words “Hug” leads to less prejudice, more altruistic behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giving </li></ul>
  • 100. Summing up: The evolution of the Compassionate Nervous System <ul><li>Compassion seen in nonhuman primates (de Waal, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion originates in caregiving (Bowlby) </li></ul><ul><li>Extended to general trait </li></ul><ul><li>Brain: Amygdala, Anterior cingulate, Pre-frontal cortex, Lateral Orbitofrontal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Vagus Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine DR4 predicts self-reported altruism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVPR1A (vasopressin) predicts generosity in ultimatum game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OXTR gene predicts empathy, altruism (Rodrigues) </li></ul></ul>
  • 101. Compassionate excesses?
  • 102. Moral Emotions (Haidt, Greene) <ul><li>Era of Enlightenment: George Berkeley thought aromas, ether of cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions = Moral Intuitions </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken example </li></ul><ul><li>Trolleyology: flip switch vs. push </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion Suffering, Harm </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust Purity </li></ul><ul><li>Anger Autonomy, rights </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation, gratitude Others’ goodness </li></ul>
  • 103. Reflection and Practice <ul><li>Write down something you’re grateful for </li></ul>
  • 104. Gratitude as a Moral Emotion <ul><li>Feeling of appreciation, wonder, reverence for what is given </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adam Smith: Social glue of economic culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R. Trivers (1971): Motive of reciprocal altruism amongst non-kin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodruff: Reverence for what is given </li></ul></ul>
  • 105. Gratitude as guide to good life (Emmons, McCullough, 2001) <ul><li>Barometer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks generosity in relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clark: thanked participants more likely to help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kurzban (2001): touched participants more likely to cooperate with stranger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ thank you” on bill: 11% higher tips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteerism (to home for elderly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline return: 43% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sent thank you notes: 80%l </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 106. Gratitude Diaries (count your blessings) <ul><li>McCullough, Emmons, 2003: Expressions of gratitude, better health, happiness 3 weeks later compared to: baseline control condition, a complaint condition </li></ul><ul><li>Lyubomirsky: 1 time a week write down what you’re grateful for, boosts in happiness; every day gratitude practice, no effects </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude diaries promote (Emmons, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better peer relations in kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boosts in test scores for kids </li></ul></ul>
  • 107. Gratitude/Appreciation/Reverence <ul><li>“ Appreciation for loved ones uniquely relates to social well-being in relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing appreciation at work </li></ul>
  • 108. Forgiveness as response to aggression, revenge, conflict <ul><li>Universality of conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sibling conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6/hour in American families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blue footed boobies, hyenas, sand sharks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romantic (20% infidelity rates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unhappy couples: 1.5 hours of conflict a day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partners with kids, 5-6 conflicts a day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent child (even in womb; Haig at Harvard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step relations: Wilson, Daly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse 100 times more likely at hands of step relation than biological parent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political, tribal </li></ul></ul>
  • 109. Evolution of reconciliation <ul><li>De Waal: Chimpanzee Politics (1984-present) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast to dispersal hypothesis (that conflict parties separate spatially): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict  reconciliation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One animal: bowing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exposure of vulnerable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parts of body, open-handed gestures, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: groom, embrace </li></ul></ul>
  • 110. Everyday reconciliation, forgiveness <ul><li>Embarrassment as appeasement device (Keltner & Buswell, 1997) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The display resembles mammalian appeasement displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expose vulnerable region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaze aversion cut off behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awkward smile fear grimace in nonhuman primates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive face touch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cough illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embarrassment display prompts forgiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>punished less </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liked more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forgiven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with little embarrassment, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break rules: OFC patients, sociopaths </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 111. An Ethic of modesty <ul><li>Art of self-deprecation </li></ul><ul><li>Greeting gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Politeness, deference in manners </li></ul><ul><li>Modesty as virtue </li></ul>
  • 112. Forgiveness of transgressions <ul><li>Definition: Four components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepting transgression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decline in punitive tendency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decline in avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in compassion toward partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offenders have human suffering, want to be happy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hold grudge vs. release: decline in fight of flight physiology (Witvliet et al., 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Tsang, McCullough, & Fincham, 2006: couples who forgive happier 9 weeks later </li></ul><ul><li>Apologies beneficial (Tavuchis) </li></ul><ul><li>Children need to see parents reconcile (Cummings, NDU) </li></ul>
  • 113. Human reconciliation <ul><li>WWII: Japanese, Germans mortal enemies </li></ul><ul><li>South African truth and reconciliation commission </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda: Hutus, Tutsis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reconciliation commission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biehl reconciliation project </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative to legal punishment </li></ul>
  • 114. Restorative justice <ul><li>1500 programs in US, Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offenders accountable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undo effects of harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offenders reintegrate into community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respectful dialogue victim, offender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome data (McCullough, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims 4 times less revenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.6 times more likely to forgive offender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less angry, more pleased with judicial process </li></ul></ul>
  • 115. Narrative reflection <ul><li>Write about an experience of awe, when you felt you were in the presence of something greater than the self </li></ul>
  • 116. Beauty, Awe, and the Sacred <ul><li>A Family of Awe Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Awe </li></ul><ul><li>Reverence </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred </li></ul>
  • 117. A Brief History of Awe (Keltner & Haidt, 2003) <ul><li>Early conversion experiences, being in presence of God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>St Paul’s conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vismaya in Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Burke’s revolution (1757): secular awe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns light, dark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ox vs. cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not smells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power, obscurity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immanuel Kant (1764): An Essay on the Sublime and the Beautiful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic experience vs. awe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emerson (1860s): Transcendent self in Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Max Weber (1905): political awe </li></ul>
  • 118. A Family of Awe experiences (Keltner & Haidt, 2003) <ul><ul><li>Vast Accom Threat Beauty Virtue Supernatural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God X X X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader X X X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation X X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tornado X X X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathedral X X X ? ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music X X X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics X X </li></ul></ul>
  • 119. Emerson <ul><li>In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life-- no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, — my head bathed by the blithe air and uplifted into infinite space, — all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental; to be brothers, to be acquaintances, master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. (“Nature”(1836/1982), p.39). </li></ul>
  • 120. John Muir <ul><li>June 5 </li></ul><ul><li>A magnificent section of the Merced Valley at what is called Horseshoe Bend came full in sight --- a glorious wilderness that seemed to be calling with a thousand songful voices. Bold, down-sweeping slopes, feathered with pines and clumps of manzanita with sunny open spaces between then, make up most of the foreground, the middle and background present fold beyond fold of finely modeled hills and ridges rising into mountain-like masses in the distance…The whole landscape showed design, like man’s noblest sculptures. How wonderful the power of its beauty! Gazing awestricken, I might have left everything for it. Beauty beyond thought everywhere, beneath, above, made and being made forever. </li></ul><ul><li>The next day Muir’s meandering immersion in the boundless beauty of the Sierras yielded the following: </li></ul><ul><li>June 6 </li></ul><ul><li>We are now in the mountains and they are in us, kindling enthusiasm, making every nerve quiver, filling every pore and cell of us. Our flesh-and-bone tabernacle seems transparent as glass to the beauty about us, as if truly an inseparable part of it, thrilling with the air and trees, streams, and rocks, in the waves of the sun – a part of all nature, neither old nor young, sick nor well, but immortal… How glorious a conversion, so complete and wholesome it is, scarce a memory enough of the old bondage days left as a standpoint to view it from. </li></ul>
  • 121. Darwin in the forest <ul><li>It creates a feeling of wonder that so much beauty should be apparently created for so little purpose.” The forest was “a temple filled with varied productions of the God or Nature </li></ul>
  • 122. Wilson: Biophilia (love of nature) <ul><li>Preferences for resource rich environments: green, water, signs of food </li></ul>
  • 123. The benefits of Green <ul><li>Frances Kuo (2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In green regions of Chicago Housing project, 48% fewer property crimes, 56% fewer violent crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls with green views score higher on self-discipline, delay of gratification, impulse control, concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD symptoms drop after walking in park compared to quiet urban area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In regions of Chicago project with more trees and grass, neighbors felt greater community, knew each other, safer </li></ul></ul>
  • 124. Green and Health <ul><li>Ulrich, 1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green scenes de-activation heart rate, blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart surgery patients exposed to green scenes, need less strong pain medications </li></ul></ul>
  • 125. Beauty <ul><li>Golden ratios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A + B is to A as A is to B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prototypical faces </li></ul>
  • 126. A New Science of Religiosity and Spirituality ( Hill, Pargament, Cohen, Nisbett, Norenzayan ) <ul><li>William James: Varieties of Religious Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Some scattered empirical findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholicism, Judaism: more social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestantism: experiential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic (quest oriented) versus extrinsic (fitting into social, intellectual structure) </li></ul></ul>
  • 127. Spirituality (the sacred); (Cohen et al., 2009 ) <ul><li>Experience of the sacred </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcendent purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common substance/humanity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self located in broader pattern/force </li></ul></ul>
  • 128. Spirituality and health <ul><li>Myers: Spiritually oriented report higher levels of happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, McCullough, 2003: Spiritually oriented report less depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>145 studies, 98,000 participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R = -.096, greater during stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Putnam: greater spirituality greater volunteerism, altruism </li></ul><ul><li>McCullough et al. (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta analysis 42 studies: religious 29% more likely to be alive at any time point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McCullough et al., 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terman longitudinal study: 1523 high IQ people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three curves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always religious: Extraverts, neurotics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always non religious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Become more religious: Agreeable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious women live longer, due to social commitments, health behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 129. Evolutionary story of spirituality and awe <ul><li>David Sloan Wilson: Darwin’s Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Universal (Hunter gatherers to present day: Robert Wright, Evolution of God ) </li></ul><ul><li>Same form across cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecstatic ritual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain tragedy, death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat others as brother (Armstrong) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unites group against other groups </li></ul>
  • 130. A mammalian display <ul><li>Table 1: Darwin’s observations of emotions related to awe </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Admiration eyes opened, eyebrows raised, eyes bright, smile, </li></ul><ul><li>Astonishment eyes open, mouth open, eyebrows raised, hands placed over mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Devotion (reverence) face upwards, eyelids upturned, fainting, pupils upwards and inwards, humbling kneeling posture, hands upturned </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
  • 131. Awe and the Sacred <ul><li>Awe promotes expanded self </li></ul><ul><li>Awe and vagal response </li></ul><ul><li>Awe and goosebumps </li></ul>
  • 132. The Challenge to Spirituality/Religion <ul><li>Sam Harris: divides people, causes conflict, harmful to women </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Dawkins: faith in creationism against scientific reason </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Hitchens: Against progress, freedom, development </li></ul>
  • 133. <ul><li>Robert Wright ( Evolution of God, 2009 ) Spirituality evolving to be more cooperative, less divisive; problems attributed to religion are political problems (e.g., over land, resources) not religion </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Armstrong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All religions share core components: compassion, empathy, gratitude </li></ul></ul>
  • 134. An Emotion Perspective: Summing up <ul><li>3 to 1 well-being ratio </li></ul><ul><li>5 to 1 healthy romance ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity later in life </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion, agape, empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude, forgiveness, appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Awe, beauty, reverence, sacred </li></ul>
  • 135. Thought Patterns and Happiness: Intellectual Precursors <ul><li>Disciplining the Mind: Wisdom, judgment in Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive revolution in understanding disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helplessness, hopelessness and depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive tendencies and anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catastrophizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resilience in response to disease (Taylor, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience in response to trauma (Bonanno, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience in response to physical, emotional abuse as child (Cicchetti) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress: mind turns stress into challenges or threats </li></ul>
  • 136. Core Assumptions <ul><li>Thought patterns shape well-being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical literature: Emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can cultivate new patterns of thought </li></ul>
  • 137. From thoughts to well-being <ul><li>Stop and smell the roses Grateful </li></ul><ul><li>The sunny side of life Optimism </li></ul><ul><li>The little engine that could Adaptive coping </li></ul><ul><li>The world is my oyster Approach </li></ul><ul><li>I’m king of the world Illusions </li></ul>
  • 138. The Grateful Disposition (McCullough et al., 2002) <ul><li>I have so much in life to be thankful for </li></ul><ul><li>If I had to list everything I’m thankful for, it would be a very long list </li></ul><ul><li>When I look at the world, I don’t see much to be thankful for </li></ul><ul><li>I am grateful to a wide variety of people </li></ul><ul><li>As I get older I find myself better able to appreciate the people, events, and situations that have been part of my life history </li></ul><ul><li>Long amounts of time can go by before I feel grateful to someone or something </li></ul>
  • 139. Correlates of being grateful <ul><li>Grateful disposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life satisfaction .53*** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happiness .50*** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism .51** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety -.20* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression -.30** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer rate volunteerism .19* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Envy -.17** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possessiveness -.34** </li></ul></ul>
  • 140. Styles of Thinking: OPTIMISM <ul><li>Definition: Expectations about the future that it will be socially desirable, good, pleasurable </li></ul><ul><li>Measures: </li></ul><ul><li>“ In uncertain times, I usually expect the best” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If something can go wrong for me it will” </li></ul>
  • 141. Optimism and Happiness <ul><li>Optimistic people report higher levels of overall well-being and happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Optimistic people report higher levels of positive emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Optimistic people have higher resting vagal tone </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism measured in 1945 (in men) predicts better reports of health 35 years later </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism rated in coded acceptance speeches in 20th century presidential candidates predicted the victor 18 of 22 times </li></ul><ul><li>Writing about best self: Greater Happiness, health </li></ul>
  • 142. Adaptive Coping, control, agency <ul><li>Adaptive coping associated with positive responses to traumas such as bereavement </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement: </li></ul><ul><li>I concentrate my efforts on doing something about it” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I do what has to be done one step at a time” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I try to come up with a strategy about what to do” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I make a plan of action” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I try to get advice from someone about what to do” </li></ul>
  • 143. The world is my oyster: Approach vs. Inhibition (Carver, White, 1994) <ul><li>Inhibition (punishment sensitivity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I worry about making mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticism, scolding hurt me </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach (reward sensitivity, drive, fun) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Dopamine, Nucleus Accumbens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When I want something, I go after it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I crave excitement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I do things for no other reason than fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When I’m doing well at something, I love to keep at it </li></ul></ul>
  • 144. Approach and Inhibition BIS REWARD Optimism -.22* .08 Negative affect .42** .05 Positive Affect -.06 .28** Happiness .24**
  • 145. Truth or Bias in self insight? Positive Illusions and Well-being: Taylor & Brown, 1985 <ul><li>Common assumption: truthful assessment of self hallmark of psychological adjustment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Big Three: Optimism, control, self-enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanisms: Positive moods, motivation, positive relations </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome: Well-being </li></ul>
  • 146. Unrealistic optimism <ul><li>Happier people assume good events more likely to happen to them than average person, bad events less likely </li></ul>
  • 147. Unrealistic Optimism (Weinstein, 1980) COMPARATIVE JUDGMENT OF LIFE EVENT OWN VERSUS OTHERS’ CHANCES Like post graduation job 50.2 Own your own home 40.3 Live past 80 11.3 Have a mentally gifted child 6.2 Have drinking problem -58.3 Attempt suicide -55.9 Divorce after a few years of marriage -48.7 Heart attach before age 40 -38.4 Become sterile -31.2 Develop gum problems -12.2
  • 148. Illusion of Control <ul><li>Control random events </li></ul><ul><li>Langner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell back lottery ticket given: 1.96 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell back chose lottery ticket: 9.00 </li></ul></ul>
  • 149. Self enhancement <ul><li>Assume we have more of good traits, less of bad traits </li></ul><ul><li>People in hospital for car accidents estimate they’re better drivers </li></ul>
  • 150. Linkages to well-being <ul><li>Illusions enhance goal pursuit </li></ul><ul><li>Illusions enhance positive emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Illusions enhance relations </li></ul>
  • 151. Critiques <ul><li>Pathological bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narcissists, bipolars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overconfident undergrads often don’t study as much </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West more biased in self assessments, happiness more tied to such illusions </li></ul></ul>
  • 152. Empathy deficits: Autism Spectrum <ul><ul><li>Parallel Play and Tim Page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficits in pretense, teasing, voice modulation, irony, social relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentrism: Difficulty understanding other independent of self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind in Eyes (Baron-Cohen) </li></ul></ul>
  • 153. The Compassionate Brain <ul><li>Pain, other’s pain: Anterior Cingulate </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy: Prefrontal cortex, Temporal Parietal Junction </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal Love: Lateral Orbitofrontal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic Love: Reduced Amygdala, Ventral Striatum </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion: Amygdala, Prefrontal cortex </li></ul>
  • 154. Natyasastra (3rd- 5th centuries A.D.) Aesthetic emotion (Rasa emotion: Without Ego) <ul><li>Sthayi-bhava Rasa </li></ul><ul><li>sexual passion love </li></ul><ul><li>amusement amusement </li></ul><ul><li>sorrow compassion </li></ul><ul><li>anger anger </li></ul><ul><li>fear terror </li></ul><ul><li>perseverance, dynamic energy heroic </li></ul><ul><li>disgust horror </li></ul><ul><li>wonder awesome, wonder </li></ul><ul><li>serenity calm </li></ul>
  • 155. Toxic Thoughts <ul><li>Distrust </li></ul><ul><li>Culture of fear </li></ul><ul><li>Materialism </li></ul><ul><li>Self Interest is path to happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper-competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Others are out to get us </li></ul><ul><li>Keep up with Joneses </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize choice, pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul>
  • 156. Toxic Thoughts: Perfectionism <ul><li>Parents who praise for being perfect rather than effort, hard work (Dweck) </li></ul><ul><li>Priming the “ideal self” leads to dejection </li></ul>
  • 157. Maximizing vs. Satisficing (Barry Schwartz) <ul><li>Whenever I’m faced with a choice, I try to imagine what other possibilities are, even ones that aren’t present. </li></ul><ul><li>When I am in the car listening to music, I often check other stations to see if something better is playing, even if I’m satisfied with what I’m listening to. </li></ul><ul><li>I often find it difficult to shop for a gift for a friend </li></ul><ul><li>Renting videos is really difficult. I’m always struggling to pick the best one. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m a big fan of lists that attempt to rank things. </li></ul><ul><li>I find writing is very difficult. It’s so hard to get the words just right. </li></ul><ul><li>No matter what I do, I have the highest standards for myself. </li></ul>
  • 158. Maximizers… <ul><li>More regret after purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Less satisfaction from success </li></ul><ul><li>Less satisfied with life </li></ul><ul><li>Less optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>More depressed </li></ul>
  • 159. Keeping up with the Jonses <ul><li>Upward social comparisons lead to dissatisfaction, dejection </li></ul><ul><li>Very happy people rarely compare themselves to others (Lyubomirsky) </li></ul>
  • 160. Toxic Thoughts: Distrust <ul><li>Cynicism and the Decline of Trust (Paul Zak) </li></ul><ul><li>High trust cultures less crime, inequality </li></ul><ul><li>For every 15% rise in trust, a rise in $430 </li></ul>
  • 161. Culture of Fear (Glassner) <ul><li>Teen killers rather than teen health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teen violence down 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catholic priest pedophiles </li></ul><ul><li>Kidnapped children </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Road rage rather than teen drunk driving </li></ul>
  • 162. Materialism: Basic Needs 1970 1990 2 nd car 20 59 2 nd TV 3 45 More than 1 phone 2 78 Dishwasher 8 44
  • 163. Some facts <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richest Poorest (20%) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Private consumption 86% 1.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Meat, Fish 45% 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Total energy 58% 4% </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone lines 74% 1.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Paper 84% 1.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles 87% 1% </li></ul><ul><li>Source: World Bank Development Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Child sees 300 ads a day </li></ul><ul><li>Credit card debt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>972 Billion in America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average outstanding balance: 10,679 </li></ul></ul>
  • 164. <ul><li>Global Priority $ U.S. Billions </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetics in the United States 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Ice cream in Europe 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Perfumes in Europe and the United States 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Pet foods in Europe and the United States 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Business entertainment in Japan 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarettes in Europe 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholic drinks in Europe 105 </li></ul><ul><li>Narcotics drugs in the world 400 </li></ul><ul><li>Military spending in the world 780 </li></ul><ul><li>Global Priority$U.S. Billions </li></ul><ul><li>Basic education for all 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Water and sanitation for all 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive health for all women 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic health and nutrition 13 </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: The state of human development , United Nations Human Development Report 1998, Chapter 1, p.37) </li></ul>
  • 165. Toxic Thought: Materialism Happiness found in consumption <ul><li>No study finds associations between material gain and increased well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Materialistic values in college predict less happiness </li></ul><ul><li>The irony of materialistic actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commuting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disrupts pleasure </li></ul></ul>
  • 166. An Intellectual Legacy of Cynicism <ul><li>The very emphasis of the commandment: Thou shalt not kill, makes it certain that we are descended from an endlessly long chain of generations of murderers, whose love of murder was in their blood as it is perhaps also in ours . Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>If any civilization is to survive, it is the morality of altruism that men have to reject. Ayn Rand </li></ul><ul><li>Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle, hypocritical, and greedy of gain . </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavelli </li></ul><ul><li>The natural world is “grossly immoral”. Natural section “can honestly be described as a process for maiximizing short sighted selfishness ” George Williams </li></ul>
  • 167. Toxic Thoughts: Cynicism (Others are competitive, adversarial) <ul><li>People are selfish, competitive, aggressive: Homo Economicus </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecies of competition </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile Attribution Bias (Ken Dodge) </li></ul><ul><li>Blame in couples </li></ul>
  • 168. Rumination (Nolen-Hoeksema) <ul><li>Dwell on problems, overthink </li></ul><ul><li>Measured by: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I go to my room alone and think about my feelings” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I isolate myself and think about the reasons I’m feeling this way” </li></ul><ul><li>Related to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gender differences in depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ruminative style leads to depression, transforms negative moods into enduring dysphoric states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rumination leads to less optimism, reduced energy, less motivation, worsened concentration, depressive emotion and though </li></ul></ul>
  • 169. Myths of individualism and wisdom of the ages <ul><li>We adhere to individualist credo (we’re separate, find truth on own) </li></ul><ul><li>As people age, the thing the seek the most is loving friends, family; connection (Carstensen) </li></ul>
  • 170. Losing our ultrasociality? <ul><li>Divorce rate high (40% to 50%) </li></ul><ul><li>Marital satisfaction has declined in past 30 years (Myers) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in loneliness (Caccioppo) </li></ul><ul><li>Americans have lost on average 1 close friend in the past 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Average American child spends more time watching TV than with parents </li></ul>
  • 171. A Need to Belong: Happiness is found between <ul><li>“ Feral” children, solitary confinement </li></ul><ul><li>Psychopathology, violence related to loneliness </li></ul><ul><li>Social support and immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohen: more friends, fewer colds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiecolt-Glaser: stronger marriages, better immune systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intimate relationship and happiness (Happiness is Between) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myers, Diener </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One friend rule for children with difficulties </li></ul>
  • 172. Costs of Social Exclusion <ul><li>Social Exclusion = Physical pain </li></ul><ul><li>Being rejected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases feelings of pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces performance on IQ test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation of the anterior cingulate in ball tossing paradigm (Williams et al., 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many kids who bully, school shooters are socially excluded </li></ul></ul>
  • 173. The Invisible Hand of Family: Attachment Theory (Bowlby) <ul><li>Three Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>caregiving: for offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive: desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment: pairbonding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working Models: Ideas about caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure: loving, warm, trusting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxious: worried, intrusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to have experienced death of parent, divorce, abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidant: dismissive, cold </li></ul></ul>
  • 174. Secure style <ul><li>I find it easy to get comfortable with others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about others getting too close to me </li></ul>
  • 175. Avoidant/Dismissive <ul><li>I am somewhat uncomfortable being close. I find it difficult to trust completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on anyone. I am nervous when anyone gets close, and often, romantic partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. </li></ul>
  • 176. Anxious style <ul><li>I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away </li></ul>
  • 177. The Attachment Perspective <ul><li>The healthy lives of securely attached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report greater life satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to remain in stable relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher positive emotions on daily basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to forgive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to be optimistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to offer social support to romantic partner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The problems of anxiously attached partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More prone to depression, anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More prone to drug abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More prone to eating disorders </li></ul></ul>
  • 178. Romantic Pair Bond <ul><li>Human Universal: A basic relationship </li></ul><ul><li>90-95% of Americans marry </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage a universal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although changed in forms functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic exchange to love based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairbonding, serial monogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not faring well </li></ul>
  • 179.  
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  • 185. <ul><li>LOVE DESIRE HAPPY </li></ul><ul><li>Z.O. Par Z.O. Par Z.O. Par </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation cues </li></ul><ul><li>Self-report .26* .28* .06 -.11 .17 .04 Partner Estimate .25* .21* .17 .05 .10 .00 </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Self-report -.01 -.19 .30* .34** -.03 -23* </li></ul><ul><li>Partner Estimate -.01 -.17 .31* .34** -.04 -.07 </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________ </li></ul>
  • 186. <ul><li>Affiliation Cues Sexual Cues Contr. for Sexual Cues Contr. for Affiliation Cues </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin Reactivity .50** .11 </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin Recovery .15 .12 </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________________ </li></ul>
  • 187. A Need for Many kinds of Love <ul><li>Compassionate care-giving produces secure attachments in children </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion for partner’s weaknesses, needs predicts long-term satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Compassionate sacrifice (to enhance partner’s welfare) predicts stable marriages; anxious sacrifices (to avoid problems) predicts dissatisfaction </li></ul>
  • 188. Demographic perspective <ul><li>Happy romantic partnerships when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marry at a later age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul></ul>
  • 189. The Dynamic Interaction Style Perspective <ul><li>Naturalistic methods </li></ul><ul><li>The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse </li></ul><ul><li>-Contempt </li></ul><ul><li>-Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>-Stonewalling </li></ul><ul><li>-Defensiveness </li></ul>
  • 190. Beyond 15%: Toward the magical 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative <ul><li>Humor: playful nicknames, laughter and escapes from negative affect cascades, playful teasing </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude: Appreciation exercises boost happiness of couples </li></ul><ul><li>Loving Kindness: interventions boost happiness of couples (Neff) </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiveness: letting go of grudges calms stress-related physiology; forgiveness interventions boost well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure: Suppressing emotion elevates stress-related physiology of others </li></ul><ul><li>Idealization (Sandra Murray) </li></ul>
  • 191. Friendship <ul><li>Evolutionary theory: Reciprocal altruism (Trivers, 1971) </li></ul><ul><li>cooperation with non-kin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperate in childrearing, defense, resource gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alliance formation as a counter to alpha females, males (de Waal) </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual selection theory: peer networks of potential reproductive partners </li></ul><ul><li>Tend and befriend (Taylor, 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship and the dopamine, oxytocin interplay (dePue) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine accompanies approach (e.g., smiling, disclosure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin rewards closeness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taylor: Oxytocin counteracts stress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 192. Feeling social support <ul><li>Table 1: Measure of Social Support (From Zimet, Dalhem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988). </li></ul><ul><li>There is a special person who is around when I am in need. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a special person with whom I can share my joys and sorrows. </li></ul><ul><li>My family really tries to help me. </li></ul><ul><li>I get the emotional help and support I need from my family. </li></ul><ul><li>I have a special person who is a real source of comfort for me. </li></ul><ul><li>My friends really try to help me. </li></ul><ul><li>I can count on my friends when things go wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>I can talk about my problems with my family. </li></ul><ul><li>I have friends with whom I can share my joys and sorrows. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a special person in my life who cares about my feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>My family is willing to help me make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>I can talk about my problems with my friends. </li></ul>
  • 193. Benefits of strong social support <ul><li>Alameda County: Those who report weak social support 1.9 to 3.1 times more likely to have died nine years later (Berkman & Syme, 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong social support live longer (Adler, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong support report greater happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Strong support lower levels of cortisol, loneliness increases it (Kiecolt-Glase et al., 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Give stressful speech with supportive member in audience or with stranger (friend reduces lower blood pressure; Kamarck et al., 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Give stressful talk, with sense of social support show lower cortisol response (Taylor et al., 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Spiegel et al., 1989: women with breast cancer who are in supportive group therapy better life expectancy compared to non-intervention control (37 vs. 18 months) </li></ul>
  • 194. Within Families: Principle of Diversification (Sulloway, Born to Rebel ) <ul><li>Sibling conflict omnipresent, often violent </li></ul><ul><li>Birth order = power structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First borns: Extraverted, conscientious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latter Borns: Agreeable, Open to Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies of 28 scientific revolutions: Latter borns more likely to accept revolutionary scientific ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tesser: Highly successful parents less close to children who go into careers close to their own </li></ul>
  • 195. The Autonomic Nervous System: Fight or Flight or Tend and Befriend
  • 196. The Body, Stress, and Health <ul><li>The legend of Marie Antoinette </li></ul><ul><li>The Embodied Mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pencil in mouth experiment and happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furrowed eyebrows and injustice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting up makes people use more uplifting metaphors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furrow brows, tighten lips: cardiovascular arousal </li></ul></ul>
  • 197. The Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis (Sapolsky) <ul><li>Short term stress and </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic stress and: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress, anxiety, fear, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nervousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigilance to threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immune system compromise, ulcers, damage to DNA, damage to brain cells, shortened lives in response to disease </li></ul></ul>
  • 198. The Core Meaning of Stress <ul><li>Stress can have many forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life events: abuse, divorce, disease, economic hardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily hassles: commuting, dishes, parking tickets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive events: weddings, promotions, new job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When demands exceed capacities, skills, coping abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection to coping, agency, efficacy, control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control (learned helplessness) </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to social identity, connection (Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Threat mentality vs. challenge (Blascovich, Mendes) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention vs. promotion focus (Higgins) </li></ul>
  • 199. Chronic stress and cortisol Out of work Economic deprivation Taking care of ill relatives Family conflict (Adler, Sapolsky) <ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Increased rate of cancer spread </li></ul><ul><li>Cell death in hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Memory loss </li></ul><ul><li>Shortened telomeres, parts of DNA that age (aged by 10 years): Eppel </li></ul><ul><li>Compromised intellectual functioning </li></ul>
  • 200. Social Class and Health <ul><li>US Greater Economic inequality than ever before (Kevin Phillips) </li></ul><ul><li>Objective social class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family wealth, education, prestige of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjective social class </li></ul>
  • 201. SES, stress and health (Adler et al., 2001) <ul><li>Increased prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth weight </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Pain: bad back, stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory illness </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker demise in responding to different diseases </li></ul>
  • 202. The materialist/situationist account <ul><li>Lower SES: resource impoverished environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer parks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer health food stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased pollution, pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater noise and sleep disruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer health care centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater levels of violence, threat </li></ul></ul>
  • 203. Class and rank <ul><li>Lower subjective rank triggers cortisol in baboons (Sapolsky) which inhibits physical development, more likely to have disease </li></ul><ul><li>Lower rank in humans associated with increased threat, anxiety, vigilance, SANS activation (Keltner et al. 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>British civil servants: higher ranked administrators 1.6 times less likely to die in 10 month period (Marmot et al., 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Each move up the class ladder, less likely to die of cardiovascular disease, and less vulnerable to all manner of ailments, holding constant access to care </li></ul>
  • 204. Meditation, Mindfulness, and reducing stress (and increasing well-being) <ul><li>Chronic stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce, marital conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of spouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ill relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meditation  mindfulness </li></ul>
  • 205. Tibetan Buddhist Meditation (Alan Wallace: Genuine Happiness ) <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settle into relaxed posture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus attention in between what you’re looking at and eyes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breathe 21 times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attend to movements of lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imagine attention as curved surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move this attention up and down body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be mindful of sensations throughout body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Loving Kindness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring to mind a person who is dear to you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagine person’s sufferings, yearnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wish for person’s happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend to another person, broadening circle of care </li></ul></ul>
  • 206. Hatha Yoga (Hinduism) 18 million practitioners in US <ul><li>15 th century: Swatmarama </li></ul><ul><li>The ten traditional yamas are: </li></ul><ul><li>Ahimsa : Nonviolence. Abstinence from injury or harm to any living creature in thought, word, or deed. This is the &quot;main&quot; yama. The other nine are there in support of its accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Satya : Truthfulness in word and thought (in conformity with the facts). </li></ul><ul><li>Asteya : No stealing, no coveting, no entering into debt. </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmacharya : Divine conduct, continence, celibate when single, faithful when married. </li></ul><ul><li>Kshama: Patience, releasing time, functioning in the now. </li></ul><ul><li>Dhriti: Steadfastness, overcoming non-perseverance, fear, and indecision; seeing each task through to completion. </li></ul><ul><li>Daya : Compassion; conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Arjava: Honesty, straightforwardness, renouncing deception and wrongdoing. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitahara: Moderate appetite, neither eating too much nor too little; nor consuming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asanas (postures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purification procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pranayama (breathing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meditation </li></ul></ul>
  • 207. Zazen (zen) meditation <ul><li>Sitting </li></ul><ul><li>Mindful breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Walking meditations </li></ul><ul><li>Observing still mind, being present </li></ul><ul><li>Koans (100 or so sayings, 12 th , 13 th century) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If you meet the Buddha, kill him.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Two hands clap and there is a sound. What is the sound of one hand?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What is the Buddha? Three pounds of flax.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What is the Buddha? Dried Dung.” </li></ul></ul>
  • 208. Mindfulness based stress reduction program ( Jon Kabat-Zinn, University of Massachusetts. Coming to Our Senses ) <ul><li>Body scan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagine eating a raisin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel sensations, relaxation in different parts of body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sitting exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Hatha Yoga </li></ul>
  • 209. Evidence and applications <ul><li>Applied in schools, prisons, workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in pain for people with chronic disease </li></ul><ul><li>4 times quicker healing rate for people with Psoriasis </li></ul><ul><li>Reductions in anxiety, depression (Teasdale, Williams, MBSR cognitive therapy) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sense of hardiness, coherence </li></ul>
  • 210. Contemplation (Flinders, Oman: Eight Point Program of Passage Meditation) <ul><li>Passage contemplation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favorite passage alienation, cynicism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantra rumination, toxic thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put others first narcissism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus attention distraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train senses sensory overload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow down overhurried </li></ul></ul>
  • 211. Reflection <ul><li>Write down a favorite passage, saying, concept you return to </li></ul>
  • 212. A Person of Humanity, wishing to establish his own character, also establishes the character of others (Confucius) The great secret of morals is love, or a going out of our own nature, and an identification of ourselves with the beautiful which exists in thought, action or person, not our own. A man, to be greatly good, must imagine intensely and comprehensively; he must put himself in the place of another and of many others; the pains and pleasures of his species must become his own. The great instrument of moral good is the imagination (Shelley).
  • 213. <ul><li>At the most fundamental level our nature is compassionate, and that cooperation, not conflict, lies at the heart of the basic principles that govern our human existence . His Holiness, the Dalai Lama </li></ul><ul><li>the social instincts lead an animal to take pleasure in the society of his fellows, to feel a certain amount of sympathy with them, and to perform various services for them… the greater strength of the social or maternal instincts than that of any other instinct or motive; for they are performed too instantaneously for reflection, or for pleasure or even misery might be felt. In a timid man, on the other hand, the instinct of self-preservation might be so strong, Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man </li></ul>
  • 214. <ul><li>Dohhh Homer Simpson </li></ul><ul><li>That (love) is like Iggy Pop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnotizing chickens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clothing make the Mark Twain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man; naked men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have no standing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In society </li></ul></ul>
  • 215. Research on contemplation <ul><li>Oman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions in stress 19 weeks later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in efficacy </li></ul></ul>
  • 216. Meditation: Core principles <ul><li>Core Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing reduced cariovascular arousal, stimulation of vagus nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of sensations Frontal control of limbic system, amygdala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of mind Emergence of narrative, meta cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loving Kindness shift in asymmetry, challenge to cynicism, basis of gratitude, forgiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empirical Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kabat-Zinn, Davidson (2004): software engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training in MBSR led to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced immune response to flu virus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts in resting frontal lobe asymmetry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fredrickson, 2008: boosts in happiness over 2 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mindful people happier, more optimistic </li></ul></ul>
  • 217. Narrative <ul><li>Freud: dream analysis, in depth narrative, and catharsis (insight) </li></ul><ul><li>Literary Studies (Harold Bloom): Shakespeare invented awareness of self, narrated identity </li></ul><ul><li>Jerome Bruner, 1986: Meaning Making mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two modalities of thought: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific, rationale, linear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative, stories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Scripts (Tomkins, Schank) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is represented in story like structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going to restaurant, first date, wedding, adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible selves (Hazel Markus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have many stories about who we will become </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More possible selves, more resistant to stress </li></ul></ul>
  • 218. Self as Narrative (McAdams, 2008) <ul><li>Self = many things: propositions, images, beliefs, memories, feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Self as narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Tell to integrate conflicts, goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., between self-interest, compassion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice versus conventionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty and freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often involve redemption, connection to those who suffer </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot twists, turns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivid images, events </li></ul></ul>
  • 219. Reflection <ul><li>If your life is a novel, what is the book jacket version of your story? </li></ul>
  • 220. Sources of Narratives: Parents <ul><li>Parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bedtime stories, dinnertime conversations, tales from work… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narratives about our place in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capps and Agorophobia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studied dinnertime conversations of family of mom with agorophobia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agorophobia passed from mom to child through narratives of outside world, and lack of agency and threat there </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narratives about morality (Dunn, Baumrind) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive, authoritarian, laissez faire reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive parenting tells stories about harm, conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive parenting predicts better social adjustment, well-being, increased empathy, moral development (Dunn) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 221. Sources of Narratives: In rituals <ul><li>Scheff: social rituals embody narratives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weddings, funerals, proms, Thanksgiving, liturgies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eating dinner together (Carter, 2010) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children have fewer depressive symptoms, less drug abuse, better grades, more emotionally stable, less prone to obesity (Pollan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High points, low points; thorns and roses </li></ul></ul>
  • 222. Source of Narratives: Cultural artifacts <ul><li>Tsai (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US high excitement culture, East Asia veers toward valuing calm, contentedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US dangerous recreational practices, happiness defined in terms of excitement, more likely to be addicted to exciting drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US childrens books: Protagonists are highly excited (Dr. Seuss, Where the Wild Things Are, Huck Finn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US ads: more excited smiles </li></ul></ul>
  • 223. Narratives in Music <ul><li>Semantics and music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Susan Langer: Form and Feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music has structure of great narratives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juslin: Acoustic properties of music (amplitude, rise time, pitch, speed) same as acoustics of basic vocalizations for emotions like anger (justice), sadness (loss), joy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraverts prefer highly energetic, upbeat music (country, hip hop, electronica) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open to experience prefer reflective, complex music (alternative, jazz) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Markus & Snibbe, 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper SES prefer music about individual freedoms, identity (alternative rock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower SES prefer music that profiles struggles of life </li></ul></ul>
  • 224. Narratives in other art forms <ul><li>Fiction: Oatley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiction simulates our own experience in empathic leap of imagination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dance: Hejmadi, Rozin, Davidson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natyshastra: movements of dance communicate emotion in narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color and semantics </li></ul></ul>
  • 225. Pennebaker’s writing paradigm <ul><li>Initial interest in power of confession </li></ul><ul><li>Write about strongest emotions of trauma, or the facts of the event </li></ul><ul><li>Traumas studied: bereavement, divorce, holocaust survivors, 9-11 victims </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: increased well-being, enhanced immune function, reduced visits to health center, reductions in anxiety, depression </li></ul>
  • 226. Other narrative findings <ul><li>Markus: more possible selves, less likely experiences of depression </li></ul><ul><li>McAdams (2008): more vivid and engaging narratives predict increased well-being as people age </li></ul><ul><li>Laura King </li></ul>
  • 227. Functions of Narrative <ul><li>Insight, what does it do? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Reduced suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Gross, John </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression leads to </li></ul><ul><li>Greater SANS activity </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration, SANS activity in others </li></ul><ul><li>Memory deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Catharsis: insight </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing negative feelings: coherence </li></ul><ul><li>a. more negative words than positive words </li></ul><ul><li>b. evolved from fewer to more cognitive words </li></ul><ul><li>c. increased psychological coherence: fewer unique words </li></ul><ul><li>d. increased acceptance, organization </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reduced intentional object: reduces free floating anxiety, distress </li></ul><ul><li>4. Reduces uncertainty, increases control (Wilson & Gilbert, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Social sharing (Rime) </li></ul><ul><li>Social support </li></ul><ul><li>6. The pleasures of aesthetic distance (Aristotle: Catharsis) </li></ul>
  • 228. Reflection on play: Your play history, narrative (Brown, 2009) <ul><li>Think back to earliest experiences of play. What were they? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you as free as you’d like to play today? </li></ul>
  • 229. What is Play? <ul><li>Peek a boo, rough and tumble, games, sociodramatic play, word play, imitations, interspecies play </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria (Stuart Brown, 2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparently purposeless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherent attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom from time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diminished consciousness of self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvisational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to continue </li></ul></ul>
  • 230. Play: The safe arena thesis <ul><li>A. Boundaries: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rough and Tumble Play: learn boundaries between pleasure, pain, harm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marc Bekoff: coyotes in rough and tumble learn how not to bite, learn hierarchies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flirtation: learn boundary between friend, intimate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 231. Play Functions <ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playful imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play kissing of pre-adolescents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys playing cavemen, girls playing with dolls: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hunting, care-taking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 232. Play functions: <ul><li>Identity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sociodramatic play (3 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrie Thorne studied lunchtime play of middle school girls: gender play to take on, try out sexual identities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents play at adults </li></ul></ul>
  • 233. Play functions <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing with liquids, sand: understand substance, materials, conservation </li></ul></ul>
  • 234. Play Functions: Empathy <ul><li>Theory of mind in pretend play (Leslie) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse of language in pretend play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object substitution: banana = phone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution of non-literal properties: glasses have diamonds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginary objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse frees children from egocentrism, paves way for theory of mind, different perspectives, empathy </li></ul></ul>
  • 235. A language of laughter <ul><li>Preuschoft, Van Hooff: pant hoots in primates </li></ul><ul><li>Provine: Laughter punctuates speech </li></ul><ul><li>Bachorowski: hisses, snorts, guffaws, cackles, grunts </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 bursts per laugh </li></ul><ul><li>Voiced laughs involve vocal folds </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant, submissive laughs </li></ul>
  • 236. The acoustics, physiology of laughter <ul><li>Own space in acoustic structure (Bachorowski) </li></ul><ul><li>Predates language </li></ul><ul><li>CNS correlates in brain stem, pons (which regulations breathing) </li></ul>
  • 237. Laughter = humor? <ul><li>Provine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laughter gatherers in dorms, malls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 20% of laughs follow jokes, humor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most do not </li></ul></ul>
  • 238. Laughter = cooperation? (Bachorowski, Owren) <ul><li>Laughter has a unique idiosyncratic acoustic signature </li></ul><ul><li>It signals imminent rewards, sign of cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Friends engage in antiphonal laughter (Smoski & Bachorowski) </li></ul>
  • 239. Laughter = La petite vacation) Laughter signals suspension of serious Meaning Laughter and exhalation; shift to PANS Means of managing conflict
  • 240. Laughter and health (Martin & Lefcourt) <ul><li>Reduction of cardiovascular stress </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker return to cardiovascular baseline during stress (Fredrickson & Levenson,1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Laughter cascades benefit marriage (Gottman, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, Lefcourt: sense of humor benefits health </li></ul>
  • 241. Laughter and stressful trauma (Bonanno & Keltner, 1995) <ul><li>Bereavement </li></ul><ul><li>Studied 45 adults 6 months bereaved </li></ul><ul><li>Simple narrative: “tell me about your relationship with your deceased spouse” </li></ul><ul><li>Coded emotion with FACS </li></ul><ul><li>Griefwork hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of anger a sign of effective grieving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive emotion sign of denial, maladaptive grieving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our findings: more laughter, better functioning two years later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More anger: worse functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laughter: physiological arousal not distressing, more perspective </li></ul></ul>
  • 242. Humor and teasing (a linguistic analysis) <ul><li>Teasing </li></ul><ul><li>Playful provocation + offrecord markers </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Principle Criterion Violations </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Truth Exaggeration, fantastical description </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity Informativeness Redundancy, repetition, excessive brevity </li></ul><ul><li>Relation Relevance Digression </li></ul><ul><li>Manner Clarity Vagueness, obliqueness, metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
  • 243. The dozens (Abrahams, 1963) <ul><li>Don’t take about my mother ‘cause you’ll make me mad. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget how many your mother had. </li></ul><ul><li>She didn’t have one, she didn’t have two, </li></ul><ul><li>She had eighty motherfuckers look just like you. </li></ul><ul><li>I fucked your mother in a bowl of rice. </li></ul><ul><li>Two children jumped out shootin’ dice. </li></ul><ul><li>One shot seven and one shot eleven. </li></ul><ul><li>God damn, them children ain’t goin’ to heaven. </li></ul>
  • 244. Nicknames <ul><li>The Lousiville Lip Muhammad Ali </li></ul><ul><li>The Brown Bomber Joe Louis </li></ul><ul><li>No Mas Roberto Duran </li></ul><ul><li>The Ambling Alp Primo Carnera </li></ul><ul><li>Raging Bull Jake LaMotta </li></ul><ul><li>The Bald Eagle Y.A. Tittle </li></ul><ul><li>Big Aristotle Shaquille O’Neal </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Hole Kevin McHale </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Bear Jack Nicklaus </li></ul><ul><li>Grandma ma Larry Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Borg Bjorn Borg </li></ul><ul><li>Jelly Bean Joe Bryant </li></ul><ul><li>Little Miss Poker Face Chris Evert </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles Ken Rosewall </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Ed John Elway </li></ul><ul><li>Puff Nuts Jaromir Jagr </li></ul><ul><li>The Raging Potato Keith Wood, Irish Rugby </li></ul><ul><li>The Refrigerator William Perry </li></ul><ul><li>The Round Mound of Rebound Charles Barkley </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Fly Pau Gasol </li></ul><ul><li>Spud Anthony Webb </li></ul><ul><li>Bush 43, Dubya, The Shrub, Uncurious George George W. Bush </li></ul><ul><li>The Comeback Kid, The first black president, slick Willie Bill Clinton </li></ul><ul><li>Tricky Dick, Iron Butt, The Mad Monk Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>The Old Fox, The Farmer President George Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Bonny Johnny, Your Superfluous excellency, His rotundity John Adams </li></ul><ul><li>Honest Abe, The Illinois Ape, The Great Emancipator Abraham Lincoln </li></ul>
  • 245. Teasing and love: Much Ado About Nothing <ul><li>Benedick And, I pray thee now tell me, for which of my bad parts didst thou first fall in love with me? </li></ul><ul><li>Beatrice For them all together, which maintain’d so politic a state of evil that they will not admit any good part to intermingle with them. But for which of my good parts did you first suffer love for me? </li></ul><ul><li>Benedick Suffer love! A good epithet! I do suffer love indeed, for I love thee against my will. </li></ul><ul><li>Beatrice In spite of your heart, I think. Alas, poor heart, if you spite it for my sake, I will spite it for yours, for I will never love that which my friend hates. </li></ul><ul><li>Benedick Thou and I are too wise to woo peaceably. </li></ul>
  • 246. <ul><li>Teasing in flirtation </li></ul><ul><li>Happier couples have more nicknames about each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphors: animals, food objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happier couples resort to humor, teasing to negotiate conflicts </li></ul></ul>
  • 247. Teasing and hierarchies: Nicknames and status
  • 248. The fool (jokester, trickster, satirist) <ul><li>Human universal: from China to original peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive in earlier culture </li></ul><ul><li>Political power, advising </li></ul><ul><li>Mocked every public event </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied a rhetoric of absurdity </li></ul>
  • 249. The absurd (Nagel) <ul><li>Seeing the insignificance of things </li></ul>
  • 250. Work <ul><li>Potent predictor of happiness (Argyle, Myers) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of work common cause of depression </li></ul><ul><li>A caveat: Americans are working harder than ever before (167 hours more than previous generation), and harder than individuals from other industrialized nations </li></ul><ul><li>Wolford: a bit more leisure time boosts happiness </li></ul>
  • 251. Meaningful work <ul><li>Positive organization Network (Michigan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful work, deeper purpose, greater good are key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signature strengths (Peterson, Seligman) </li></ul><ul><li>Matching Strengths (Peterson) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal, paragons, early prodigies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom: creativity, learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courage: Bravery, authenticity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanity: Kindness, love </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Justice: fairness, leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperance: Modesty, prudence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transcendence: gratitude, spirituality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who find deeper purpose in work most satisfied </li></ul></ul>
  • 252. Flow and Optimal experience (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi) <ul><li>Balance between Skills, challenges in goal directed, rule bound system with clear feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Studies of artists, dancers, poets, people in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No worries, no rumination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time disoriented, expands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self consciousness disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little concern for rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation (Lepper, Deci) </li></ul></ul>
  • 253. Cultivation <ul><li>The story of the Buddha (Karen Armstrong) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several year quest after leaving bourgeois life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disillusioned with material pursuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering = attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight fold path to enlightenment (like Lyubomirsky’s skills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right mind, action, emotion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 254. Exercise, Yoga, Sports (Lyubomirsky, 2009) <ul><li>Endorphins </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Catharsis </li></ul><ul><li>Social Contact </li></ul>
  • 255. Functions of Touch <ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Soothe </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul>
  • 256. A Language of Touch (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1989) <ul><li>Evolution of hand </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of skin (Jablonski) </li></ul><ul><li>Most developed sensory modality at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment processes, soothing, friendship, flirtation, sexual </li></ul><ul><li>Kraus: Basketball study: chest bumps, head slaps, fist bumps, bum slaps predict better performance in NBA teams </li></ul>
  • 257. We’re a touch deprived culture
  • 258. Touch and stress <ul><li>Coan et al (2006): anticipated stress, married women touching hand of partner but not stranger show: the right anterior insula, superior frontal gyrus, and hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Frances & Meaney, 1999: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rat moms 10-20% of waking time in tactile contact with rat pups (licking, full body covers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well handled pups: show less corticosterone in blood stream when restrained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less interconnectivity in stress related regions of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a year later, enhanced immune function </li></ul></ul>
  • 259. Touch and health <ul><li>Touching story in nursing home: An instinct to embrace </li></ul><ul><li>Tiffany Field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In orphanages with touch, children lived longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch reduces symptoms of ADHD, depression in teen mothers, asthma and diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heel lance procedure: infants who were held cried 82% less, grimaced 65% less, lower heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch therapies in hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>47% weight gain in premature infants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions in depression of Alzheimers patients </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 260. Touch and attachment <ul><li>Rebecca Turner: 10 minutes of Swedish Massage leads to oxytocin release </li></ul><ul><li>Touch and vagus nerve response </li></ul><ul><li>Parents who have lots of skin to skin contact carried in baby bjorns have more securely attached children </li></ul>
  • 261. Smile <ul><li>Kouros </li></ul>
  • 262. The evolution of the smile <ul><li>Darwin’s mistake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smile first stage of laughter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preuschoft, van Hooff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silent bared teeth vs. relaxed open mouth displays </li></ul></ul>
  • 263. Smile, equality, and happiness <ul><li>Smile in egalitarian primates used as tool of friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Human evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duchenne smile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left frontal lobe activation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased happiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evokes happiness, trust in others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 264. Emotional attunement, intelligence (Daniel Goleman) <ul><ul><li>Intelligent encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent insight into own emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent management of emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence the best predictor of well-being, health, performance </li></ul><ul><li>Friends who mirror one another’s emotions are happier </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders who are emotionally intelligent fare better </li></ul>
  • 265. IMAGINE The great secret of morals is love, or a going out of our own nature, and an identification of ourselves with the beautiful which exists in thought, action or person, not our own. A man, to be greatly good, must imagine intensely and comprehensively; he must put himself in the place of another and of many others; the pains and pleasures of his species must become his own. The great instrument of moral good is the imagination (Shelley).
  • 266. Narrative
  • 267. The big insights <ul><li>Happiness is many things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure, emotion, traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East (contentedness), West (excitement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual variation (compassion, pride, sensory pleasure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Happiness is a set of skills </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is emotion balance </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness between </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is work </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is training the mind (optimism, appreciation, non materialism) </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is calming down from stress (exercise, meditation, sports) </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is a narrative we tell </li></ul>
  • 268. US Culture? <ul><li>American Paradox (Myers, 2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite some economic expansion, happiness hasn’t risen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared to many cultures, we’re not faring as well </li></ul></ul>
  • 269. Some Challenges <ul><li>Our busy culture </li></ul><ul><li>Videogames, new media (Bushman, Anderson) </li></ul>
  • 270. Breakdown in social fabric <ul><li>Bowling alone (Putnam) </li></ul>
  • 271. Rise in ideology of self-interest <ul><li>Precipitous rise in narcissism, culture of self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in valuing materialism </li></ul>
  • 272. Inequality <ul><li>Asymmetries in wealth </li></ul>
  • 273. A turning point in our culture: Reasons for Optimism <ul><li>Pinker: Rise of cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drops in materialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop in murder rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop in prevalence of torture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop in likelihood of dying during war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More humane treatment of those with psychological conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new social fabric </li></ul></ul>
  • 274. Thank you, and stay connected <ul><li>Greater Good Science Center </li></ul><ul><li>greatergood.berkeley.edu/dacherkeltner </li></ul><ul><li>Peacecenter.berkeley.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Christine Carter’s Half Full blog ( Raising Happiness ) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Berkeley podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion training tool </li></ul>
  • 275. Toxic thought: Happiness found in Unbridled pursuit of Self-Interest <ul><li>Ayn Rand: To act on behalf of another person is treason </li></ul><ul><li>Rilling 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation lights up Ventral Caudate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dunn et al. (2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average American: spends 1714 on self, 146 giving </li></ul></ul>
  • 276. The meaning of cultivation <ul><li>Skill cultivation (Lyubomirsky) </li></ul><ul><li>Train your mind </li></ul><ul><li>Train your body (breathing, posture, facial tension) </li></ul><ul><li>Train the eye (look at partner in new light) </li></ul><ul><li>Change your language </li></ul><ul><li>Change your frame, metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Modest acts: gratitude, appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Change your physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Change your culture </li></ul><ul><li>Change your nervous system </li></ul>
  • 277. It pays to cooperate <ul><li>Wall Street vs. Community: threefold increase in competition </li></ul><ul><li>Rand: Cooperators do better </li></ul><ul><li>Kelley, Stahelski, 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitors make others competitive, see world, erroneously, as full of competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperators </li></ul></ul>
  • 278. Human genetics, set points, and change and cultivation <ul><li>Pro-social and stress branches of nervous system, emotional life </li></ul><ul><li>Heritability co-efficients and happiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twin studies: Extraversion .5 identical twins, .2 fraternal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine, oxytocin polymorphisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine DR4 predicts self-reported altruism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVPR1A (vasopressin) predicts generosity in ultimatum game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The equation (Lyubomirsky) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% voluntary activity </li></ul></ul>
  • 279. Oxytocin and Trust <ul><li>Functions of Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding, milk letdown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faithful and frisky voles (Carter, Insel) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin and love </li></ul><ul><li>The Neuroeconomics of Trust </li></ul>
  • 280. Oxytocin and Trust

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