Employee behaviors that promote the welfare of the organization
Valuative statements concerning objects, people, or events
The beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person
The emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude
An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
An employee’s general attitude toward his or her job.
The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance important for self-worth.
An employee’s orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will seek a stable state with a minimum of dissonance.
Desire to reduce dissonance is determined by:
The importance of the elements creating the dissonance.
The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements.
The rewards that may be involved.
Fostering Positive Job Attitudes
Managers can reduce dissonance by:
Creating the perception that the source of the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable.
Increasing employee rewards for engaging in the behaviors related to the dissonance.
Satisfied workers are not necessarily more productive workers.
Assisting employees in successful performance of their jobs will increase their desired outcomes and lead to increased job satisfaction —focusing on productivity as a means rather than an ends.
Personality and Behavior
Is the combination of the psychological traits that characterize that person.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI ® )
A method of identifying personality types uses four dimensions of personality to identify 16 different personality types.
Big Five Model
Five-factor model of personality that includes extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Extroversion versus Introversion (EI)
An individual’s orientation toward the inner world of ideas (I) or the external world of the environment (E).
Sensing versus Intuitive (SN)
An individual’s reliance on information gathered from the external world (S) or from the world of ideas (N).
Thinking versus Feeling (TF)
One’s preference for evaluating information in an analytical manner (T) or on the basis of values and beliefs (F).
Judging versus Perceiving (JP).
Reflects an attitude toward the external world that is either task completion oriented (J) or information seeking (P).
The Big Five Model of Personality the degree to which someone is imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual. Openness to experience 5. the degree to which someone is calm, enthusiastic, and secure (positive) or tense, nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative). Emotional stability 4. the degree to which someone is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented. Conscientiousness 3. the degree to which someone is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. Agreeableness 2. the degree to which someone is sociable, talkative, and assertive. Extroversion 1.
What Is Emotional Intelligence (EI)?
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures.
Dimensions of EI
Self-awareness own feelings
Self-management of own emotions
Self-motivation in face of setbacks
Empathy for others’ feelings
Social skills to handle others’ emotions
Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors
Locus of Control
A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate.
A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends can justify means.
Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors (cont’d)
An individual’s degree of life dislike for him- or herself
A measure of an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors
Propensity for Risk Taking
The willingness to take chances—a preference to assume or avoid risk
Key Points of Holland’s Model
There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals.
There are different types of jobs.
People in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied and less likely to resign voluntarily than people in incongruent jobs.
Personality Characteristics of Entrepreneurs
High level of motivation
Internal locus of control
Need for autonomy
Abundance of self-confidence
High energy levels
Moderate risk taker
A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
Influences on Perception
Relationship of a target to its background
Closeness and/or similarity to other things
The context in object is seen
Other situational factors.
How Do Managers Judge Employees?
A theory based on the premise that we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior.
Internally caused behavior is believed to be under the control of the individual.
Externally caused behavior results from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation.
Whether an individual displays a behavior in many situations or whether it is particular to one situation.
If the individual responds in the same way as everyone else faced with a similar situation responds.
The individual engages in the same behaviors regularly and consistently over time.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner)
Argues that voluntary, or learned, behavior is a function of its consequences.
Reinforcement increases the likelihood that behavior will be repeated; behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated.
Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response.
Social Learning Theory
The theory that people can learn through observation and direct experience; by modeling the behavior of others.
Motor reproduction processes
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to a desired behavior
Ways To Shape Behavior:
Foundations Of Group Behavior
What is a Group?
Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives
Basic Concepts of Group Behavior
A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone in a given position in a social unit
Acceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance, dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the members of a group
Foundations Of Group Behavior (cont’d)
A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group
May be informally conferred by characteristics such as education, age, skill, or experience.
Anything can have status value if others in the group admire it.
Size is a benefit or a hindrance depending on the criteria considered.
Social loafing: the tendency of individuals in a group to decrease their efforts when responsibility and individual achievement cannot be measured.
The degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and share goals
Size, work environment, Length of time in existence, group-organization, and goal congruency affect group cohesiveness.