Man101 Chapter6

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  • Human resource management (HRM) is the management function that is concerned with getting, training, motivating, and keeping competent employees. While some large organizations have Human Resources Departments, not only small-business managers but also many managers who work for large companies must make human resource decisions: recruiting candidates, reviewing application forms, interviewing applicants, inducting new employees, appraising employee performance, and providing training.
  • Since the middle of the 1960s, the federal government has greatly expanded its influence over HRM by enacting a wealth of regulations and laws. As a result, employers must ensure that equal employment opportunities exist for job applicants and current employees. To balance the “shoulds and should-nots” of these laws often falls within the realm of affirmative action. Today, many organizations have affirmative action programs to ensure that decisions and practices enhance the employment, promotion, and retention of members of protected groups. As a result, managers are not completely free to choose whom they hire, promote, or fire.
  • Human Resource Planning follows three steps: (1) assessing current human resources, (2) assessing future human resource needs, (3) developing a program to meet future human resource needs. Depending on the organization’s objectives and strategies, demand for human resources is contingent upon demand for the organization’s products or services and on the levels of productivity. After estimating total revenue, management can estimate the number and kinds of human resources needed to obtain those revenues. After it has assessed current capabilities and future needs, management can estimate future human resources shortages and over-staffing. Then, it can develop a program to match these estimates with forecasts of future labor supply.
  • Management should begin by generating a human resource inventory to assess what talents and skills are currently available in the organization. The next step is a job analysis to define the jobs within the organization and on-the-job behaviors that will promote success.
  • Information gathered during job analysis allows management to compose the following: a written job description that states what a jobholder must do, plus how and why it is done. A job specification is developed that states the minimum knowledge, skills, and abilities that a worker must possess to perform the job successfully. These documents can assist managers to recruit and select appropriate new hires.
  • Recruitment is the process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable employees. Many companies are finding new employees on the World Wide Web. The source that is used should reflect the local labor market, the type or level of position, and the size of the organization.
  • When a selection device measures the same thing consistently, it exhibits reliability . To be effective predictors, selection devices must possess and acceptable level of consistency. If a selection device contains a proven relationship between the selection device and some relevant criterion it demonstrates validity . The burden is on management to verify that any selection device it uses to differentiate applicants is related to job performance.
  • Typical written tests include tests of intelligence, personality, aptitude, ability, interest, and integrity. Written tests were once widely used, however, they fell into disfavor. They were frequently characterized as being discriminatory and lacking job-related validation. Written tests have made a comeback: properly designed written tests reduce the likelihood of making poor hiring decisions and the cost of developing and validating written tests had fallen. Tests of intellectual ability, spatial and mechanical ability, perceptual accuracy, and motor ability are moderately valid predictors for semiskilled and unskilled operative jobs. Intelligence tests are reasonably good predictors for supervisory positions. Since it can be argued that intelligence and other tested characteristics can be somewhat removed from actual on-the-job performance, the use of performance simulations tests has increased. Based on job analysis data, performance-simulation tests meet the requirement of job relatedness better than do written tests. Work sampling and assessment centers are the two best known types. Because content is essentially identical to job content, performance simulation tests should minimize allegations of employment discrimination. Moreover, because of the nature of their content and the methods used to determine content, well-constructed performance-simulation tests are valid predictors. The interview can exert a disproportionate influence on the selection decision. Therefore, the person with the best interview skills often gets the job, even though he or she may not be the most qualified. But, interviews are valuable for assessing an applicant’s intelligence, level of motivation, and interpersonal skills A realistic job preview (RJP) can increase job satisfaction among employees and reduce turnover. The RJP should include both positive and negative information about the job and the company. Doing so can ensure that the applicants are well-matched to the jobs for which they are being considered and that their expectations about life on the job are realistic. As a result, those who are hired should be more committed to the organization and less likely to become problem employees.
  • The interview can exert a disproportionate influence on the selection decision. The following sums up research findings on interviews: Prior knowledge about the applicant will bias the interviewer. Interviewers hold stereotypes about what represents “good” applicants. Interviewers favor applicants who share their own attitudes. The order in which applicants are interviewed affects evaluations. Continued on next slide
  • The interview can exert a disproportionate influence on the selection decision. The following sums up research findings on interviews: Negative information is given unduly high weight. Interviewers determine an applicant’s suitability in the first five minutes of the interview. Interviewers forget much of an interview’s content within minutes after it has been ended. Interviews are most valid in determining an applicant’s intelligence, motivation, and interpersonal skills. Structured, well organized interviews are more effective than those that are loosely organized.
  • Besides having the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform on the job, new hires must be acclimated to the organization’s culture (orientation) and trained to do the job (training). The major objectives of employee orientation are to reduce the anxiety level that all new employees feel; to familiarize them with the job, the work unit, and the organization; and to facilitate the outsider-insider transition. Successful orientation maximizes new hire on-the-job success and minimizes turnover.
  • Employee training is a learning experience that involves changing skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behavior. Managers can be alerted to training needs by numerous signals: for instance, productivity related signals like decreases in output and quality or increases in accidents; and, future elements like jobs that have been redesigned or technological breakthroughs.
  • Multiperson comparisons are relative measuring devices. Group order ranking requires the rater to place employees into a particular classification, such as the top one-fifth. Individual ranking orders employees from best to worst.
  • Paired comparisons rank each employee with all other employees and rates each as either the weaker or superior member of the pair. With MBO , employees are evaluated by how well they accomplish a specific set of objectives that have been determined to be critical in the successful completion of their jobs. Because MBO emphasizes ends rather than means, this method allows managers the to choose the best path for achieving their goals.
  • If an employee is mismatched for the job or does not have adequate training, the worker can either be moved to another job or trained to perform the current job. If the employee has a discipline problem , the manager can rely on employee counseling and disciplinary action. A process intended to help an employee overcome performance-related problems, employee counseling attempts to discover and remedy the reasons for his or her poor performance. Employee counseling can benefit both the company and the employee. But, if the worker either cannot or will not accept help, then management must use discipline to enforce the rules and regulations of the organization.
  • How does management decide who will get paid $12.65 an hour and who will receive $325,000 per year? The answer lies in compensation administration : the process of determining a cost-effective pay structure that attracts and retains competent employees, provides incentives for hard work, and ensures that pay levels will be perceived as fair. The primary determination of pay is the kind of job an employee performs: that is, the higher the skills, knowledge, and abilities—and the greater the authority and responsibility—the higher the pay. Other factors which influence employee compensation are the nature of the business, the environment surrounding the job, geographic location, and employee performance levels and seniority. Irrespective of the foregoing factors, there is one other most critical factor: management’s compensation philosophy.
  • As nonfinancial rewards intended to enrich employee’s lives, today’s employee benefits programs seek to provide something that each employee can value. The scope of these benefits varies from social security and worker’s compensation to paid vacation time, retirement plans, and life, health, or disability insurance.
  • Managers must use nontraditional recruiting sources to improve work force diversity—for instance, contacting women’s job networks, over-fifty clubs, urban job banks, disabled people’s training centers, ethnic newspapers, and gay-rights organizations. Then, management must make sure that the selection process does not discriminate. Once workers are hired, management must demonstrate that the organization is sensitive to their needs. Recognizing that orientation for women and minorities can be complex, many companies conduct consciousness-raising workshops and diversity programs for both current and new workers; add diversity goals to employee evaluations and promotions; and offer special mentoring programs for women and minorities.
  • Almost all Fortune 500 companies in the United States have had sexual harassment complaints lodged against them by employees, and about one-third of them have been sued. According to estimates, sexual harassment costs the typical Fortune 500 company several millions a year in absenteeism, low productivity, and turnover. Sexual harassment can be defined as sexually suggestive remarks, unwanted touching and sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical contact of a sexual nature.
  • The courts have ruled that if a manager or agent for an organization commits sexual harassment, then the organization itself is liable. To avoid liability and do the right thing, managers must follow the organization’s established policy against sexual harassment.
  • Historically, the relationship between a labor union and management was based on conflict. But times have changed somewhat. Management has realized that successful efforts to increase productivity, improve quality, and lower costs require employee involvement and commitment. Similarly, labor unions have recognized that they can help their members more by cooperating with management rather than fighting it. Unfortunately, current U.S. labor laws, passed during an era of mistrust and antagonism between labor and management, may be a barrier to both parties becoming cooperative partners.
  • There is a growing concern for safety on the job because no organization is immune from workplace violence. Consider the following statistics. Twenty employees are murdered each week at work. Homicide is the number-two cause of work-related death in the United States. For women, it’s the number-one cause of work-related death. In the United States, more than one million employees are attacked each year, and more that six million are threatened with bodily harm. Because the circumstances of each incident are different, a specific plan of action for companies is difficult to detail. However, several suggestions can be made. First, the organization must develop a plan to deal with the issue. Furthermore, organizations must train managers to identify troubled employees before the problem results in violence. Organizations should also implement stronger security measures.
  • There is a growing concern for safety on the job because no organization is immune from workplace violence. Consider the following statistics. Twenty employees are murdered each week at work. Homicide is the number-two cause of work-related death in the United States. For women, it’s the number-one cause of work-related death. In the United States, more than one million employees are attacked each year, and more that six million are threatened with bodily harm. Because the circumstances of each incident are different, a specific plan of action for companies is difficult to detail. However, several suggestions can be made. First, the organization must develop a plan to deal with the issue. Furthermore, organizations must train managers to identify troubled employees before the problem results in violence. Organizations should also implement stronger security measures.
  • Downsizing is a critical human resource management issue. Many organizations have helped lay-off victims through job-help services, psychological counseling, support groups, severance pay, extended health insurance benefits, and detailed communication. However, little has been done to help those who are left behind. While lay-off victims get to start over with a clean slate, survivors do not. As a result, layoff-survivor sickness has become a workplace problem. The symptoms include insecurity, guilt, depression, stress, fear, loss of loyalty, and reduced effort. To maintain morale and productivity, management must assure individuals who are still on-the-job that they are valuable to the organization.
  • Man101 Chapter6

    1. 1. Staffing and Human Resource Management
    2. 2. Human Resources Management (HRM) <ul><li>The management function that is concerned with getting, training, motivating, and keeping competent employees. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing the supply of employees with the demand for employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching the talents and skills of employees with those required by the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a working environment that fosters high employee performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting the pay and benefits needs of employees. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. The Legal Environment Of HRM <ul><li>The impact of federal, state and local laws on HRM practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programs that ensure that decisions and practices enhance the employment, upgrading, and retention of members of protected groups. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The Legal Environment Of HRM (cont’d) <ul><li>Does HRM Face the Same Laws Globally? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR practices and employment laws of other countries differ significantly from HR practices and laws in the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work councils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nominated or elected employees who must be consulted when management makes decisions involving personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employees who sit on a company’s board of directors and represent the interests of employees </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Employment Planning <ul><li>Employment Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which management ensures it has the right number and kinds of people in the right places at the right time, who are capable of helping the organization achieve its goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps in the Planning Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing current human resources and future human resources needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a program to meet those needs. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Employee Assessment <ul><li>Human Resource Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lists the name, education, training, prior employer, languages spoken, and other information about each employee in the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an assessment of the kinds of skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to successfully perform each job in an organization. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Job Analysis Components <ul><li>Job Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a written statement of what a job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks, duties and responsibilities that the job entails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications that an incumbent must possess to perform a given job successfully. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required of the job holder </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Recruitment And Selection <ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Selection Terms <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the degree to which a selection device measures the same thing consistently (stability). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: an individual consistently achieves nearly identical scores on the same exam. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the proven relationship between a selection device and a relevant criterion (a measure of job success). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: high employment test scores and superior job performance for an employee. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Selection Devices <ul><li>Written Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include intelligence, aptitude, ability, and interest test batteries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance-Simulation Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are selection devices that are based on actual job behaviors; work sampling and assessment centers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are effective if conducted correctly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realistic Job Preview (RJP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides positive and negative information about the job and the company during the job interview. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Potential Biases in Interviews <ul><li>Prior knowledge about the applicant. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer’s tendency to hold a stereotype of what represents a good applicant. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer’s tendency to favor applicants who share his or her own attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>The order in which applicants are interviewed. </li></ul><ul><li>The order in which information is elicited during the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative information about the applicant which is given unduly high weight. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer’s decision concerning the applicant’s suitability within the few minutes of the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer’s forgetting much of the interview’s content within minutes after its conclusion. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Potential Biases in Interviews (cont’d) <ul><li>Interviews Are Most Useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For determining an applicant’s intelligence, level of motivation, and interpersonal skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If they are structured and well-organized as opposed to unstructured and unorganized interviews. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Making Interviews More Effective <ul><li>Behavioral (Situation) Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An interview in which candidates are observed not only for what they say, but how behave to determine how they might behave under stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Candidates are presented a complex situation and asked to “deal with” it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research indicates that behavioral interviews are nearly eight times more effective than other interview formats. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Introducing Employee to the Organization <ul><li>Employee Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the introduction of a new employee to the job and the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives of Orientation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce the initial anxiety all new employees feel as they begin a new job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To familiarize new employees with the job, the work unit, and the organization as a whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To facilitate the outsider–insider transition. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. What Is Employee Training? <ul><li>Employee Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in employees such that their ability to perform on the job improves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing what employees know, how they work; or their attitudes toward their jobs, co-workers, managers, and the organization </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Performance Management <ul><li>Performance Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of establishing performance standards and evaluating performance in order to arrive at objective human resource decisions and to provide documentation to support personnel actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjective Rating Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate an individual on each job performance factor on an incremental scale. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Direct Comparison Methods <ul><li>Group-Order Ranking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular classification such as “top fifth” or “second fifth.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual Ranking Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the evaluator merely to list the employees in order from highest to lowest. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Direct Comparison Methods (cont’d) <ul><li>Paired Comparison Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compares each employee with every other employee in the comparison group and rates the employee as either the superior or weaker member of the pair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns each employee a summary ranking based on the number of superior scores achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MBO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates employees by how well they accomplish a specific set of objectives determined to be critical in the successful completion of their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes quantitative results-oriented outcomes. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. When Performance Falls Short <ul><li>Performance Impediments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismatched skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee’s personal problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is actions taken by a manager to enforce an organization’s standards and regulations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee Counseling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a process designed to help employees overcome performance-related problems. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Compensation And Benefits <ul><li>Compensation Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves determining a cost-effective pay structure that will attract and retain competent employees, provide an incentive for them to work hard, and ensure that pay levels will be perceived as fair. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors Influencing Pay Levels/Compensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee’s job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kind of business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment surrounding the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee performance levels and seniority. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Why Do Organizations Offer Employee Benefits? <ul><li>Employee Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are nonfinancial rewards designed to enrich employees’ lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers’ and unemployment compensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid time off from work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life and disability insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirement programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health insurance </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Current Issues in HRM: Workforce Diversity <ul><li>Improving Workforce Diversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widen the recruiting net to broaden the pool of applicants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the organization’s selection process is nondiscriminatory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist new employees in assimilating into the firm’s culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct specialized orientations and workshops for new employees. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Current Issues in HRM: Sexual Harassment <ul><li>What Is Sexual Harassment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment includes sexually suggestive remarks, unwanted touching and sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal and physical conduct of a sexual nature that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates an intimidating, offensive, or hostile environment; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work; or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adversely affects an employee’s employment opportunities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Sexual Harassment (cont’d) <ul><li>Hostile (or Offensive) Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meritor Savings Bank v. Vincent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The employer can be held liable for harassment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The harassing act (not the outcome) is deciding factor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Protecting the Organization and Employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educating employees about sexual harassment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having a sexual harassment policy in place that is enforced fairly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking action on the first instance of a sexual harassment complaint. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Current Issues in HRM: Labor Relations and Unions <ul><li>Labor–Management Cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves mutual efforts on the part of a labor union and the management of an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Successful efforts to increase productivity, improve quality, and lower costs require employee involvement and commitment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unions now recognize that they can help their members more by cooperating with management than fighting it. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Current Issues in HRM: Workplace Violence <ul><li>Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The increase in violent crimes being committed at the work site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing Violence in the Workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training supervisory personnel to identify troubled employees before the problem results in violence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing employee assistance programs (EAPs) specifically to help individuals in need. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing stronger security mechanisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing violence paraphernalia from entering facilities altogether. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Current HRM Issues: Workplace Spirituality <ul><li>Workplace Spirituality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A spiritual culture that recognizes that employees have both a mind and a spirit, seek to find meaning and purpose in their work, and desire to connect with other employees and be part of a community. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workplace Spirituality Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do organizations have the right to impose spiritual values on their employees? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are spirituality and profits compatible? </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Current HRM Issues: Layoffs and Downsizing <ul><li>Layoff-Survivor Sickness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the set of attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of employees who remain after involuntary staff reductions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with the “Survivor Syndrome”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for employees to talk to counselors about their guilt, anger, and anxiety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide group discussions for the survivors to vent their feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement employee participation programs such as empowerment and self-managed work teams. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Career Module BUILDING YOUR CAREER
    30. 30. Making a Career Decision <ul><li>Career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Assessment Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and organize your skills, interests, work-related needs, and values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert this information into general career fields and specific job goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test your career possibilities by talking with knowledgeable people in the fields, organizations, or jobs you desire. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Getting Into The Organization <ul><li>Jobs advertised on the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job and career web sites issues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low probability of immediate success </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security of e-resumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparing your resume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper formatting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salient content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ways to Excel at an Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare, prepare, prepare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the company and its industry </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Developing a Management Career <ul><li>Organization’s career development responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating clearly the organization’s goals and future strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating personal growth opportunities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering financial assistance through tuition reimbursement to help employees keep current. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping employees to learn by providing paid time off off-the-job training and adjusting workloads to allow employees to develop skills, abilities, and knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Developing a Management Career (cont’d) <ul><li>Managing your career as a entrepreneur manages a small business: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know yourself; your strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage your reputation by letting others know about your achievements. Make accomplishments visible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a network contacts through professional associations, conferences, and social gatherings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop current specific skills and abilities that are in high demand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid learning organization-specific skills that can’t be transferred quickly to other employers. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Developing a Management Career (cont’d) <ul><li>Managing your career (cont’d): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance your specialist and generalist competencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document your achievements that offer objective evidence of your competencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your mobility options open with contingency plans that you can call on when needed. </li></ul></ul>

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