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Man101 Chapter12

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  • The communication process is a seven-part model: (1) the communication source, (2) the message, (3) encoding, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6) the receiver, and (7) feedback. The source is the sender who converts (encodes) a thought or message into symbolic form. The message is the physical product from the source coding. The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The message is directed to a receiver. The message must be translated (decoded) into a form that the receiver can understand. Then, the receiver provides feedback to the sender that indicates whether the intended message was received. This entire process is susceptible to noise , that is, disturbances that interfere with the transmission of the message.
  • Advantages of written communication: Written communications are tangible, verifiable, and permanent. Typically, both the sender and the receiver have a copy of the document. And the written word can be more concise, logical, and relevant than the spoken word. Written messages, however, are time consuming to create. Feedback may be delayed, if it is forthcoming at all. Furthermore, sending a written message does not guarantee that it will be received, read, or understood. The advantages of communicating orally are quick transmission and immediate feedback. Since an oral message often passes through a number of people, however, this method is subject to distortion.
  • We want to share what we know with others, so good news passes between us fairly fast—bad news, even faster. The unofficial communication channel in many organizations, the grapevine, has four characteristics: 1. It is not controlled by management. 2. It is perceived to be a more reliable information source than formal communication channels 3. It is used to serve the self-interests of those people within it. In an open organization, the grapevine can be quite accurate; in an authoritative culture, it may not be accurate, even though it contains some truth. Because the grapevine cannot be stopped, many managers try to use it to their advantage.
  • Even though it is neither spoken nor written, nonverbal communication can be powerful. The best known areas of nonverbal communication are body language and verbal intonation . Body language refers to gestures, facial expressions, and other movements of the body. Verbal intonation refers to the emphasis someone gives to words or phrases. Oral communication also has a nonverbal component that is likely to carry the greatest impact. As one researcher observed, 55 percent of an oral message is derived from facial expression and physical posture, 38 percent from verbal intonation, and only 7 percent from the actual words used.
  • We use sophisticated electronic devices, such as cellular phones, voice-activated computers, and e-mail, to carry our interpersonal communications. Because e-mail is fast, convenient, and cheap, it has become one of the most widely used communication methods in the workplace. But it is a also public information, and should not be used to discuss confidential topics or sensitive issues.
  • Taking listening skills for granted, many people confuse listening with hearing. Hearing is merely picking up sound vibrations. Listening, in contrast, is making sense of what we hear. Passive listening requires a listener to absorb and remember the words being spoken. Active listening requires a listener to understand the communication from the sender’s point of view. There are four requirements for active listening. 1. Concentrate on what the speaker is saying, and tune out miscellaneous thoughts that create distractions. 2. Empathize with the speaker and try to understand what the speaker wants to communicate rather than what you want to hear. 3. Accept what the speaker is saying; listen objectively without judging. 4. Take the responsibility for completeness, that is for getting the full intended meaning from the speaker’s communication.
  • Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback. Furthermore, positive feedback is almost always accepted, whereas negative feedback is almost always resisted. To minimize resistance, managers can deliver negative feedback in situations in which it is most likely to be accepted: for example, when it is objective or comes from a credible source. There are abundant data that indicate that managers do a poor job of providing employees with performance feedback.
  • Giving another person the authority to carry out specific activities is called delegation . Effective delegation pushes authority down vertically through the ranks of an organization. It should not be confused with participative decision making, in which there is a sharing of authority. Delegation empowers employees to make their own decisions. The following actions promote effective delegation. Clarify the assignment . Determine what is to be delegated and to whom. Provide clear information on what is being delegated, the results expected, and time or performance expectations. Specify the subordinate’s range of discretion . Delegation comes with constraints. Subordinates do not have unlimited authority. Allow the subordinate to participate . By allowing employees to help determine what will be delegated, the authority required to do the job, and standards of judgment, managers can promote satisfaction, motivation, and accountability. Inform others that delegation has occurred . Failure to inform others makes conflict likely and decreases the chances that subordinates will be successful. Establish feedback controls . Monitoring a subordinate’s progress will increase the likelihood that important problems or expensive mistakes can be identified early and avoided.
  • Giving another person the authority to carry out specific activities is called delegation . Effective delegation pushes authority down vertically through the ranks of an organization. It should not be confused with participative decision making, in which there is a sharing of authority. Delegation empowers employees to make their own decisions. The following actions promote effective delegation. Clarify the assignment . Determine what is to be delegated and to whom. Provide clear information on what is being delegated, the results expected, and time or performance expectations. Specify the subordinate’s range of discretion . Delegation comes with constraints. Subordinates do not have unlimited authority. Allow the subordinate to participate . By allowing employees to help determine what will be delegated, the authority required to do the job, and standards of judgment, managers can promote satisfaction, motivation, and accountability. Inform others that delegation has occurred . Failure to inform others makes conflict likely and decreases the chances that subordinates will be successful. Establish feedback controls . Monitoring a subordinate’s progress will increase the likelihood that important problems or expensive mistakes can be identified early and avoided.
  • Being successful as a manager depends on knowing how to manage conflict. A study of middle-level and top-level executives conducted by the American Management Association revealed that the average manager spends 20 percent of his or her time dealing with conflict. And, in a recent survey of practicing managers, conflict management skills were rated higher than decision making, leadership, or communication skills. The term conflict refers to perceived incompatible differences resulting in some form of interference or opposition. Reality is not relevant. If people perceive that differences exist, then conflict exists. This definition runs the gamut, from subtle, indirect, highly-controlled forms of conflict to overt acts, such as strikes, riots, and wars. Over the years, three views of conflict have evolved. Functional conflicts support the goals of an organization. Dysfunctional conflicts impede the goals of an organization. Because conflict that may vivify one department may destroy another, whether conflict is functional or dysfunctional depends on the situation. Therefore, managers should stimulate conflict to reap its functional benefits, yet reduce conflict when it becomes disruptive.
  • The traditional view of conflict asserts that all conflict is bad and should be avoided. The human relations view of conflict argues that because conflict is natural and inevitable, it has the potential to be a positive force. The interactionist view of conflict proposes that some conflict is necessary for an organization to function.
  • The initial step in stimulating functional conflict is for managers to reward those who challenge the status quo, propose innovations, offer divergent opinions, and think creatively. Communication can stimulate conflict. Senior government officials often “plant” possible decisions with the media by using the infamous “reliable source.” Ambiguous or threatening messages can also encourage conflict. Communication can be used to stimulate conflict by drawing attention to differences of opinion that individuals did not recognize previously. A widely used method for stimulating conflict is to bring in outsiders with different backgrounds, values, attitudes, or managerial skills. Using the following structural devices can also disrupt the status quo and promote conflict: centralizing decisions, realigning work groups, introducing teams into an individualistic culture, increasing formalization, and increasing interdependencies between units. A person who purposely argues against the majority is a devil’s advocate . Such a person acts as a check against groupthink and questions practices that are justified by “that’s the way we’ve always done it around here.”
  • Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties who have different preferences must make a joint decision and come to an agreement. To achieve this goal, both parties typically use a bargaining strategy. The two negotiation methods are distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. When negotiating the price of a used car, the buyer and seller are engaged in distributive bargaining . This type of bargaining is a zero-sum game: any gain that one party makes comes at the expense of the other party. So, the essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. Therefore, this style of bargaining can build animosities and deepen divisions between people who have to work together on an ongoing basis. Integrative bargaining assumes that more than one “win-win” settlement exists; so, it builds long-term relationships because each negotiator can leave the table feeling victorious. For integrative bargaining to succeed, negotiators must be open, candid, sensitive, trusting, and flexible.
  • The essence of effective negotiation is summarized in the following six recommendations. 1. Research your opponent . By understanding their opponents, managers can understand behavior, predict responses, and frame viable solutions. 2. Begin with a positive overture . Concessions tend to be reciprocated and can lead to agreements, so start the negotiations with a minor concession. 3. Address problems, not personalities . Concentrate on issues, not your opponent. 4. Pay little attention to initial offers . Treat initial offers as points of departure. 5. Emphasize win-win solutions . Look for an integrative solution. Frame options in terms of your opponent’s interests. Look for solutions that will allow both parties to declare a victory. 6. Be open to accepting third-party assistance . Mediators can help both parties agree but do not impose a settlement. Arbitrators hear both sides of a dispute, then impose a solution. Conciliators act as conduits, passing information between parties, interpreting messages, and clarifying misunderstandings.
  • The ability to deliver effective presentations is an important skill for career success. So, what can you do to enhance your presentation skills? Here are some suggestions. Make your opening comments. In the first few minutes, welcome the audience. Then describe what you know about the issues facing them. Next, cite your credentials, identify your presentation’s agenda, and tell them what you want them to do at the end of your presentation. Make your points. This is the heart of your presentation. Describe why your ideas are important and how they benefit your listeners. Any supporting data should be presented at this time. End the presentation. In the conclusion, state nothing new; rather, restate what you know about the issues and what you recommend. Answer questions. Whether they come at the end of the presentation or during it, there are a few simple rules to follow when answering questions. First, be sure to clarify the question. When you understand the question, answer it. Then go back to the questioner and make sure your response answered the question. If not, you will probably get another question. Handle it in the same way.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Communication and Interpersonal Skills
    • 2. Communication Process Terms
      • Encoding
        • The conversion of a message into some symbolic form
      • Message
        • A purpose to be conveyed
      • Channel
        • The medium by which a message travels
      • Decoding
        • A receiver’s translation of a sender’s message
      • Feedback
        • The degree to which carrying out the work activities require by a job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his her performance
    • 3. Written Versus Verbal Communications
      • Written
        • Tangible
        • Verifiable
        • More permanent
        • More precise
        • More care taken with the written word
      • Verbal
        • Less secure
        • Known receipt
        • Quicker response
        • Consumes less time
        • Quicker feedback
    • 4. The Grapevine
      • “ The grapevine motto: Good information passes among people fairly rapidly—bad information, even faster!”
      • Grapevine
        • An unofficial channel of communication that is neither authorized nor supported by the organization.
    • 5. Nonverbal Communications
      • Body Language
        • Nonverbal communication cues such as facial expressions, gestures, and other body movements
      • Verbal Intonation
        • An emphasis given to word or phrases that conveys meaning
    • 6. Information Technology (IT)
      • E-mail
        • Is the instantaneous transmission of messages on computers that are linked together.
      • Instant Messaging (IM)
        • Is interactive, real-time communication among users logged on the computer network at the same time.
      • Voice Mail
        • A system that digitizes a spoken message, transmits it over the network, and stores the message for the receiver to retrieve later.
    • 7. Information Technology (cont’d)
      • Fax
        • Allows for the transmission of documents containing both text and graphics over telephone lines.
      • Electronic Data Interchange EDI
        • An exchange of documents with vendors, suppliers, and customers using direct, computer-to-computer networks.
      • Teleconferencing
        • Allows groups to confer simultaneously using telephone or e-mail group communications software.
    • 8. Information Technology (cont’d)
      • Teleconferencing
        • Allows groups to confer simultaneously using telephone or e-mail group communications software.
      • Videoconferencing
        • Is a simultaneous conference during which meeting participants in different locations can see each other over video screens.
    • 9. Information Technology (cont’d)
      • Intranets
        • An organizational communication network that uses Internet technology but is accessible only to organizational employees.
      • Extranets
        • An organizational communication network that uses Internet technology and allows authorized users inside the organization to communicate with certain outsiders such as customers or vendors.
    • 10. Information Technology (cont’d)
      • Wireless Communications
        • Allow users to send and receive information from anywhere as signals sent without a direct physical connection to a hard-wired network system.
      • Knowledge Management
        • Includes cultivating a learning culture in which employees systematically gather knowledge and share it through computer-based networks and community of interest teams.
    • 11. Developing Interpersonal Skills
      • Listening Requires:
        • Paying attention.
        • Interpreting.
        • Remembering sound stimuli.
      • Active Listening Requires:
        • Listening attentively (intensely) to the speaker.
        • Developing empathy for what the speaker is saying.
        • Accepting by listening without judging content.
        • Taking responsibility for completeness in getting the full meaning from the speaker’s communication.
    • 12. Characteristics of Feedback
      • Positive Feedback
        • Is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback.
        • Is almost always accepted, whereas negative feedback often meets resistance.
      • Negative Feedback
        • Is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a credible source or if it is objective.
        • Carries weight only when it comes from a person with high status and credibility.
    • 13. What Are Empowerment Skills?
      • Forces Driving Empowerment
        • Need for quick decisions by those most knowledge about the issue.
        • Downsizing has lead to the necessity for lower-level employees to make decisions.
      • Delegation
        • Is the assignment of authority to another person to carry out specific activities while retaining the ultimate responsibility for the activities.
    • 14. Empowerment through Delegation
      • Proper delegation is not abdication and requires:
        • Clarifying the exact job to be done
        • Setting the range of the employee’s discretion
        • Defining the expected level of performance
        • Setting the time frame for the task to be completed
        • Allowing employees to participate
        • Establishing feedback controls
    • 15. Managing Conflict
      • Conflict
        • Is perceived differences resulting in interference or opposition.
      • Functional Conflict
        • Supports an organization’s goals.
      • Dysfunctional Conflict
        • Prevents and organization from achieving its goals
    • 16. Three Views of Conflict
      • Traditional View
        • Assumed that conflict was bad and would always have a negative impact on an organization.
      • Human Relations View
        • Argued that conflict was a natural and inevitable occurrence in all organizations; rationalized the existence of conflict and advocated its acceptance.
      • Interactionist View
        • Encourages mangers to maintain ongoing minimum level of conflict sufficient to keep organizational units viable, self-critical, and creative.
    • 17. Dimensions of Conflict (Thomas)
      • Cooperativeness
        • The degree to which an individual will attempt to rectify a conflict by satisfying the other person’s concerns.
      • Assertiveness
        • The degree to which an individual will attempt to rectify the conflict to satisfy his or her own concerns.
    • 18. Dimensions of Conflict (cont’d)
      • Conflict-handling techniques derived from Thomas’ cooperative and assertiveness dimensions:
        • Competing (assertive but uncooperative)
        • Collaborating (assertive and cooperative)
        • Avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative)
        • Accommodating (unassertive but cooperative)
        • Compromising (midrange on assertiveness and cooperativeness
    • 19. How To Stimulate Functional Conflict
      • Convey to employees the message that conflict has its legitimate place.
      • Use hot-button communications while maintaining plausible deniability.
      • Issue ambiguous or threatening messages.
      • Bring in outsiders.
      • Centralize decisions, realign work groups, increase formalization and interdependencies between units.
      • Appoint a devil’s advocate to purposely present arguments that run counter to those proposed by the majority or against current practices.
    • 20. What Are Negotiation Skills?
      • Negotiation
        • Is a process in which two or more parties who have different preference must make a joint decision and come to an agreement
        • Distributive bargaining
          • Negotiation under zero-sum conditions, in which the gains by one party involve losses by the other party.
        • Integrative bargaining
          • Negotiation in which there is at least one settlement that involves no loss to either party.
    • 21. Developing Effective Negotiation Skills
      • Research the individual with whom you’ll be negotiating.
      • Begin with a positive overture.
      • Address problems, not personalities.
      • Pay little attention to initial offers.
      • Emphasize win-win solutions.
      • Create an open and trusting climate.
      • If needed, be open to accepting third-party assistance.
    • 22. Making an Effective Presentation?
      • Prepare for the presentation.
      • Make your opening comments.
      • Make your points.
      • End the presentation.
      • Answer questions.