Many people view motivation incorrectly: thinking it is a personal trait that some have and some don’t. In reality, motivation results from the interaction between the individual and the situation. Motivation is the willingness to exert a persistent and high level of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy an individual need. Motivation is a need-satisfying process. A need is some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. An unsatisfied need creates tension; this tension drives a person to satisfy the need. A motivated employee works intensely and persistently. However, effort and persistence will not pay off unless they are channeled in a direction that benefits the organization.
According to Abraham Maslow, within every human being, the following hierarchy of needs exists. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one’s potential. As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next higher need becomes dominant. . Physiological. Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other survival needs. Safety. Security, stability, and protection from physical or emotional harm. Social. Social interaction, affection, companionship, and friendship. Esteem. Self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition, and attention. Self-actualization. Growth, self-fulfillment, and achieving one’s potential
Douglas McGregor said that managers hold one of two sets of assumptions about human nature: either Theory X or Theory Y. No hard evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is universally true. It is more likely that the assumptions of Theory X or Theory Y may or may not be appropriate, depending on the situation at hand.
Frederick Herzberg asked workers to describe situations in which they felt either good or bad about their jobs. His findings are called motivation-hygiene theory . Herzberg asserted that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction whereas extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. So, he called company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary hygiene factors . When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; however, they will not be satisfied either. He believed that achievement, recognition, the work itself, growth, and responsibility are motivators because people find them intrinsically rewarding. Based on his findings, Herzberg proposed the existence of a dual continuum: the opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction,” and the opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisfaction.”
David McClelland proposed the three-needs theory which asserts that there are three relevant motives or needs that motivate behavior in the workplace: 1. The need for achievement (nAch) is the need to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to succeed. 2. The need for power (nPow) is the need to shape and control the behavior of others. 3. The need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for interpersonal relationships. He believed that these needs are acquired from the culture of a society. Some people have a compelling drive to succeed, but they strive for personal achievement, not for the rewards of success, per se (nAch) . These high achievers seek situations in which they can take responsibility for solving problems, can receive rapid unambiguous feedback on performance, and can set moderately challenging goals. Persons with a high need for power (nPow) desire to be influential, in charge, and seek competitive, status-oriented situations. Those who have a high need for affiliation (nAff) want to be liked and accepted by others; so, they strive for friendships, cooperation, and high-trust situations.
Equity theory proposes that inequity creates tension, and that this tension can cause an employee to seek fairness. Workers compare their job inputs and outcomes with others. There are three possible perceptions: 1. Inequity due to being under-rewarded. 2. Equity 3. Inequity due to being over-rewarded.
Workers who perceive an inequity will react in one of the six following ways: change inputs, change outcomes, distort perceptions of self, distort perceptions of others, choose a different referent, or leave the field
The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions. The core dimensions can be combined into a single index, the Motivating Potential Score (MPS), which is calculated as follows:
Skill variety. Does the job require workers to use different skills and abilities? Task identity. Does the job require workers to complete identifiable pieces of work? Task significance. Does the job have a significant impact on the lives or work of others?
Autonomy. Does the job allow workers substantial freedom, discretion, and independence? Feedback. Does the job allow workers to obtain direct, clear performance information?
Expectancy theory argues that an employee will be motivated to produce more when he or she believes that the effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards; and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals.
This theory focuses on three relationships. 1. The effort-performance relationship is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. 2. The performance-rewards relationship is the degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. 3. The rewards-personal goals relationship is the degree to which the rewards of an organization satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness (valence) of those rewards.
When motivating a diverse workforce, flexibility is the key. Employees have different needs and goals that they hope to satisfy through work. So, the rewards system must be flexible to meet their diverse needs. Managers must also be sensitive to cultural differences. Most of the theories of motivation were developed by psychologists who were studying American workers. For instance, theories based on self-interest that are applicable in cultures that value capitalism and individualism may be of questionable value in collectivist cultures. Managers cannot assume that motivation concepts are universally applicable, so they must adjust motivation techniques according to the culture.
Before most people do anything, they look for a pay-off or reward. Therefore, managers must consider how pay can be used to motivate high levels of performance in the workplace. Rather than paying workers for time on the job, pay-for-performance programs, such as profit sharing, lump sum bonuses, or wage incentive plans, piece rate plans, pay employees according to some performance measure. Such pay programs are compatible with expectancy theory because workers will perceive a strong relationship between their performance and their rewards.
Employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put into it (inputs) and then compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratios of relevant others.
Is, in equity theory, the other persons, the systems, or the personal experiences against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity.
The choice of a particular set of referents is related to the information available about referents as well as to the perceived relevance.
The five core job dimensions are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.
Internal rewards are obtained when:
An employee learns ( knowledge of results ) through ( feedback ) that he or she personally ( experienced responsibility through autonomy of work ) has performed well on a task that he or she cares about ( experienced meaningfulness through skill variety, task identity, and/or task significance ).