Measuring and Building Students’ Non-Cognitive Skills to Increase College Persistence: A Research-Practitioner PerspectiveAngela Duckworth, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania Donald Kamentz, YES Prep Public Schools Laura Keane, Mastery Charter Schools
What makes students successful? Non- Cognitive Cognitive ? ?
What makes students successful? Non- Cognitive Cognitive IQ, memory, Literally knowledge, everything vocabulary, else etc.
How Did We Get Here?Build Knowledge: Deep dive into the research Define framework for non-cogsDesign Research-Based Practices Partner with researchers to create strategies to build non-cogsField-Test Theories: Conduct interventions and measure impact
Self-Control and GritSelf-Control Resisting “in the moment” temptations Delaying gratificationGrit Passion and perseverance for very long-term goals
Goal Setting & Goal PlanningGabriele Oettingen & Angela Duckworth If you dream it, predict and plan forVolition obstacles…then you can achieve it! If you dream it, you can achieve it.
Goal Attainment: MCII Mental Contrasting promotes effective goal setting ◦ What is my goal? ◦ What good thing will happen if I achieve this goal? ◦ What obstacles stand in the way of my reaching this goal? Implementation Intention plans specify where, when, and how you will get around the obstacles ◦ “If it is a weekday at 6pm, then I will go to my bedroom and do my work.” ◦ And, “If my brother bothers me, then I will…”
Mindset Matters: Carol Dweck / David Yeager MindsetPerformance Behavior
Beliefs about Intelligence Fixed Growth mindset mindset goals look smart learnvalues effort, help no yes & strategy? response to work harder and give up challenge smarterchanges in grades decrease increase
Social Belonging / Social Capital Taken from Greg Walton and Geoff Cohen Study
From skills to habits “Our virtues are habits as much as our vices…our nervous systems have grown to the way in which they have been exercised, just as a sheet of paper or a coat, once creased or folded, tends to fall forever afterward into the same identical folds.” --William James (1899) 18
Measure It: The ToolsTake The 10-item Grit Scale
How do you compare? Percentile Men (N = 4,169) Women (N = 6,972) 10 2.50 2.50 20 2.83 2.88 30 3.06 3.13 40 3.25 3.25 50 3.38 3.50 60 3.54 3.63 70 3.75 3.79 80 3.92 4.00 90 4.21 4.25 100 5.00 5.00
“Not getting off the treadmill”:What grit predicts…
National College Persistence Study Research Focus Academia Partners K-12 Practitioners PartnersPossible correlation between John Gabrieli (MIT)non-cognitive traits and Chris Gabrieli (Harvard) District(s)student performance Upper Darby (PA), Lawrence (MA), Philadelphia (PA), Boston (MA), Spring Branch (TX)Non-cognitive factors, grit, Angela Duckworthself-control, goal-setting, CMOs (Penn) Achievement First (CT), Aspiredecision-making; theory of Sidney D’ Mellodeliberate practice (CA), Mastery (PA) & YES Prep (Notre Dame) (TX)Malleable intelligence, Carol Dweck (Stanford)fixed vs. growth-mindset, Greg Walton (Stanford)social belonging Geoff Cohen (Stanford) David Yeager (UT-Austin)
Mindset Pilot “…Not all students know that the brain can get smarter, even though it may help them succeed… Write a letter to your friend telling them about what you just learned about the brain and why they shouldn’t be discouraged… ”
Social Belonging Pilot “The most difficult transition from high school to college was coming from a situation where I knew every student for the past seven years to a new situation where I did not know one student before I arrived… I was pretty homesick, and I had to remind myself that making close friends takes time…”
Implementation:Putting Theories Into Practice What to implement? ◦ A psychological experience ◦ NOT a handout How do you change psychology and make it matter over time? ◦ “Stealthy” ◦ Self-reinforcing through school experience What do you need to design and implement? ◦ Student-centered approach ◦ Continued evaluation
Putting Theories Into Practice• Educator as Coach: Making Them Thirsty• “Stealthy” Messaging• MCII: Senior Grit Case Studies• Culture Rituals• PD: “Wise Feedback”• Experiential Learning to Build Students’ Social Capital
Educator as Coach “You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink.”But how do wemake it thirsty?
“Not-so-stealthy” Messaging 10,000 Students, College Ready By providing you with a high- quality, college prep curriculum, YES Prep will undoubtedly prepare you to be a successful college student. YES Prep will also provide you with many opportunities and resources that you will be able to utilize throughout your college career.
I AmSamShoemaker – ’11Bucknell University – ’15 MASTERY“College is challenging, it’ssupposed to be. However, itisn’t impossible. As long asyou go to class, do yourwork and stay focused, itcan be a lot easier than youmay think.”
MCII: Senior Grit Case Studies Plan for College Persistence WHILE in HS Senior Project: Grit College Study ◦ Theory: Based on Oettingen and Duckworth’s MCII work Products Case Study Analysis Campus Support Chart Off Campus Support Team Campus Map complete with all services labeled
Control group: I’m giving you these comments so you havefeedback on your essay.
“Wise feedback” group: I’m giving you these comments because I have high standards and I know that you can meet them.
Experiential Learning toBuild Social Capital Internships Summer Opportunities College Visits
Next Steps for the Field… SOLIDIFY common definitions around the non-cognitive skills. VALIDATED assessment tools that broadly captures non-cognitive ability versus discreet skills or traits. PROVEN and SCALABLE interventions.
Presenter Contact InformationAngela Duckworth, Ph.D., firstname.lastname@example.orgAssistant Professor, PsychologyUniversity of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA)Donald Kamentz, email@example.comManaging Director of College and Career InitiativesYES Prep Public Schools (Houston, TX)Laura Keane, firstname.lastname@example.orgDirector of College InitiativesMastery Charter Schools (Philadelphia, PA)