Presentation• Who is driving the Quality Debate – iNACOL – Public Schools – Colleges – The landscape• Granular Analysis – Collaborative Arrangements – Grades• Suggestions
Public Schools• In the past quality was based on Inputs - Teacher Credentialing - Standards/Textbook Selection - Seat Metrics -Time metrics -Some outputs• Common Core changing all that -Assessing Learning not summative achievement - Most tests online for all courses (blended, online, class) -Trying to establish accountability
Outputs Outcomes Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) and SMARTER Balanced Assessment Inputs Consortium (SBAC) New Emphasis of Quality“We believe there is a small window of opportunity to pilot within the field of onlineand blended learning a set of new outcomes-based performance metrics for qualitythat—once adopted and disseminated—would ultimately forge a path for outcomes-based quality assurance in K-12 education at large”. (iNACOL : “Measuring Qualityfrom Inputs to Outcomes” October 2012”)
BETTER OUTCOMES PARADIGMS?(iNACOL : “Measuring Quality from Inputs to Outcomes”)• Building Blocks data on – Proficiency- Problem: age, cohort, point in time – Graduation rates Problem: enrollment disincentives – College/career readiness Problem: no standards – Closing the achievement gap – Individual student growth – Fidelity to Student’s academic goals• “Systems of Assessment” – Entry data for growth models – Adaptive assessments – Formative assessments – Summative assessments• Based on – Multiple measures of proficiency and student growth – No Age based Cohorts – Individual data
Online Learning Issues A College Perspective- UC Boars• “Sheer volume of “homegrown” teacher-created online courses” UC Boars• “online learning could give students with better access to technology or money to pay for courses an advantage” UC Boars• “positive outcomes of online learning have yet to be demonstrated”• “the profit motive inherent in many online providers may be at odds with providing sufficient staffing”• “ authenticity of who is submitting key assignments is not always evident”Source: Presentation by Monica Lin at CLRN conference
Online Learning Issues A College Perspective- UC Boars+ if “Definition of online entities are notalways clear-cut” UC Boars, Online Coursewhat do you do? Shifting the focus from UC “approving providers” to UC approving courses UC system Online Provider
FROM UC Presentation The appropriate experts are reviewing online courses: –CLRN ensuring quality online delivery –UC ensuring quality “a-g” content 9
Review of Online Courses (effective 2013-14) Assess the online course Submit online against the iNACOL Standards STEP 1 course to CLRN for Quality Online Courses and for review* CA content standards CLRN-certified OR Self-assessed Conduct subject- Submit online specific review STEP 2 course to UC Approve course for “a-g”? against UC faculty’s for “a-g” review content criteria YES Add course to online publisher’s or*If not eligible for CLRN review, the online course must be online school’s “a-g”self-assessed by the online publisher or school. course list; approval expires in 3 years 10
Step #1B: Self-Assessment Effective for: – Online course publishers serving only private institutions – Private online schools – Any online courses not aligned with state standards – 2014-15 school year: Non-online high schools, districts, and programs Institution conducts self-assessment against iNACOL Standards for Quality Online Courses Self-assessment will be incorporated into the course submission process for UC “a-g” review 12
What questions arise from Colleges and the Public School actions?• Will there be more Clearing Houses around the country? – “State would set up an online course clearinghouse” (iNACOL: Measuring Quality from Inputs to Outputs” P 23)• Are schools becoming less accreditable/credible in their online offerings?• What do independent school accreditation organizations think?
The “Quality” Standards/ Accreditation Universe Federally Approved Regional Accreditation Agencies Serving Colleges and Schools WASC,MASC,NEASC,SACS NAIS 1400 NAIS Approved Regional members Accreditation AgenciesNon-Profits only CAIS,AISNE etc No consortia K-12 Independent Schools
The “Quality” Standards/ Accreditation Universe Fully Online Federally Approved Regional Schools Accreditation Agencies Charters, Serving Colleges and Schools Stanford WASC,MASC,NEASC,SACS LS,K12 iNACOL 3800+members NAIS with mostly 1400 NAIS Approved Regional public schools members Accreditation Agencies for K-12Non-Profits only CAIS,AISNE etc No consortia K-12 Public Schools Independent Schools
The “Quality” Standards/ Accreditation Universe Fully Online Federally Approved Regional Schools Accreditation Agencies Charters, Colleges Serving Colleges and Schools Stanford WASC,MASC,NEASC,SACS LS,K12 Clearing Houses CLRN,NCAA Other states? iNACOL 3800+members NAIS with mostly 1400 NAIS Approved Regional public schools members Accreditation Agencies for K-12Non-Profits only CAIS,AISNE etc No consortia K-12 Public Schools Independent Schools
Council on The “Quality” Standards/Moocs Higher Education Accreditation Universe Fully Online Federally Approved Regional Schools Accreditation Agencies Charters, Colleges Serving Colleges and Schools Stanford WASC,MASC,NEASC,SACS LS,K12 Clearing Houses CLRN,NCAA Other states? iNACOL 3800+members NAIS with mostly 1400 NAIS Approved Regional public schools members Accreditation Agencies for K-12Non-Profits only CAIS,AISNE etc No consortia K-12 Public Schools Independent Schools
The “Quality” Standards/ Accreditation Universe Fully Online Federally Approved Regional Schools Accreditation Agencies Charters, Serving Colleges and Schools Stanford WASC,MASC,NEASC,SACS LS,K12 LearningSupplemental Service Extensions Protocols iNACOL Providers 3800+members with mostly public schools Where do Consortia go? Accreditation organizations with flexible for K-12 protocols Public Schools
Important Other Questions• Ubiquitously acceptable, should we just go with the iNACOL standards? - input - “standards” like NAIS - student population - missions - accountability• Should we jump on the public school railroad?
At this stage it looks like…Outcomes, NOT inputs or even Outputs= 1. “Quality Control” 2. Not “Quality Assurance”= IS mindset 3. World of Data- ready or not? Quality Control Quality Assurance
NAIS Task Force Recommendation Task Force, September 2011 “Schools should consider colleges and universities, for-profit and non-profit organizations, charter schools, and other entities as both potential partners and competitors in this market”.
Partnership with a consortium or a separated program or providerIndependent Online Course Need for School Provider Oversight re: (Member (Partner Alignment School) Institution)
Who are the teachers?How are they evaluated? How do they grade? Who developed the curriculum?
Mores Etc. Etc. Etc. . Standards ..Geographical Independent Population Location Schools Faculty Pedagogical Composition Approach Learning and Teaching Styles
Collaborations Raise Important QuestionsAt JTD, Blended ¼ High School Spanish 1 for 5th Graders Not done for 20 years Schedule time required Need 180 minutes per week No Spanish teacher in current faculty Major demandWhat kind of partnership? Which provider/content? Who would hire/train the teacher? Who would manage the teacher? Who would evaluate pacing and progress? Who would evaluate the teacher? How would we manage the grade? How would we fit it in?
Collaborative Arrangements Degree of Equivalence• In all cases = Substantive Change• Degree of burden dependent on partner accreditation – Same regional body • prior notification – Equivalent D. of E. body • Prior approval • Self-certification – Non Equivalent body • Prior approval • Prospectus
Council on None of our Partners haveMoocs Higher Education equivalent accreditation! Fully Online Federally Approved Regional Schools Accreditation Agencies Charters, Colleges Serving Colleges and Schools Stanford WASC,MASC,NEASC,SACS LS,K12 Supplement Learning al Extensions Service Protocols Clearing Providers Houses CLRN,NCAA Other states? iNACOL 3800+members NAIS with mostly 1400 NAIS Approved Regional public schools members Accreditation Agencies for K-12Non-Profits only CAIS,AISNE etc No consortia K-12 Public Schools Independent Schools
SACS/COC states that:“…institutions describe collaborative academicarrangements in many different ways, most commonlyidentifying them as dual or joint educational programs,affiliations, partnerships, consortial agreements, and othersimilar terms.”
SACS/COC States“Because the SACS/COC accreditation that has beenawarded to a Member (accredited) institution, it isnot transferrable to a Partner institution – either inactuality or appearance – SACS/COC reserves theright to prohibit the use of its accreditation toauthenticate credit courses or programs offeredwith organizations not so accredited. Memberinstitutions are responsible for ensuring theintegrity of their accreditation and of theireducation programs when entering intocollaborative academic arrangements.”
Collaborative Arrangements Ensuring the Quality of the Credits Recorded on Transcripts.SACS/COC1. Conformity with Core Standards.2. Effective Assessment and monitoring byacademically-qualified persons.3. Disclosure to constituencies and Transparency4. Agreement on Teaching Methodologies5. Equivalent Quality of Teaching Qualifications6. Processes for assessing Educational outcomes8. Joint accountability of faculty
Collaborative Arrangements Ensuring the Quality of the Credits Recorded on Transcripts.Taking a grade as your own“it must be able to demonstrate that theinstruction was accomplished under theMember’s own supervision and includedapproval of the academic qualifications of eachinstructor in advance and the regularevaluation of the effectiveness of eachinstructor. The Member institution’s approachmight include the joint appointment ofinstructors.”
As Independent Schools:• Adapt 21st century learning models – Blended, flipped, supplemental learning• Maintain accountability channels that ensure school culture / identity• Reassurance to independent schools is established under an accrediting organization
PNAIS (Pacific Northwest Association of Independent Schools)• a. Describe the use of online education and/or distance education at the school. Be specific regarding program development, scope, and number of students involved. Describe how/why these decisions regarding distance education were made.• b. How does the school’s mission inform the development of the online education and/or distance education program?• c. How are these courses congruent with the school’s beliefs about how students learn?• d. What is the relationship between the online/distance education program and the overall school program and school culture?• e. How does the school assess and evaluate the effectiveness and impact of online education and/or distance education at the school?
PNAIS (Pacific Northwest Association of Independent Schools)Physical Location or Place• Top educational opportunities and experiences for elementary and secondary children are grounded in teacher-student interactions. To this end, we expect schools to have a campus where students are able tofrequently and meaningfully interact with adults and peers.
What do our accrediting agencies need to do?1. Fill Vacuum 1. More resources- Our Own Standards? 2. Feeder Expertise for all Regional Associations like iNACOL or NAIS sponsored or new entity2. Look at more flexibility in “school models” that can be accredited 1. Collaborative arrangements 2. Extensions 3. Consortia
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