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LID LEED and Policy Barriers to Implementation (Dec-2010)
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LID LEED and Policy Barriers to Implementation (Dec-2010)

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There are many reasons that people give for not using LID or LEED standards when developing property. It basically comes down to perceived costs and perceived benefits/barriers

There are many reasons that people give for not using LID or LEED standards when developing property. It basically comes down to perceived costs and perceived benefits/barriers

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  • 1. LID and Policy: SustainableLID and Policy: Sustainable Development PracticesDevelopment Practices What is Stopping Us?What is Stopping Us? Jon Barsanti JrJon Barsanti Jr Masters in City and Regional PlanningMasters in City and Regional Planning BA Interdisciplinary Study in Biology and ChemistryBA Interdisciplinary Study in Biology and Chemistry jbarsanti@alumni.unc.edujbarsanti@alumni.unc.edu 919.943.1915919.943.1915 WhoWho Developers Designers Departments Decision Makers WhoWho Developers Designers Departments Decision Makers Others Aren’t Others Are Infrastructure Good all around WhyWhy
  • 2. WhoWho Developers Designers Departments Decision Makers Others Aren’t Others Are Infrastructure Good all around WhyWhy WhyWhy NotNot “Cost” Resistance Ordinances Fear of Loss LandUse Transportation WaterQuantity/ Water Quality All Development Occurs in aAll Development Occurs in a WatershedWatershed Wetlands are more thanWetlands are more than Undevelopable LandUndevelopable Land Stream Buffers Impact DevelopmentStream Buffers Impact Development and Developments Impact Streamand Developments Impact Stream BuffersBuffers All Land Uses have aAll Land Uses have a Pollutant/Volume ProfilePollutant/Volume Profile
  • 3. Undeveloped Land can be valuableUndeveloped Land can be valuable LID & LEED can improve WaterLID & LEED can improve Water Quality and Quantity; Cost LessQuality and Quantity; Cost Less Need to view RunNeed to view Run--off as a Resourceoff as a Resource Net Density versus Gross DensityNet Density versus Gross Density All Development OccursAll Development Occurs in a Watershedin a Watershed Three Parts: Watershed Critical Areas Watershed Protected Areas Remainder of the Watershed Barriers: • “Highest and Best Use of the Land;” • One person’s/community’s out-flow is another’s intake Wetlands are more thanWetlands are more than Undevelopable LandUndevelopable Land Wetlands are nature’s filtration system Wetlands manage volume and sediment load Wetlands are key to wildlife habitat preservation Barrier: Wetland is undevelopable; Can fill and replace, although manufactured is not as good as natural
  • 4. Stream Buffers Impact DevelopmentStream Buffers Impact Development Developments Impact StreamDevelopments Impact Stream BuffersBuffers Stream Buffers protect encroachment on ecosystem by development Stream Buffers Protect development from encroachment by ecosystem (e.g. floods.) Barriers: Inconsistent setbacks between communities; Vertical versus Horizontal Setbacks All Land Uses have aAll Land Uses have a Pollutant/VolumePollutant/Volume ProfileProfile From Kimberly Brewer’s Presentation to the TJCOG Smart Growth Committee ftp://ftp.tjcog.org/pub/tjcog/regplan/smrtgrow/devwq.pdf Volume of water flow Nutrients Temperature of water flowing off the land Toxins Bacteria All Land Uses have aAll Land Uses have a Pollutant/VolumePollutant/Volume ProfileProfile Data from A Nutrient Credit Trading Framework for the Jordan Lake Watershed: Using Market-Based Mechanisms to Make Watershed Restoration More Cost-Effective http://www.cfra-nc.org/documents/FinalReport-FullReport_000.pdf Sources Land-Use Contribution to N Load Contribution to P Load Residential (SF) 29% 12% Residential (MF) Agriculture 36% 51% Forest 19% 15% Commercial/ Industrial 9% 6% Other 7% 16%
  • 5. All Land Uses have aAll Land Uses have a Pollutant/VolumePollutant/Volume ProfileProfile Data from A Nutrient Credit Trading Framework for the Jordan Lake Watershed: Using Market-Based Mechanisms to Make Watershed Restoration More Cost-Effective http://www.cfra-nc.org/documents/FinalReport-FullReport_000.pdf Sources Land-Use Contribution to N Load Contribution to P Load Residential (SF) 14% 29% 12% Residential (MF) 1% Agriculture 20% 36% 51% Forest 56% 19% 15% Commercial/ Industrial 3% 9% 6% Other 6% 7% 16% http://www.cwp.org/Resource_Library/Center_Docs/PWP/ELC_PWP36.pdf Soil Compaction Occurs in almost all situations How much is reversible? http://www.cwp.org/Resource_Library/Center_Docs/PWP/ELC_PWP36.pdf2.652.65QuartziteQuartzite 2.22.2Concrete PavementConcrete Pavement 1.6 to 2.11.6 to 2.1ROW and Building PadsROW and Building Pads (95% Compaction(95% Compaction)) 1.5 to 1.81.5 to 1.8ROW and Building PadsROW and Building Pads (85% Compaction)(85% Compaction) 1.8 to 2.01.8 to 2.0Athletic FieldsAthletic Fields 1.8 to 2.01.8 to 2.0Urban Fill SoilsUrban Fill Soils 1.5 to 2.01.5 to 2.0Crushed Rock Parking LotCrushed Rock Parking Lot 1.5 to 1.91.5 to 1.9Urban LawnsUrban Lawns 1.6 to 2.01.6 to 2.0Glacial TillGlacial Till 1.0 to 1.21.0 to 1.2Organic Silts/ClaysOrganic Silts/Clays 1.2 to 1.51.2 to 1.5Silt LoamsSilt Loams 1.3 to 1.41.3 to 1.4SiltSilt 1.41.4Silty sandsSilty sands 1.1 to 1.31.1 to 1.3Sandy SoilSandy Soil 1.01.0CompostCompost 0.2 to 0.30.2 to 0.3PeatPeat Surface BulkSurface Bulk Density (g/cc)Density (g/cc) Undisturbed Soil Type or UrbanUndisturbed Soil Type or Urban ConditionCondition Table 1: Comparison of Bulk Density for undisturbedTable 1: Comparison of Bulk Density for undisturbed Soils and Common Urban Conditions (Compiled fromSoils and Common Urban Conditions (Compiled from various sources)various sources)
  • 6. Reversing Compacted SoilsReversing Compacted Soils • Soil Amendments • Compost Amendments • Reforestation • Time http://www.cwp.org/Resource_Library/Center_Docs/PWP/ELC_PWP37.pdf Benefits ofBenefits of Compost AmendmentsCompost Amendments Compost Amendments Can: • Increase Porosity • Reduce Peak Flows • Produce Thicker lawns • Reduce Fertilizer Applications and Watering Needs • Create better lawns, faster http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/publications/reports/epa600r00016/epa600r00016.pdf EPA/600/R-00/016 Compost Amendments Appear to: • Increase Concentrations of N and P • Decrease Total N & P (Less water means lower concentration) • Amendments can be tilled or applied directly and reseeded. • 2:1 ratio soil to compost tilled to at least 12 inches • Construction compaction can reach 24 inches http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/publications/reports/epa600r00016/epa600r00016.pdf EPA/600/R-00/016 FAQ regardingFAQ regarding Compost AmendmentsCompost Amendments
  • 7. Barriers: It takes time and money to measure predevelopment conditions and post-development conditions Cost to amend soil decreases, per lot, as area amended increases Other perspectives onOther perspectives on Compost AmendmentsCompost Amendments LID Can Improve WaterLID Can Improve Water Quality & Water QuantityQuality & Water Quantity How we develop Where we develop (and where we do not) What we do with the Run-off (Pipe or Percolate) What is disturbed – What is conserved? LID Can Improve WaterLID Can Improve Water Quality & Water QuantityQuality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_resource.htm http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_density.htm
  • 8. LID Can Improve WaterLID Can Improve Water Quality & Water QuantityQuality & Water Quantity http://www.jordancove.uconn.edu/jordan_cove/publications/final_report.pdf • Impacts on Land Start At the Grading Stage • Fertilizers can have an impact on water quality, even in LID Neighborhoods • Volume and Peak Flows were kept at predevelopment levels. • Need to Control Compaction, Minimize Soil Disturbance, and have on-site supervision. LID Can Improve WaterLID Can Improve Water Quality & Water QuantityQuality & Water Quantity http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentID=112936 Conventional Development negatively impacts water-related ecosystems Impacts water Quality through • Impervious Surfaces • Introduction of Contaminants • Site Location of Development relative to natural features LID Can Improve WaterLID Can Improve Water Quality & Water QuantityQuality & Water Quantity http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentID=112936 Perceived Barrier: It costs more and does not provide a benefit to the builder Actual Barrier: Educating the entire community to the value versus costs of LID (Almost always costs less than conventional)
  • 9. LID Can Improve WaterLID Can Improve Water Quality & Water QuantityQuality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf … (In) the vast majority of cases, significant savings were realized due to: • reduced costs for site grading and preparation, • stormwater infrastructure, site paving, and landscaping. • Total capital cost savings ranged from 15 to 80 percent when LID methods were used... LID Can Improve WaterLID Can Improve Water Quality & Water QuantityQuality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf LID Can Improve WaterLID Can Improve Water Quality & Water QuantityQuality & Water Quantity Managing stormwater in Pierce County: Kensington Estates case study sheds light on low impact development http://www.djc.com/news/en/11135654.html • Site Design was 103 Lots on 24 Acres • Conventional Site Design required 270,000 Cu Ft of Stormwater Facilities • LID Required 55,000 cu ft of stormwater facilities • 62% of land was saved as open space • Cost Savings of 20% to the Developer • 10% More units were able to be built than conventional design would have allowed.
  • 10. LID: How do we defineLID: How do we define conservation/disturbedconservation/disturbed Type of ResidentialType of Residential DevelopmentDevelopment DisturbedDisturbed SpaceSpace Open SpaceOpen Space Conserved SpaceConserved Space Low DensityLow Density (e.g. 1 unit/2a)(e.g. 1 unit/2a) Could be entireCould be entire sitesite YesYes –– may bemay be yardyard NoNo ClusterCluster Could Be entireCould Be entire sitesite FragmentedFragmented NoNo Open SpaceOpen Space 50% or less50% or less 50% or More50% or More Open Space canOpen Space can be undevelopablebe undevelopable ConservationConservation Less than 50%Less than 50% More than 50%More than 50% UndevelopableUndevelopable area excludedarea excluded Barrier(s): How each is defined varies by community/county What is being conserved?What is being conserved? Belvedere Subdivision – Charlottesville, VA http://www.belvedereneighborhood.com What is being conserved?What is being conserved? Hidden Lakes Preserve – Wake Forest, NC http://www.hiddenlake-crescent.com 2008 Green Project of the Year NAHB Green Building Award
  • 11. What is being conserved?What is being conserved? Pleasant Green Farms – Hillsborough, NC – Durham County http://www.pleasantgreenfarms.com/PropertyMap.aspx What is being conserved?What is being conserved? Bundoran Farm -- North Garden, VA http://www.bundoranfarm.com/ What is being conserved?What is being conserved? Bundoran Farm -- North Garden, VA http://www.bundoranfarm.com/ Pale Yellow – Public Viewshed Pale Peach – Productive Farmland Green/Dark Blue – Active Forestry Wildlife Habitat Aqua Stream Corridor & Wetlands
  • 12. What is being conserved?What is being conserved? Bundoran Farm -- North Garden, VA http://www.bundoranfarm.com/ Pale Yellow – Public Viewshed Pale Peach – Productive Farmland Green/Dark Blue – Active Forestry Wildlife Habitat Aqua Stream Corridor & Wetlands What is being conserved?What is being conserved? Bundoran Farm -- North Garden, VA http://www.bundoranfarm.com/ Pale Yellow – Public Viewshed Pale Peach – Productive Farmland Green/Dark Blue – Active Forestry Wildlife Habitat Aqua Stream Corridor & Wetlands What is being conserved?What is being conserved? Bundoran Farm -- North Garden, VA http://www.bundoranfarm.com/ Pale Yellow – Public Viewshed Pale Peach – Productive Farmland Green/Dark Blue – Active Forestry Wildlife Habitat Aqua Stream Corridor & Wetlands
  • 13. Need to change thinking fromNeed to change thinking from stormwater as waste tostormwater as waste to stormwater as resource.stormwater as resource. http://waterparadigm.org/indexen.php?web=./home/homeen.html http://www.onthecommons.org/media/pdf/original/OurWaterC omonsOctober2008English.pdf Barrier: Need to change the way we think about water Need to change thinking fromNeed to change thinking from stormwater as waste tostormwater as waste to stormwater as resource.stormwater as resource. http://www.clemson.edu/restoration/events/past_events/sc_water_re sources/t4_proceedings_presentations/t4_zip/zimmer.pdf http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf Barrier: We cannot solve our problems at the same level of thinking that created them We need a new way of looking at our water quality and water quantity problems Need to change fromNeed to change from Environment or Economy toEnvironment or Economy to Environment & EconomyEnvironment & Economy http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf “An urban area is an ecological system wherein humans, habitat, transportation and water infrastructure, and terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna exist in symbiosis and interdependence. Urban fresh waters are the lifeline for ecological and economical sustainability, yet the fresh water resources are being impaired to a point that the integrity of urban waters has been damaged by excessive development and overuse….”
  • 14. Need to Change thinking fromNeed to Change thinking from stormwater as waste tostormwater as waste to stormwater as resourcestormwater as resource.. http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf The concept of the Cities of the Future, the fifth paradigm of urbanization… is a paradigm of integration • Future, and existing, urban developments will accommodate landscape, drainage, transportation and habitat infrastructure systems • Cities will be resilient to extreme hydrological events and pollution • There will be an optimal balance between recreation, navigation and other economic uses of water. All Development Impacts Water Quality Highest use versus the best use of the land Wetlands and stream buffers are undervalued One community’s outflow is another community’s intake Reducing usage of drinking water for irrigation and toilets Water is WaterWater is Water Paradigm ShiftParadigm Shift Barriers to ImplementingBarriers to Implementing LEED Across the RegionLEED Across the Region Similar to Implementing LID “Everybody knows….” it costs more. http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908
  • 15. Barriers to ImplementingBarriers to Implementing LEED Across the RegionLEED Across the Region • Sometimes, its is not about the costs (price,) rather it is really playing up the benefits http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908 Barriers to ImplementingBarriers to Implementing LEED Across the RegionLEED Across the Region Cost premiums ranging from ZERO% to 6.27% Energy Savings from 23% to 50% Water Savings from Zero to 78% Case Study: ResidentialCase Study: Residential DevelopmentDevelopment http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/316990__914017852.pdf • 73 Projects • Range Under 5 Acres to Over 100 Acres • Utilization of LEED techniques depend on points awarded and cost to develop • Gold and Platinum Certified Utilize Green Technologies and Green Construction • Platinum tend to include affordable housing and Habitat/wetland restoration
  • 16. Photograph: Chuck Burton AP May 5, 2010 News and Observer Halted construction fills N.C. waterways with silt BY PAGE IVEY - The Associated Press http://www.danapointtimes.com/view/full_story/10385460/article-Keep-Your-Water--New-Regional-Water-Quality-Control-Board-Water-Quality-Regulations-? November 19, 2010 San Diego – South Orange County Restrictions on Lawn Run-off Restrictions on Car wash Run- off "When all the plants have grown up, you don't actually see any of the green plastic. It's just a lush green environment on top of the pond, so in theory there's a habitat for fish, frogs, wildlife as well." Ryan Winston Our Floating Future?Our Floating Future? • Research by NC State University and Bill Hunt • Being Tested in City of Durham – Hillendale Golf Course and Museum of Life and Science • Originated in Montana (2000) • Costs: $30/sq ft • Benefit: “natural” removal of Phosphorus and Nitrogen using wetland/bog plants News and Observer – 4/14/2010
  • 17. Barriers to ImplementingBarriers to Implementing LID Across the RegionLID Across the Region Need to look at Decentralized solution for a Decentralized problem Our ordinances hold us back “Everybody knows….” Maintaining it after it is built ConclusionConclusion We have a new resource We can ‘sing from the same songbook.’ We can customize our solutions to meet the requirements of our communities and our region. We can have a Win-Win-Win for the consumer, the developer, and the community. If we ‘only’ apply to new construction, existing conditions will ‘only’ not get worse.
  • 18. http://www.ecospecifier.org/ http://www.bre.co.uk/index.jsp http://www.pharosproject.net/ http://www.bluewildernessgroup.com/ Jon Barsanti Jr.Jon Barsanti Jr. jbarsanti@alumni.unc.edujbarsanti@alumni.unc.edu 919.943.1915919.943.1915 Presentation available atPresentation available at http://www.slideshare.net/JonBarsantiJrhttp://www.slideshare.net/JonBarsantiJr