• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
LID and Policy May 2010 (final)
 

LID and Policy May 2010 (final)

on

  • 624 views

PDF version of my presentation. Focuses on Barriers to Implementing LID and LEED. Gives references to and examples of advantages for LID - including potential lower front-end and back-end costs, as ...

PDF version of my presentation. Focuses on Barriers to Implementing LID and LEED. Gives references to and examples of advantages for LID - including potential lower front-end and back-end costs, as well as better water quality. LEED examples show energy and health benefits for LEED constructed schools. JAPA Article shows what techniques are used in LEED-ND developments.

ALL development occurs in a watershed
All development has a water profile LID can improve Water Quality and Water Quantity
Need to view run-off as a resource

Statistics

Views

Total Views
624
Views on SlideShare
624
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    LID and Policy May 2010 (final) LID and Policy May 2010 (final) Presentation Transcript

    • LID and Policy: Sustainable Development Practices What is Stopping Us? Jon Barsanti Jr Masters in City and Regional Planning BA Interdisciplinary Study in Biology and Chemistry jbarsanti@alumni.unc.edu 919.943.1915.
    • Developers Policy Makers Who Designers Decision Makers (Municipal/County)
    • Competitive Advantage (Others are not Doing it) It is good for the economy, Others are good for the community, and good for the Why Doing It; Can do It Better environment Others are doing it and if I/We don’t adopt/adapt I/We will lose out to other communities/developers
    • Don’t want to learn new way of doing business Want to do it; Have designers to do it; Have planners on Why Want to do it; Don’t have a board; Meeting resistance from elected Not designer to show how officials Want to do it; Have a designer who knows how to do it; Having a difficult time getting approved
    • All Development Occurs in a Watershed All Land Uses have a Water Profile LID can improve Water Quality and Quantity Need to view Run-off as a Resource
    • All Development Occurs in a Watershed Three Parts of a Watershed Watershed Critical Areas Watershed Protected Areas Remainder of the Watershed Barriers: • “Highest and Best Use of the Land;” • One person’s/community’s out-flow is another’s intake
    • All Development Occurs in a Watershed Wetlands are nature’s filtration system Wetlands manage volume and sediment load Wetlands are key to wildlife habitat preservation Barrier: Wetland is undevelopable; Can fill and replace, although manufactured is not as good as natural
    • All Development Occurs in a Watershed Stream Buffers protect encroachment on ecosystem by development Stream Buffers Protect development from encroachment by ecosystem (e.g. floods.) Barriers: Inconsistent setbacks between communities; Vertical versus Horizontal Setbacks
    • All Land Uses have a Water Profile Volume of water flow Nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Suspended Solids) Temperature of water flowing off the land Toxins (Oil, antifreeze, other chemicals) Bacteria (Pet Waste, etc.) From Kimberly Brewer’s Presentation to the TJCOG Smart Growth Committee ftp://ftp.tjcog.org/pub/tjcog/regplan/smrtgrow/devwq.pdf
    • All Land Uses have a Water Profile Sources Land-Use Contribution Contribution to N Load to P Load Residential (SF) 14% 29% 12% Residential (MF) 1% Agriculture 20% 36% 51% Forest 56% 19% 15% Commercial/ 3% 9% 6% Industrial Other 6% 7% 16% Data from A Nutrient Credit Trading Framework for the Jordan Lake Watershed: Using Market-Based Mechanisms to Make Watershed Restoration More Cost-Effective http://www.cfra-nc.org/documents/FinalReport-FullReport_000.pdf
    • All BMPs have a Volume/Pollutant Profile Volume of water flow Suspended Solids Nitrogen Phosphorus STORMWATER FLOW AND QUALITY, AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NON-PROPRIETARY STORMWATER TREATMENT MEASURES — A REVIEW AND GAP ANALYSIS (2004) Monash University (Australia) http://www.catchment.crc.org.au/pdfs/technical200408.pdf
    • Table 1: Comparison of Bulk Density for undisturbed Soils and Common Urban Conditions (Compiled from various sources) Undisturbed Soil Type or Urban Surface Bulk Condition Density (g/cc) Peat 0.2 to 0.3 Compost 1.0 Sandy Soil 1.1 to 1.3 Silty sands 1.4 Silt 1.3 to 1.4 Silt Loams 1.2 to 1.5 Organic Silts/Clays 1.0 to 1.2 Glacial Till 1.6 to 2.0 Urban Lawns 1.5 to 1.9 Crushed Rock Parking Lot 1.5 to 2.0 Urban Fill Soils 1.8 to 2.0 Athletic Fields 1.8 to 2.0 ROW and Building Pads 1.5 to 1.8 (85% Compaction) ROW and Building Pads 1.6 to 2.1 (95% Compaction) Concrete Pavement 2.2 Quartzite 2.65 http://www.cwp.org/Resource_Library/Center_Docs/PWP/ELC_PWP36.pdf
    • Reversing of Compacted Soils • Soil Amendments • Compost Amendments • Reforestation http://www.cwp.org/Resource_Library/Center_Docs/PWP/ELC_PWP37.pdf • Time
    • Benefits and Consequences of Compost Amendments Compost Amendments Can: • Increase Porosity • Reduce Peak Flows • Produce Thicker lawns • Reduce Fertilizer Applications and Watering Needs • Create better lawns, faster http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/publications/reports/epa600r00016/epa600r00016.pdf EPA/600/R-00/016
    • Benefits and Consequences of Compost Amendments Compost Amendments May: • Increase Concentrations of N and P (Decrease Total Amounts) • May lose benefits over time • Amendments can be tilled or applied directly and reseeded. • 2:1 ratio soil to compost tilled to at least 12 inches • Construction compaction can reach 24 inches http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/publications/reports/epa600r00016/epa600r00016.pdf EPA/600/R-00/016
    • All Land Uses have a Water Profile Barriers: It takes time and money to measure predevelopment conditions and post-development conditions Cost to amend soil decreases, per lot, as area amended increases
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity How we develop Where we develop (and where we do not) What we do with the Run-off (Pipe or Percolate)
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_resource.htm http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_density.htm
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity • Impacts on Land Start At the Grading Stage • Fertilizers can have an impact on water quality, even in LID Neighborhoods • Volume and Peak Flows were kept at predevelopment levels. • Need to Control Compaction, Minimize Soil Disturbance, and have on-site supervision. http://www.jordancove.uconn.edu/jordan_cove/publications/final_report.pdf
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity Development Impacts Water Quality • Alters Stormwater and Wastewater Flows • Negatively Impacts water-related ecosystems • Impacts water Quality through • Creation of Impervious Surfaces • Spatial Position of Development relative to natural features • Introduction of Contaminants • Impacts Wastewater through consumption of water and the Stormwater it generates http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentID=112936
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity National Association of Home-Builders has a large amount of information regarding costs and benefits of Low Impact Development Perceived Barrier: It costs more and does not provide a benefit to the builder Actual Barrier: Educating the entire community to the value versus costs of LID (Lower Stormwater Costs, more land can be developed; cost savings to the community, etc.) http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentID=112936
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity … (In) the vast majority of cases, significant savings were realized due to: • reduced costs for site grading and preparation, • stormwater infrastructure, site paving, and landscaping. • Total capital cost savings ranged from 15 to 80 percent when LID methods were used... http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity • Site Design was 103 Lots on 24 Acres • Conventional Site Design required 270,000 Cu Ft of Stormwater Facilities • LID Required 55,000 cu ft of stormwater facilities • 62% of land was saved as open space • Cost Savings of 20% to the Developer • 10% More units were able to be built than conventional design would have allowed. Managing stormwater in Pierce County: Kensington Estates case study sheds light on low impact development http://www.djc.com/news/en/11135654.html
    • LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity Type of Residential Disturbed Open Space Conserved Space Development Space Low Density Could be entire Yes – may be No (e.g. 1 unit/2a) site yard Cluster Could Be entire Fragmented No site Open Space 50% or less 50% or More Open Space can be undevelopable Conservation Less than 50% More than 50% Undevelopable area excluded Barrier(s): How each is defined varies by community/county
    • Need to change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. Barrier: Need to change the way we think about water http://waterparadigm.org/indexen.php?web=./home/homeen.html http://www.onthecommons.org/media/pdf/original/OurWaterC omonsOctober2008English.pdf
    • Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. Barrier: We cannot solve our problems at the same level of thinking that created them We need a new way of looking at our water quality and water quantity problems http://www.clemson.edu/restoration/events/past_events/sc_water_re http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM sources/t4_proceedings_presentations/t4_zip/zimmer.pdf ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf
    • Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. “An urban area is an ecological system wherein humans, habitat, transportation and water infrastructure, and terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna exist in symbiosis and interdependence. Urban fresh waters are the lifeline for ecological and economical sustainability, yet the fresh water resources are being impaired to a point that the integrity of urban waters has been damaged by excessive development and overuse….” http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf
    • Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. The concept of the Cities of the Future, the fifth paradigm of urbanization… is a paradigm of integration • Future, and existing, urban developments will accommodate landscape, drainage, transportation and habitat infrastructure systems • Cities will be resilient to extreme hydrological events and pollution • There will be adequate amounts of clean water for sustaining healthy human, terrestrial and aquatic lives • There will be an optimal balance between recreation, navigation and other economic uses of water. http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUM ENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf
    • Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. SESSION LAW 2009-243 HOUSE BILL 749 “The Code may include rules pertaining to the construction or renovation of residential or commercial buildings and structures that permit the use of cisterns to provide water for flushing toilets and for outdoor irrigation. No State, county, or local building code or regulation shall prohibit the use of cisterns to provide water for flushing toilets and for outdoor irrigation. As used in this subsection, 'cistern' means a storage tank that is watertight; has smooth interior surfaces and enclosed lids; is fabricated from nonreactive materials such as reinforced concrete, galvanized steel, or plastic; is designed to collect rainfall from a catchment area; may be installed indoors or outdoors; and is located underground, at ground level, or on elevated stands.”
    • Barriers to Implementing LID Across the Region • All Development Impacts Water Quality (Discharge, Consumption, Compaction of Soil) (Includes 10% Impervious Surface and above – as well as 10% Compacted Surfaces and above. • Highest Use of the land versus the Best Use of the land • Need to Change the way we think (Paradigm Shift) • Water is Water • Wetlands and streams are undervalued • One Community’s Outflow is another Community’s Intake
    • Barriers to Implementing LEED Across the Region • “Everybody knows….” it costs more. http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908
    • Barriers to Implementing LEED Across the Region • Sometimes, its is not about the costs (price,) rather it is really playing up the benefits http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908
    • Barriers to Implementing LEED Across the Region Cost premiums ranging from ZERO% to 6.27% Energy Savings from 23% to 50% Water Savings from Zero to 78% http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908
    • Case Study: Residential Development • 73 Projects • Range Under 5 Acres to Over 100 Acres • Utilization of LEED techniques depend on points awarded and cost to develop • Gold and Platinum Certified Utilize Green Technologies and Green Construction • Platinum tend to include affordable housing and http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/316990__914017852.pdf Habitat/wetland restoration
    • Halted construction fills N.C. waterways with silt BY PAGE IVEY - The Associated Press Photograph: Chuck Burton AP May 5, 2010 News and Observer
    • Our Floating Future? • Research by NC State University and Bill Hunt • Being Tested in City of Durham – Hillendale Golf Course and Museum of Life and Science • Originated in Montana (2000) • Costs: $30/sq ft "When all the plants have grown up, you don't actually see any of the green plastic. • Benefit: “natural” It's just a lush green environment on top of removal of Phosphorus and the pond, so in theory there's a habitat for Nitrogen using fish, frogs, wildlife as well." Ryan Winston wetland/bog plants News and Observer – 4/14/2010
    • Barriers to Implementing LID Across the Region • Need to look at Decentralized solution for a Decentralized problem • Our ordinances hold us back (e.g. State law now requires communities to allow the use of cisterns and to not prohibit their use; Definitions of Conservation Subdivisions; Transfer of Development Rights) • “Everybody knows….”
    • Post Construction Maintenance • Fertilizer • Animal Waste • Drought Tolerant Plants • Native Plants • Over-watering
    • Conclusion We have a new resource We can ‘sing from the same songbook.’ We can customize our solutions to meet the requirements of our communities and our region. We can have a Win-Win-Win for the consumer, the developer, and the community. If we ‘only’ apply to new construction, existing conditions will ‘only’ not get worse.
    • Jon Barsanti Jr. jbarsanti@alumni.unc.edu 919.943.1915 Presentation available at http://www.slideshare.net/JonBarsantiJr