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Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
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Membrane pt.1


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Unit 4

Unit 4

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  • 1. Membranes Structure & Function ~Transport & Signaling
  • 2. The Cell Membrane
    • Sometimes called the plasma membrane
    • Outer boundary of lipids and proteins
      • Formed of phospholipids
      • Proteins are embedded in the lipids
    • The membrane is approximately 5 nm thick
    • Holds the cell together - gives it shape
    • Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
  • 3. The Phospholipid Bilayer
    • Biological membranes are a bilayer formed from phospholipids .
    • Phospholipids create a spherical, three dimensional shell around the cell.
    • They are often represented 2-dimensionally as:
  • 4. Orientation of Phospholipids
    • Each phospholipid has a negatively charged phosphate head
      • These are hydrophilic
    • The heads point out : toward the environment and the interior of the cell
    • Each phospholipid has two tails that are highly hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains
    • The tails orient in , towards each other and away from the watery exterior of the cell
      • Create a hydrophobic interior part of the membrane
  • 5.  
  • 6. Membrane Polarity
  • 7. The Fluid Mosaic
    • Lipid bilayers are fluid
      • Individual phospholipids diffuse throughout the 2-dimensional surface
    • Mosaic property of the membrane
      • proteins, cholesterol and other molecules are embedded in the phospholipids
    • Membrane proteins diffuse throughout the membrane
  • 8.  
  • 9. Membrane Fluidity
    • Several factors influence membrane fluidity:
    • Cholesterol
      • A necessary component of biological membranes
      • Breaks up Van der Waals forces and the close packing of phospholipid tails
      • Makes membrane more fluid
      • Regulating cholesterol regulates membrane fluidity
    • Ratio of saturated to unsaturated hydrocarbon chains in phospholipids
      • Impacts fluidity
      • Phospholipids with saturated hydrocarbon chains pack close together & form numerous Van der Waals bonds
  • 10.  
  • 11. The Membrane is Semi-permeable
    • The arrangement of phopholipids and embedded proteins makes the membrane semipermeable
    • Some molecules are allowed to pass freely (diffuse) through the membrane.
    • Other molecules cannot enter the cell
      • Virtually impermeable to large molecules
      • Molecules as small as charged ions need a special process to enter the cell
      • Quite permeable to lipid soluble low molecular weight molecules (like CO 2 & O 2 ).
  • 12. Homeostasis
    • The process of maintaining a stable internal environment despite changing external conditions
    • The cells' environment is surrounded by fluids
    • The cytoplasm is mostly water
    • Most transport involves molecules in liquid state, in solution
      • solvent - water in most cell processes
      • solute
  • 13. Diffusion
    • Molecules move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
    • This process continues until the material is evenly distributed throughout the substance
    • A major means of molecular transport in the cell
    • Diffusion through membrane doesn't require energy
    • Increased temperature increases diffusion rate
    • Increased pressure increases diffusion rate
    • Limited by the diffusion rate of the molecule
    • Effective for some substances: e.g. water
  • 14. The Concentration Gradient
    • Diffusion occurs down a concentration gradient
    • Concentration gradient
      • Difference in concentration of molecules of a substance from the highest to the lowest concentration
    • Moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is moving with the concentration gradient
    • The steeper the concentration gradient (greater difference between concentrations) the more rapid the diffusion.
  • 15.  
  • 16. Osmosis
    • Diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
    • Water flows back and forth across the cell membrane until the concentration of water molecules is = on each side
    • When concentration is = on both sides: equilibrium
    • Concentration of water on each side of membrane determined by concentration of solutes in water
    • Requires no energy
  • 17.  
  • 18. Solute Concentration
    • The concentration of water on each side of membrane determined by concentration of solutes in water
    • Isotonic Solution
      • concentration of solutes inside = outside
      • rate of osmosis equal both ways
    • Hypotonic
      • concentration of solutes outside is less than inside
      • water moves from solution into cell
    • Hypertonic
      • concentration outside is greater than concentration inside
      • water flows out of cells
  • 19. Water Balance
  • 20. Cells in Hypotonic Solution
    • Hypotonic
      • concentration of solutes outside is less than inside
      • water moves from solution into cell
    • Osmotic Pressure
      • Pressure caused inside a cell or any sack by the passage of water in through osmosis
    • Freshwater plants
    • Turgor = pressure in cells from water flowing in
      • causes cell to be rigid
      • cell wall prevents bursting
    • Animal cells can't reach equilibrium in hypotonic solution because they lack a cell wall
      • Some cells have developed mechanisms to remove excess water before they burst
  • 21. Contractile Vacuole
  • 22. Cells in Hypertonic Solution
    • In hypertonic solution cells shrivel because water flows out of the cell
    • Drinking sea water
    • Road salt bad for plants
    • Some animals are specially adapted
      • Salmon 
  • 23. Carrier Transport
    • Most molecules cannot move across the membrane freely
      • Require carriers
    • Carrier molecules are proteins in the cell membrane
      • transport large molecules or molecules that cannot dissolve in the lipids that make up the cell membrane
    •   2 types:
      • Facilitated Diffusion
      • Active Transport
  • 24. Facilitated Diffusion
    • Like simple diffusion
    • Substances move with the concentration gradient
    • Carrier molecules speed up the movement of the diffusing substances
    • Protein channels
    • Allows charged molecules that couldn’t cross the membrane to diffuse freely in & out of the cell
    • Greatest use is small ions: Na + , K + , Cl -
    • Speed is limited by the number of protein channels, not the concentration gradient
  • 25. Picturing Facilitated Diffusion
  • 26. Active Transport
    • Also uses carrier molecules
    • Involves movement of materials against the concentration gradient
      • e.g. liver cells store glucose - have higher concentration of glucose than surrounding tissue, so active transport needed to move glucose in.
    • Requires energy
    • Two categories:
      • Primary & secondary
  • 27. Primary Active Transport
    • Uses energy at the membrane protein itself to cause a conformational change
      • Energy from ATP hydrolysis
    • Shape change results in transport of molecule through the protein
    • Best known is Na + /K + pump
    • Antiport
      • Transports K + in and Na + out at the same time
  • 28. The Na + /K + Pump – An Antiport
  • 29. Secondary Active Transport
    • Uses energy to establish a gradient across the cell membrane
    • Utilizes the gradient to transport the desired molecule up its concentration gradient
  • 30. Establishing a Gradient
  • 31. The E.coli Lactose Symport
    • Symport
      • coupled transport in the same direction across a cell membrane
    • E. coli establishes a proton (H+) gradient across the cell membrane
    • Uses energy to pump protons out of the cell
    • Those protons are coupled to lactose at the lactose permease transmembrane protein
    • Lactose permease uses the energy of the protons moving down their concentration gradient to transport lactose into the cell
  • 32. A Model Symport
  • 33. The Lactose Symport
  • 34. The Na + -Glucose Symport
    • Another secondary active transport system
    • Uses the Na + -K + pump as its first step
    • Establishes a strong Na + gradient across the cell membrane
    • Glucose-Na + symport protein uses the Na + gradient to transport glucose into the cell
  • 35. The Na + -Glucose Symport
  • 36. Na + -Glucose Symport in Gut Epithelium
    • Used in human gut epithelial cells
    • Cells take in glucose and Na + from the intestines
    • Transport them through the blood stream using Na + -glucose symports, glucose permease (a glucose facilitated diffusion protein) & the Na+/K+ pump
    • Epithelial cells are joined together by tight junctions
      • Prevent anything from leaking through from the intestines to the blood stream without being filtered by the epithelial cells
  • 37. Na + -Glucose Symport in Gut Epithelium
  • 38. Bulk Transport
    • Allows movement across the cell boundary without passing through the membrane
    • Materials that cannot pass through the membrane need to be transported into or out of the cell
      • e.g. droplets of fluid, particles of food, etc.
    •   Endocytosis
      • Bulk transport into the cell
      • Cell membrane encloses particle forming a pouch
      • Phagocytosis = feeding this way (amoebas, packman)
      • Pinocytosis = movement of liquids with solutes this way
    •   Exocytosis
      • the reverse - bulk transport out of cell
    • Require energy
  • 39. Endocytosis