A-Z of digital termsThis A-Z of digital media terms will help you understand what they actuallymean.From algorithms and avatars through to MPU and Unique User, this guide willhelp you get to grips with the most frequently used terms at the heart of onlineadvertising.A-Z of Digital Media TermsAd ImpressionAn advertisement‟s single appearance on a user‟s browser. For example, if thepage you‟re on shows three ads, that‟s three ad impressions. Advertisers useimpressions to measure the number of views their ads receive, and publisherssometimes sell their ad space according to impressions.Ad NetworkAn aggregate seller or broker of advertising inventory for multiple webproperties, usually allowing a campaign to run across many sites with a singleinsertion order e.g Google Display network.Ad ServingDelivery of online adverts to an end user‟s computer by an ad managementsystem. The system allows different online adverts to be served in order totarget different audience groups and can serve adverts across multiple sites. Sorather than supplying your ad to several different publishers individually, youupload the ad into an adserver and the publishers pull in the ads from theadserver. DART and Doubleclick are two of the most popular Ad Servingsolution providers.Affiliate MarketingAn agreement between two websites in which one site agrees to featurecontent or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. If a consumer visitingthe affiliate‟s site clicks on this advertisement and goes onto perform aspecified action (usually a purchase) on an advertiser‟s site then the affiliatereceives a commission.AlgorithmThe set of „rules‟ a search engine may use to determine the relevance of a webpage (and therefore ranking) in its organic search results. See also organicsearch results and Search Engine Optimisation.
Augmented reality (AR)A term for a live direct or an indirect view of a physical, real-worldenvironment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensoryinput such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more generalconcept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possiblyeven diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, thetechnology functions by enhancing one‟s current perception of reality.AvatarA picture or cartoon used to represent an individual in chat forums, games oron a website as a help function.BannerAn online advert usually found running on commercial websites.Behavioural TargetingA form of online marketing that uses advertising technology to target web usersbased on their previous behaviour. Advertising creative and content can betailored to be of more relevance to a particular user by capturing theirprevious decision making behaviour (e.g.: filling out preferences or visitingcertain areas of a site frequently) and looking for patterns.BetaA test version of a product or service, prior to final release.BlogAn online space regularly updated presenting the opinions or activities of oneor a group of individuals and displaying in chronological order.ButtonA small square online advert usually found embedded within a website page.BroadbandAn internet connection that is always on and that delivers a higher bit rate(128kbps or above) than a standard dial-up connection. It allows for a betteronline experience as pages load quickly and you can download items faster.Click-throughWhen a user interacts with an advertisement and clicks through to theadvertiser‟s website.CTR (click-through rate)Frequency of click-throughs as a percentage of impressions served.
Contextual advertisingAdvertising that is targeted to the content on the Web page being viewed by auser at that specific time.CookieA small text file on the user‟s PC that identifies the user‟s browser and hence,users are „recognised‟ when they re-visit a site e.g.: it allows usernames to bestored and websites to personalise their offering.Conversion rateA measure of success for an online ad when compared to the click-throughrate. What defines a „conversion‟ depends on the marketing objective e.g.: itcan be defined as a sale or request to receive more information...etc.CPA (Cost-Per-Action)Cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action inresponse to an ad. “Actions” include such things as a sales transaction, acustomer acquisition, or a click.CPC (Cost- Per-Click)The cost an advertiser pays to acquire a click-through.CPL (Cost-Per-Lead)Cost of advertising based on the number of generated leads recorded.CPM (Cost per Mille)Also known as Cost per Thousand. M is the Roman numeral for thousand; henceCPM rather than CPT. Online advertising can be purchased on the basis of whatit costs to show the ad to one thousand viewers (CPM).CRMShort for customer relationship marketing, describing campaigns specificallytargeted to increasing brand loyalty.Deep-linking AdvertLinking beyond a home page to a page inside the site with content pertinent tothe advert.Domain NameThe unique name of an internet site e.g. www.playhousecomm.com.Drill DownWhen a website visitor accesses additional pages and goes deeper into awebsite.
EmoticonsEmoticon symbols are used to indicate mood in an electronic mode ofcommunication e.g.: email or windows live instant messenger. :-).Expandable banner/skyscraperOnline advertising placements that expand over the page in the response touser action e.g.: mouse-over. See also Rich Media.ExtranetA private network or website that uses Internet technology and the publictelecommunication system to securely share part of business‟s internalinformation or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, orother businesses.FlashWeb design software that creates animation and interactive elements whichare quick to download.3G3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standardsfor mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling theInternational Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by theInternational Telecommunication Union. Application services include wide-areawireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, allin a mobile environment.4G4G is the 4th Generation of standards for mobile phones and mobiletelecommunications that adheres to the IMT Advanced specifications by theInternational Telecommunication Union. It is a successor to the 3G and 2Gfamilies of standards. Mobile telecommunications that use 4G are expected toprovide a comprehensive and secure IP based mobile broadband solution tolaptop computer wireless modems, smartphones, and other mobile devices.HitAlso known as page hit, is the retrieval of any file from a web server, includesweb pages and all associated image files, i.e. every file and image on a websitewill record a hit. This term is commonly used by many as a measure of successfor website traffic but some argue that unique visitors and page impressionsare more appropriate variables to use.HomepageThe main entrance page of a website.
Hot SpotAn area of an image or a section of a text that activates a function whenclicked on.HTMLStands for Hyper Text Mark-up Language, which is the set of commands used byweb browsers to interpret and display page content to users.HyperlinkHighlighted words or images that take you to another section within the samedocument or retrieves a different document.ImpressionThe metric used to measure views of a webpage and all its parts - including theadvertising embedded within it. Ad Impressions is how most online advertisingis sold and the cost is quoted in terms of the cost per thousand impressions(CPM).Instant messagingSending messages and chatting with friends or colleagues in real-time when youare both online via a special application. Windows Live Messenger is the mostpopular application.Interruptive formatsOnline advertising formats that appear on users‟ screens on top of web content(and sometimes before web pages appear) and range from static, one-pagesplash screens to full-motion animated advertisements. See also overlay andpop-up.Interstitial AdsAre ads that appear between two content pages. Also known as splash pagesand transition ads. See also Rich Media.IntranetA network based on TCP/IP protocols that belongs to an organisation and isaccessible only by the organisation‟s internal members, employees or otherswith specific authorisation.InventoryThe number of advertising impressions available to be sold to interested thirdparties.
IP addressThe numerical internet address assigned to each computer on a network so thatit can be distinguished from other computers. Expressed as four groups ofnumbers separated by dots.IPTV (Internet Protocol TV)The use of a broadband connection to stream digital television over theinternet to subscribed users.ISP (Internet Service Provider)A company which provides users with the means to connect to the internet.E.g.: Starcomms, Mobitel, Swift , etc...Jump Page AdA micro-site which is reached after a click-through from an interactive ad,usually with specific content that provides advertising message continuity. Thisis normally frequency capped so users are not continually exposed to theadvertising each time they visit the web site where the jump page is running.Keyword marketingThe purchase of keywords (or „search terms‟) by advertisers in search listings.Link PopularityRefers to the number and quality of inbound links to a web site from other websites. One of the highest quality inbound links is a link from a major directorysuch as Yahoo!Log filesA record of all the hits a web server has received over a given period of time.Meta-tags/ descriptionsHTML tags that identify the content of a web page for the search engines.MicrositeA sub-site reached via clicking on an ad. The user stays on the publisher‟swebsite but has access to more information from the advertiser.MPU (Middle Page Unit or Multi Purpose Unit)A square or rectangle online advert usually found embedded in a web page in afixed placement. Called „multi purpose‟ as it is a flexible shaped blank „canvas‟in which you can serve flat or more interactive content as desired.Natural search resultsThe „natural‟ search results that appear in a separate section (usually the mainbody of the page) to the paid listings. The results listed here have not been
paid for and are ranked by the search engine (using spiders or algorithmsaccording to relevancy to the term searched upon.Opt-inAn individual has given a company permission to use his/her data for marketingpurposes.Opt-outAn individual has stated that they do not want a company to use his/her datafor marketing purposes.Organic search resultsThe „natural‟ search results that appear in a separate section (usually the mainbody of the page) to the paid listings. The results listed here have not beenpaid for and are ranked by the search engine (using spiders or algorithms)according to relevancy to the term searched upon. See also spider, algorithm,SEO.OverlayOnline advertising content that appears over the top of the webpage content.Paid InclusionIn exchange for a payment, a search engine will guarantee to list/review pagesfrom a website. It is not guaranteed that the pages will rank well for particularqueries – this still depends on the search engine‟s underlying relevancy process.Paid ListingsThe search results list in which advertisers pay to be featured according to thePPC model. This list usually appears in a separate section to the organic searchresults- usually at the top of the page or down the right hand side.Paid Search - See PPCPodcastingPodcasting involves making an audio file (usually in MP3 format) of content –usually in the form of a radio program- that is available to download to anMP3/4 player.Pop-upAn online advert that „pops up‟ in a window over the top of a web page. Seealso interruptive formats.PPC (Pay per Click)Allows advertisers to bid for a placement in the paid listings search results onterms that are relevant to their business. Advertisers pay the amount of their
bid only when a consumer clicks on their listing. Also called sponsored searchor paid search.Pre-rollThe name given to the adverts shown before, or whilst an online video isloading. There can be more than one and although they all vary in length, theyaverage between 10 to 21 seconds in duration.ReachThe number of unique web users potentially seeing a website one or moretimes in a given time period expressed as a percentage of the total active webpopulation for that period.Rich MediaIs the collective name for online advertising formats that use advancedtechnology to build brands. It uses interactive and audio-visual elements togive richer content and a richer experience for the user when interacting withthe advert. See also Interstitial, Superstitial, Overlay and Rich Media GuidelinesRobotA software programme that search engines like Google use that visits every URLon the web, follows all the links, and catalogues all the text of every web pagethat (i) contains text, and (ii) that can be visited or crawled. This is also knownas a spider or crawler.RSS (Really Simple Syndication)Software that allows you to flag website content (often from blogs or newsites) and aggregate new entries to this content into an easy to read formatthat is delivered directly to a user‟s PC. See also blogs.Second LifeSecond Life is one of the most widely known 3-D virtual worlds entirely builtand owned by its Residents. Check out this link for more informationhttp://secondlife.com/whatis/.SEM (Search Engine Marketing)The process which aims to get websites listed prominently in search-engineresults through search-engine optimisation, sponsored search and paidinclusion.See also PPC and SEO and Paid Inclusion.
SEO (Search Engine Optimisation)The process which aims to get websites listed prominently within searchengine‟s organic (algorithmic, spidered) search results. It involves making a site„search engine friendly‟. See also organic listings.ServerA host computer which maintains websites, newsgroups and email services.SessionThe time spent between a user starting an application, computer,website...etc and logging off or quitting.Site analyticsThe reporting and analysis of website activity - in particular user behaviour onthe site. All websites have a weblog which can be used for this purpose, butother third party software (e.g. Google Analytics) is available for a moresophisticated service.SkyscraperA long, vertical, online advert usually found running down the side of a page ina fixed placement. See also Universal Advertising Package.Sniffer SoftwareIs used to identify the capabilities of the user‟s browser and therefore candetermine compatibility with ad formats and serve them an advert they will beable to see/fully interact with (e.g.: GIF, Flash etc).Solus email advertisingWhere the body of the email is determined by the advertiser, including bothtext and graphical elements, and is sent on their behalf by an email listmanager/owner. Solus email advertising is conducted on an opt-in basis wherethe recipient has given their consent to receive communications.SpamUnsolicited junk mail.SpiderA programme which crawls the web and fetches web pages in order for them tobe indexed against keywords. Used by search engines to formulate searchresult pages. See also organic listings.StickinessMeasure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining its users. Usuallymeasured by the duration of the visit.
Streaming mediaCompressed audio/video which plays and downloads at the same time. The userdoes not have to wait for the whole file to download before it starts playing.SuperstitialsA form of rich media advertising which allows a TV-like experience on the web.It is fully pre-cached before playing.TenancyThe „renting‟ out of a section of a website by another brand which payscommission to this media owner for any revenue generated from this space.EG: used car search functionality inside portals or other high trafficked sites.TrafficThe number of visitors who visit a website.Universal Advertising PackageA set of online advertising formats that are standardised placements as definedthe by the IAB. See also banner, skyscraper and button.Unduplicated AudienceThe number of unique individuals exposed to a specified website oradvertisement in a given time period.Unique usersA measure of the total number of different users, or different computerterminals, that have visited a website determined through the use of enhancedtracking or user registrations.URL (Uniform Resource Locator)Technical term used to refer to the web address of a particular website. Forexample www.playhousecomm.com.User generated contentOnline content created by website users rather than media owners orpublishers – either through reviews, blogging, podcasting or posting comments,pictures or video clips. Sites that encourage user generated content includeMySpace, Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia and Bebo.View-Through Conversion/ Post-view ConversionThe definition of a view-through conversion is a user who is exposed to an adunit, does not click-through, but does come back and make a purchase orprovide some desired action within the number of days set in the conversionwindow.
Viral MarketingThe term “viral advertising” refers to the idea that people will pass on andshare compelling and entertaining content; this is often sponsored by a brand,which is looking to build awareness of a product or service. These viralcommercials often take the form of funny video clips, or interactive Flashgames, images, and even text.VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol)Technology that allows the use of a broadband Internet connection to maketelephone calls. (e.g. Skype).WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)Standard for providing mobile data services on hand-held devices.Web 2.0Is a phrase used to describe the growth in websites where the content isgenerated by end users rather than by the site owner, e.g. Bebo, Facebook,YouTube etc...Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)The ability to connect to the internet wirelessly. Internet „hotspots‟ in coffeeshops and airports etc use this technology.WikiA wiki is a type of website that allows the visitors themselves to easily add,remove, and otherwise edit and change some available content, sometimeswithout the need for registration.