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Corrective Response To Misbehavior
 

Corrective Response To Misbehavior

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Proactive steps that adults can take in school settings to effective provide corrective feedback to behavioral learning errors.

Proactive steps that adults can take in school settings to effective provide corrective feedback to behavioral learning errors.

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    Corrective Response To Misbehavior Corrective Response To Misbehavior Presentation Transcript

    • Corrective Response to Misbehavior (Noncompliance) 4th Annual Missouri SWPBS Summer Institute Susan Brawley Regional SWPBS Consultant Heart of Missouri RPDC 1
    • Objectives •Define noncompliant behavior •Identify strategies for responding to noncompliant behavior •Identify strategies to reduce noncompliance and establish cooperation •Practice strategies •Discuss next steps 2
    • Look for what is the same and what is different in the following examples. 3
    • Tony often says he hates math. One morning he refused to open his math book, get out his notebook and was just sitting there. The teacher reminded him to get started. He said he hates math and folded his arms. The teacher approached him and said that he needs to get ready for math or he would have to do it during the break. He then pushed the math book on the floor and said he is not going to do any … (expletive) math. The teacher sent him to the office for noncompliance and disrespect. Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 4
    • Another student was having a bad day. She had troubles the evening before at home and had a big argument with another girl on the bus. In the first period, she made several mistakes on the History quiz and became very agitated mumbling that she never gets any help. The teacher came over and tried to help her correct the errors. She became more agitated and shouted angrily that she wants to be left alone. The teacher moved her to a corner of the room to calm her down and directed the rest of the class to keep working. Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 5
    • List what is the same in each example. List what is different in each Example. Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 6
    • Example 1 Example 2 Tony often says he hates math. One Another student was having a bad day. morning he refused to open his math She had troubles the evening before at book, get out his notebook and was home and had a big argument with just sitting there. The teacher another girl on the bus. In the first reminded him to get started. He said period, she made several mistakes on he hates math and folded his arms. the History quiz and became very agitated mumbling that she never gets The teacher approached him and said any help. that he needs to get ready for math or he would have to do it during the The teacher came over and tried to break. He then pushed the math book help her correct the errors. She on the floor and said he is not going to became more agitated and shouted do any … (expletive) math. angrily that she wants to be left alone. The teacher sent him to the office for The teacher moved her to a corner of noncompliance and disrespect. the room to calm her down and directed the rest of the class to keep working. 7
    • Conclusions 1. The Same: Each situation resulted in some level of noncompliance and escalation. 2. Difference: Each student had different needs implying different interventions. Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 8
    • Activity 2 Individual or Group Case Study Write down, either on an individual basis, or as a group response, an example of noncompliant behavior in your present or past experience. Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 9
    • Sound Familiar? “She just won’t mind. Once she gets set on something, that’s it and it is a real battle to get her to do anything else” (Kindergarten teacher) “She treats rules like a challenge, then goes out of her way to break them.” (Middle school teacher) “He gets very angry when he is asked to make corrections on his assignments and then shuts down and won’t do a thing.” (High school teacher) Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA:, Corwin, 6. 10
    • Noncompliance: SIGNIFICANCE & PREVALENCE Source: Office Referral Data •School Wide Information System (SWIS) •1709 schools •43 States, •Grades 112 •2005-2006 school year --Spaulding, Horner, Irvin, Sugai, et al, (2008) Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 11
    • Top Three Reasons for Referrals ELEMENTARY Fighting: 32.4 % Defiance: 29.0 % Language: 10.7 % Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 12
    • Top Three Reasons for Referrals MIDDLE SCHOOL Defiance: 31.2 % Disruption: 18.2 % Fighting: 11.8 % Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 13
    • Top Three Reasons for Referrals HIGH SCHOOL Defiance: 24.2 % Tardy: 24.0 % Truancy: 21.3 % (Cell phones!) Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 14
    • Significance PRIORITY Basic Teacher Expectation 90% teachers rated noncompliance as least acceptable maladaptive behavior in the classroom. --Walker & Rankin (1983) Following directions remains top priority for teachers across all grade levels. --Lane, Wehby, & Cooley (2006) 15
    • Significance DETRIMENTAL OUTCOMES Noncompliance (Antisocial Behavior) •Peer rejection at an early age •Increases in off-task behavior in lower grades •Bonding with other antisocial students, including involvement with gangs •Dropping out of school Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 16
    • DETRIMENTAL OUTCOMES (Continued) •Involvement in juvenile crime, and later on adult crime • Ineffective relationships as adults •Inability finding and keeping employment •Serious mental health issues as adolescents and adults Sources: Compiled from Dishion, French, & Patterson, 1995; Eddy, 2001; Walker, Colvin & Ramsey, 1995. 17
    • Implication Noncompliance and defiance in the classroom has been, and still is, a MAJOR CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR for educators. Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 18
    • WHY IS NON-COMPLIANCE SUCH A PROBLEM? •Not clearly understood •Oversimplified •Lack of analysis and response that it warrants Colvin, G. 2009. Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin 19
    • Clarify Noncompliance What does it mean to exhibit noncompliant behavior? 20
    • Pre-requisites to Compliant Behavior •Person presenting direction has authority •Direction is delivered (explicit or implicit) •Direction is clearly understood •Student can perform the task satisfactorily Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 21
    • Pre-requisites to Compliant Behavior •Delivery tone should be calm and respectful •Student’s attention is secured Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 22
    • Less than 20% of teacher directives to students, with and without disabilities, were preceded with information that would enable the students to respond correctly. (Shores, Gunter, Jack, 1993) 23
    • Common Synonyms for Non-Compliance •Oppositional behavior •Insubordination •Refusal to follow directions •Non-cooperative behavior •Limit testing •Willfullness •Stubbornness Colvin, G. 2009. Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA:, Corwin, 12-13 24
    • Defining Noncompliance Teacher gives direction Student(s) fulfills direction satisfactorily. YES NO NON- COMPLIANCE COMPLIANCE 25 Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates
    • Variations of Noncompliant Behavior •Latency •Task Completion Time •Substandard Response •Competing Reinforcers 26
    • Noncompliance Defined Noncompliance refers to those student behaviors where or when a demand or request is presented by a person in authority and is not fulfilled satisfactorily by the student(s). Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 27
    • Quick Analysis •Why does noncompliance work for students? •What are students getting from being noncompliant? Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 28
    • Reinforcers for Noncompliance 1. Obtain (teacher) attention. OR 2. Avoid or escape a demanding situation. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. 29
    • The Complexity of Behavior: Specifically Noncompliance 30
    • Behavior Analysis Pathway Initial Focus 2. 4. Effects 1. Setting 3. Problem Events Immediate of Problem Triggers Behavior Behavior Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. 31
    • Component 1: Setting Events Setting Events include earlier situations or continuing situations that may set the stage for the problem behavior to occur such as: 1. Physiological factors 2. Ongoing conflicts 3. History of failure 4. Cumulative problems 5. Physical issues. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 32 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • Component 2: Immediate Triggers The actual context where the behavior occurs or the actual events prior to when the behavior occurs. •Concurrent (context): spelling quiz, bus ride, writing time OR • Antecedent (occurring just prior): called a name, refused permission, asked to follow direction Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 33 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • What Is the Difference? Immediate Triggers set off the behavior. Setting Events set the occasion for the behavior 34
    • Component 3: Problem Behavior Refers to the behaviors of the student(s) which are of concern and cause problems in the classroom. •Low level behaviors (Minor) •More serious behaviors (Major) Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 35 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • Component 4: Effects of Problem Behavior Assumption Problem behavior serves a purpose or multiple purposes for student (FUNCTION). Get something OR Get away from something Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 36 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 23.
    • What Should Adults Do When A Student Is Noncompliant? 37
    • “It depends . . .” Several factors may be contributing to noncompliant behavior. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 38 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 41.
    • Assessing Noncompliant Behavior Need to identify explanations for problem behavior. For example: •Do students have the prerequisite skills to complete the task? •Did students hear the directions, or were they still involved in another task? •Do students not like what asked to do, so trying avoid? 39
    • Complexity of Behavior: What Can Be Directly Influenced •Immediate Triggers •Effects of Problem Behavior (Corrective Response) 40
    • Consider this… “The single most commonly used but least effective method for addressing undesirable behavior is to verbally scold and berate a student”. (Alberto & Troutman, 2006) 41
    • Strategies to Decrease Problem Behavior •Maintain the flow of instruction (#1) •Delayed responding •Redirection prompts •Rule restatement Adapted from Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the 42 Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • Maintain the Flow of Instruction If student exhibits noncompliance and instruction is stopped, the student is reinforced by: •interrupting instruction •securing the attention of the teacher •securing the attention of other students •by being off task Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 43 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 74.
    • Delayed Responding Also known as “planned ignoring”. Teacher notices noncompliant behavior (low level) but does not respond in anyway. Teacher continues with instruction and acknowledges students that are cooperating. If student persists with noncompliance, more direct steps should be taken. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 44 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 41.
    • Redirection Prompt Prompts by the teacher to help the student focus on the request provided; With minimum attention given to the student. Gestures or brief verbal response Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 45 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 76.
    • Rule Statement Directly secure the student’s attention Restate the rule or expectation Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 46 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 76.
    • Corrective Response for Noncompliance Maintain Flow of Instruction Delay Response •Present request (redirection prompt; rule restatement) •Determine if request is fulfilled satisfactorily •Follow through based on student’s response •Present choice •Determine if request is fulfilled satisfactorily •Follow through based on student’s response Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 47 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • Guidelines for Administering Corrective Responses •Specific •Private: Quiet •Calm: Body, hands, voice •Quick 48
    • Seeing It In Action The Corrective Response for Noncompliant Behavior 49
    • Putting It Into Practice The Corrective Response for Noncompliant Behavior Partners A and B 50
    • Example 1: The teacher was explaining the relationship between the invasion of Hawaii and the war in Europe against Germany. He directed the class to read the first paragraph of their text on p. 84. Steffan mumbled that he was not interested in reading that paragraph and would sooner read the sports section of the paper. Adapted from Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 74. 51
    • Example 2: The teacher announces to the class that writing time is over and asks them to put their materials and get ready for PE. The class begins to put away their material away, except for Hillary, who keeps writing in her book while muttering that she doesn’t like PE. Adapted from Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 75. 52
    • Example 3: The students are finishing up a project. When they finish, they are expected to put their project in the teacher’s basket, select a book from the shelf, and read quietly. Gerald moved to the book shelf and started perusing the books. The teacher acknowledged the students who had turned in their projects and begun reading. Gerald persisted with thumbing through the books on the bookshelf. Adapted from Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 77. 53
    • Strategies for Increasing Cooperative Behavior •Focus on academic success •Positive Reinforcement (recognition) •Shaping Adapted from Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the 54 Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • Focus on Academic Success •Avoidance of academic tasks and other demand situations are the major reasons for noncompliant behavior (Colvin, 2009). •Need to ensure student has the necessary skills to complete the work. •Provide strong reinforcement for behaviors that facilitate learning: making effort, maintaining on-task behavior, work completion, accuracy of work. 55
    • Example of Focus on Academic Success Cindy was a reluctant oral reader. During oral reading time she would often put her head down and declare she was sick, and periodically refuse to go to the group before reading had even started. The teacher arranged for some additional opportunities for her to read aloud to her privately. She then had Cindy practice beforehand the passage she was required to read in the group. Cindy then read reasonably smoothly in the group. The teacher praised her strongly for her reading and arranged for her to have extra time on the computer during the break. She also sent a note home to the parents saying how well she had read and asked them to compliment her. Adapted from Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 67. 56
    • Reinforcement Keys to using reinforcement successfully 1) The reinforcer is positive or desirable for the student. 2) Student must exhibit the behavior at reasonable standard before the reinforcer is delivered. (contingent) 3) Reinforcement withheld in the presence of the inappropriate behavior. 4) Menu of reinforcers needs to be available 5) Plan is used to systematically fade the reinforcers used for individual student to reinforcers used for whole class. Adapted from Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the 57 Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • Examples of Classroom Reinforcers •A hallway pass not required of the students who follow the class rules for a week. •Students keeping the rules during break do not have to do clean up duty •Teacher gives verbal praise. •Student receives recognition from class (such as listening or clapping) •Earn the privilege of class leader. •Earn the privilege of running errands. 58
    • Shaping Process of successively reinforcing closer approximations of the target behavior to the criterion or acceptable level of behavior. (Maag, 2004) 59
    • Shaping Four Steps 1. Obtain baseline level of performance of expected behavior 2. Determine successive approximations between baseline and standard required for mastery 3. Deliver reinforcement contingent upon student responding at target level for each successive stage. 4. Deliver the strongest reinforcement when the student reaches the criterion for mastery of the skill, or when displays the target acceptable level. 60
    • Example of Shaping Juan was slow in putting his materials away after break time. Sometimes he wouldn’t even put them away. The teacher tracked the time he took to clean up after break for a couple of days and also noted the time taken by the other students in the class. These time averaged five minutes and two minutes. The teacher set up with Juan that if he could clean up in four minutes, he could have first choice of the activities for the next break. Juan met this criterion three days in a row. She set a timer for him to know when the four minutes were up. The teacher then visited with him, telling him that if he could get the job done in three minutes he could have the same privilege plus a surprise treat. The teacher then moved the criterion to two minutes (the standard time for the rest of the class). When Juan made the two- minute mark, the teacher gave him an extra break that day. Adapted from Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand 61 Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    • Complexity of Behavior: What Can Be Directly Influenced •Immediate Triggers •Effects of Problem Behavior (Corrective Response) 62
    • Strategies to Address Immediate Triggers To be applied before the triggers occur. •Behavioral momentum •Prompting •Opportunities to respond 63
    • Behavioral Momentum •Metaphor of Newton’s law of motion: Once an object is set in motion, tends to stay in motion. •Once a student is cooperating and productively engaged with one task, greater chance of the student cooperating and engaging in the task that immediately follows. •Highly effective with students with disabilities that have difficulty following directions. •Particularly useful with students who demonstrate avoidance to a certain task. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 64 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 46.
    • Example of Behavioral Momentum Michael does not like to read, so when he has to read, he puts his head on his desk and closes his eyes. His teacher, on this occasion, reads to him for a couple of minutes and engages his attention. She then asks him to read with her, which he does, and he is then asked to read a little by himself. He continues to read and the teacher praises him. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 65 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 46.
    • Prompting •When provide additional information just prior to engaging the student in a task. •Such as a hint, cue or gesture •Helps student focus in on the expected behavior in the context where the problem behavior is likely to occur. •Especially useful for helping students make difficult transitions. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. 66 Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 48.
    • Example of Prompting Billy has a hard time with silent reading. He is usually engaged quite productively in class, but often when the teacher announces it is time to switch to silent reading, he starts to fidget, whine, and become argumentative. The teacher stands near him and announces to the class. “In a couple of minutes we will be switching over to reading, so please finish up what you are doing.” Shortly after, the teacher directs the class to take out their reading books. She approaches Billy, who is starting to fidget, and puts her fingers to her lips and whispers, “Billy, let’s get started on the reading. You can do it.” He grimaces and pulls out a book. The teacher responds, “Atta boy. Thanks.” Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand 67 Oaks, CA: Corwin, 48.
    • Opportunities to Respond If students are productively engaged in their work, there is less chance for problem behavior. Students need to have opportunity to respond correctly early in the lesson. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 48. 68
    • Example of Opportunities to Respond Shortly after science class started, the teacher announced, “We have small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later, the teacher said, “Please write down, in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later the teacher told the students to share with their neighbor what they have written. Shortly, thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked if anyone disagreed, and so on. Note: each of these activities in the lesson required responses from all students. Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand 69 Oaks, CA: Corwin, 48.
    • Objectives •Define noncompliant behavior •Identify strategies for responding to noncompliant behavior •Identify strategies to reduce noncompliance and establish cooperation •Practice strategies •Discuss next steps 70
    • Action Plan Identify the main items from this workshop that you can use in your school setting. Source: Colvin, Behavior Associates 71
    • Resources on Noncompliance Book: Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Video: Colvin, G. (2009). Managing Noncompliance and Defiance in the Classroom. Eugene, OR: Iris Media, Inc. 72