Classroom System Essential Features

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  • Classroom System Essential Features

    1. 1. What? Schoolwide PBS in My Classroom? Jill Miller M.Ed. and Nanci W. Johnson Ph.D. Center for PBS College of Education University of Missouri
    2. 2. SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Data Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Social Competence & Academic Achievement
    3. 3. Where We’re Going Today <ul><li>Why is Classroom PBS Pivotal? </li></ul><ul><li>The 8 Classroom System Essential Features </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Efficient and Effective Classrooms in Your Building </li></ul>
    4. 4. Reflection Questions <ul><li>How will our SW-PBS team share information with faculty members regarding each Classroom System Essential Feature (CSEF)? </li></ul><ul><li>How would our SW-PBS team know if the faculty are fluent with the components of each CSEF? </li></ul><ul><li>How will our SW-PBS team support our faculty members in consistently implementing each CSEF? </li></ul><ul><li>How would our SW-PBS team know if the faculty are implementing each CSEF with fidelity? </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Story in One Building Newcomer, 2008
    6. 6. The Story in One Building Newcomer, 2008
    7. 7. The Story in One Classroom
    8. 8. The Story in One Classroom
    9. 9. Classroom System Essential Features <ul><li>Classroom expectations/rules identified, taught and acknowledged </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom routines identified, taught and acknowledged </li></ul><ul><li>High rates of positive feedback 4:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful redirect/Error correction </li></ul><ul><li>Active supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple opportunities to respond (OTRs) </li></ul><ul><li>Activity sequence/Offer choice </li></ul><ul><li>Academic success/Task difficulty </li></ul>
    10. 10. Classroom Expectations/Rules
    11. 11. Expectations and Rules <ul><li>Expectations are outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Rules are the specific criteria for meeting expectation outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Rules identify and define concepts of acceptable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Use of expectations and rules provides a guideline for students to monitor their own behavior and they remind and motivate students to meet certain standards </li></ul>
    12. 12. Guidelines for Writing Rules <ul><li>Consistent with schoolwide expectations/rules </li></ul><ul><li>Observable & Measureable </li></ul><ul><li>Positively stated </li></ul><ul><li>Understandable </li></ul><ul><li>Always applicable – Something the teacher will consistently enforce </li></ul>
    13. 13. Expectations and Rules Example… <ul><li>Expectation is students will be Safe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules are… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep hands and feet to self </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use materials correctly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If someone bothers you say, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Please stop” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore/walk away </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get help from a teacher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Good Rule or Inappropriate Rule? <ul><li>Keep hands and feet to yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Turn in completed assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Respect others </li></ul><ul><li>Walk in the hallways </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t run </li></ul><ul><li>Think before responding </li></ul><ul><li>Come to class on time, prepared with all supplies and assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Be responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Sit in your seat unless you have permission to leave it </li></ul>
    15. 15. Schoolwide Classroom Rules Assessment <ul><li>Classroom Rules are identified and meet the following criteria: Observable, Measurable, Positively Stated, Understandable, and Always Applicable </li></ul><ul><li>Rules are posted big, bold and beautiful in each classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>  Lessons are developed to teach classroom rules </li></ul><ul><li>Rules are regularly referred to by staff when interacting with students (positive and corrective) </li></ul><ul><li>A teaching schedule that includes classroom rule lessons is developed </li></ul>
    16. 16. Classroom Procedures/Routines
    17. 17. Procedures & Routines <ul><li>Procedures explain the accepted process for carrying out a specific activity, such as walking in the hallway, using lockers, sharpening pencils, attending an assembly, going to the restroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom procedures are patterns for accomplishing classroom tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures form routines that help students meet expectations stated in the rules </li></ul>
    18. 18. Procedures & Routines <ul><li>Procedures should be succinct, positively stated and in age-appropriate terms </li></ul><ul><li>Keep “Who, what, when, where, why, and how” in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Clear procedures, taught and consistently enforced are the most critical tool to create a functional and productive learning environment </li></ul>
    19. 19. Elementary Example <ul><li>Lining Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit quietly when you hear the quiet signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neatly place books and materials in your desk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quietly stand when your name (or row) is called </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push your chair under your desk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quietly walk to the line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand with your hands at your sides, facing forward, no talking </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Secondary Example <ul><li>Class Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for discussion by reading the required assignment in advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait until the other person is finished speaking before you talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay on topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect other’s opinions and contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use appropriate expressions of disagreement </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Classroom Procedures <ul><li>Entering the room </li></ul><ul><li>Exiting the room </li></ul><ul><li>Entering the room late </li></ul><ul><li>Start of class </li></ul><ul><li>Getting teacher attention </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing materials / supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Working independently </li></ul><ul><li>Working in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Movement around the room </li></ul><ul><li>Storing and accessing personal items (hats, backpacks) </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>What to do when finished working </li></ul><ul><li>Turning in assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Turning in homework </li></ul><ul><li>Getting work missed due to absence </li></ul>
    22. 22. Schoolwide Classroom Procedures Assessment <ul><li>Essential classroom procedures are identified and developed </li></ul><ul><li>Essential procedures are taught in each classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures are prominently posted in student friendly language to provide a visual cue </li></ul>
    23. 23. High Rates of Positive Feedback
    24. 24. We Know Teachers Predictably Provide Feedback for… <ul><li>Correct Academic Responding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On average a ratio of 3.7: 1 positive to negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Inappropriate Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On average a ratio of 12.63:1 negative to positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~White, 1975 </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. A Little Research… <ul><li>At risk student compliance to teacher commands does not predict teacher praise above the level of chance. </li></ul><ul><li>At risk students were observed to comply with 80% of teacher requests but received confirmatory (positive performance) feedback only 2% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gunter & Cutniho, 1997; Shores et al., 1993; Shores, Jack, Gunter, Ellis, DeBriere, & Wehby, 1993; Van Acker et a., 1996). </li></ul>
    26. 26. Positive Academic Feedback by Grade Level <ul><li>First Grade Teachers Give an Average of 1.21 Feedback Statements Per Minute </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic Drop Off of Positive Feedback Statements After First Grade </li></ul><ul><li>High School Teachers Give an Average of 1 Feedback Statement Per Hour </li></ul>
    27. 27. Positive Feedback <ul><li>Effective feedback is …. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and specific </li></ul><ul><li>Directly related to rules and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and logical </li></ul><ul><li>Applied immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Includes hierarchy of alternatives </li></ul>
    28. 28. Continuum of Classroom Positive Feedback Free & Frequent Intermittent Strong & Long Term Verbal Praise Smile Stickers Rubber Stamps Thumbs up Home Notes Phone Calls Special Privileges Computer Time Social/Free Time Special Seat Field Trip Special Project Recognition Ceremonies Honor Roll
    29. 29. Positive Feedback Assessment <ul><li>All staff receive training on free and frequent, intermittent, and strong/long term positive feedback in classroom settings </li></ul><ul><li>A system of free and frequent positive feedback Is developed in each classroom </li></ul><ul><li>A system of intermittent positive feedback is developed in each classroom </li></ul><ul><li>A system of strong and long term positive feedback is developed in each classroom </li></ul>
    30. 30. Error Correction
    31. 31. Respectful Redirect/Error Correction <ul><li>Consider this… </li></ul><ul><li>“ The single most commonly used but least effective method for addressing undesirable </li></ul><ul><li>behavior is to verbally scold and berate a </li></ul><ul><li>student” (Albetro & Troutman, 2006). </li></ul>
    32. 32. Respectful Redirect/Error Correction <ul><li>Should be…. </li></ul><ul><li>Calm </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Brief </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful </li></ul>
    33. 33. Respectful Redirect/Error Correction <ul><li>Continuum of Classroom Response Strategies . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt = visual or verbal cue </li></ul><ul><li>Redirect = restate matrix behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Re-teach = tell, show, practice, acknowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Choice = range of alternates </li></ul><ul><li>Conference with Student </li></ul>
    34. 34. Respectful Redirect/Error Correction Conference Procedures <ul><li>Positive, private, using quiet voice </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the alternative (what the student should do instead) </li></ul><ul><li>Tell why alternative is better </li></ul><ul><li>Practice (student should tell and/or show) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul>
    35. 35. Schoolwide Classroom Error Correction Assessment <ul><li>All staff receives training on a classroom continuum of corrective feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>All staff regularly refer to the classroom continuum of corrective feedback when responding to misbehavior </li></ul>
    36. 36. Active Supervision
    37. 37. Active Supervision <ul><li>Moving Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom set-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacing of content (time to move) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scanning Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Set-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Rates of Student Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative feedback to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic and Behavioral </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Schoolwide Classroom Active Supervision Assessment <ul><li>A consistent schoolwide definition of classroom active supervision has been developed </li></ul><ul><li>All staff receives training on classroom active supervision </li></ul>
    39. 39. Academic Instruction Multiple Opportunities to Respond Activity Sequence / Offer Choice Academic Success / Task Difficulty
    40. 40. <ul><li>Behavior support and academic support are two sides of the same coin, we need to better understand how they are linked. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Horner & Sugai 2005 </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Multiple Opportunities to Respond <ul><li>Increasing Opportunities to Respond (OTRs) has </li></ul><ul><li>been associated with increased on-task </li></ul><ul><li>behavior, lower disruptive behavior, and higher </li></ul><ul><li>correct responding. </li></ul><ul><li>Choral Response / Mixed Responding </li></ul><ul><li>Written Response/Response Cards (personal white boards or computer synced devices) </li></ul><ul><li>Think-Pair-Share </li></ul>
    42. 42. Activity Sequence / Offer Choice <ul><li>Varying activity sequence increases task </li></ul><ul><li>performance and decreases disruptive behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Interspersal of Activities > intersperse type or difficulty of problem given </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide list of tasks for day/period and allow students to choose order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide list and each student chooses one option </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choice of Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pen, pencil, markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handwritten vs. typed </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Academic Success / Task Difficulty <ul><li>Previously Introduced Content ALL students should be responding with 90% accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Newly Introduced Content ALL students should be responding with 80% accuracy </li></ul>
    44. 44. Schoolwide Classroom Academic Instruction Assessment <ul><li>ALL staff receive training regarding academic instructional strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>All staff consistently utilize a variety of academic instructional strategies to increase learner engagement and on-task behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>All staff provide academic instruction at levels appropriate to allow for academic success of ALL students . </li></ul>
    45. 45. Classroom System Essential Features <ul><li>Classroom expectations/rules identified, taught and acknowledged </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom routines identified, taught and acknowledged </li></ul><ul><li>High rates of positive feedback 4:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful redirect/Error correction </li></ul><ul><li>Active supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple opportunities to respond (OTRs) </li></ul><ul><li>Activity sequence/Offer choice </li></ul><ul><li>Academic success/Task difficulty </li></ul>
    46. 46. Reflection Questions <ul><li>How will our SW-PBS team share information with faculty members regarding each Classroom System Essential Feature (CSEF) ? </li></ul><ul><li>How would our SW-PBS team know if the faculty are fluent with the components of each CSEF ? </li></ul><ul><li>How will our SW-PBS team support our faculty members in consistently implementing each CSEF ? </li></ul><ul><li>How would our SW-PBS team know if the faculty are implementing each CSEF with fidelity? </li></ul>
    47. 47. Developing a Comprehensive Plan <ul><li>Practice : Classroom System Essential Features Implemented Schoolwide </li></ul><ul><li>System : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Classroom Level Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures/Routines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback - Positive and Corrective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the fidelity if Implementation across ALL classrooms? Formative Feedback to Staff! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the outcome of increased use of CSEF? </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Resources <ul><li>RPDC SW-PBS Consultant! </li></ul><ul><li>Mo SW-PBS Website www.pbismissouri.org </li></ul><ul><li>National Website www.pbis.org </li></ul><ul><li>Articles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kern, L. & Clemens, N. H. (2007) Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in Schools, 44(1) pages 65-75. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kern, L. & State, T.M. (2009) Incorporating choice and preferred activities into classwide instruction. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), pages 3-11. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haydon, T. Borders. D.E., & Clarke, L. (2009). Using effective instructional delivery as a classwide management tool. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), pages 12-17. </li></ul></ul>

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