PBS in the Classroom Susan Brawley, M.Ed. Heart of Missouri RPDC University of Missouri
Objectives  <ul><li>Identify the evidence based practices in classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on the practic...
Another Look at  School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Non-classroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Ind...
Continuum of School-Wide  Instructional and Positive Behavior Support Primary Prevention : School-/Classroom- Wide Systems...
Guiding Principle <ul><li>Apply the tiered prevention logic to classroom setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary for all </l...
<ul><li>Link  classroom to school-wide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School-wide expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom...
Focusing on Classroom  Behavior will. . .   <ul><li>Improve general classroom and school climate </li></ul><ul><li>Decreas...
What “kind” of students can display problematic behavior? All students .  Students  with/without  labels who are served in...
Prevention / Pre-Correction <ul><li>Correction procedures are designed to stop inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Te...
Guiding Principles <ul><li>Remember that   good teaching  is one of our best behavior management tools </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management <ul><li>Maximize structure  in the classroom.  </li></ul><ul><li>Post, te...
1. Maximize Structures <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your favorite store.  </l...
1.  Maximize structure  in your classroom. <ul><li>Develop  Predictable Routines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher routines : ...
Design environment <ul><li>Four instances of praise for every correction (4:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Begin each class period w...
2.   Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated  expectations <ul><li>Establish  beha...
Establish  Behavioral expectations/Rules <ul><li>A small number (i.e., 3-5) of  positively  stated rules.  Tell students w...
Establish  Behavioral expectations/Rules <ul><li>What are some classroom rules (positively stated, easy to remember) that ...
<ul><li>Operationally define  what the rules look like across all the routines and settings in your classroom. </li></ul><...
Rules within Routines Matrix Routines Rules Entering Classroom Seat Work Small Group Activity Leaving Classroom Be Safe Be...
Establish  Behavioral expectations/Rules <ul><li>Close your eyes and visual your perfect classroom on a perfect day.  What...
Teach  Rules in the Context of Routines <ul><li>Teach expectations directly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define rule in operatio...
“ Cool Tool” Skill Name Getting Help (How to ask for assistance for difficulty tasks) Teaching Examples 1.  When you ’ re ...
Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context
Prompt  or Remind Students of the Rule <ul><li>Provide students with  visual prompts  (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc)....
Monitor  Students’ Behavior in Natural Context <ul><li>Active Supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997):  </li></ul><ul...
Acknowledge &   Recognize
Evaluate  the effect of instruction <ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are rules being followed? </li></ul></ul><u...
3.  Actively engage  students in observable ways. <ul><li>Provide high rates of opportunities to respond </li></ul><ul><ul...
3. Range of evidence based practices that promote  active engagement <ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Computer...
3.  Actively engage  students in observable ways. <ul><li>What are  two  strategies you use to actively engage students? <...
4.  Establish a  continuum of strategies  to  acknowledge   appropriate behavior . <ul><li>Specific and Contingent Praise ...
Specific and Contingent Praise <ul><li>Praise should be…  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… contingent : occur immediately following...
Group Contingencies <ul><ul><li>“ All for one”   Interdependent  Group-Oriented Contingency (e.g., targeted/individualized...
Class Behavioral Contracts <ul><li>A written document that specifies a contingency for an individual student or in this  c...
5. Establish a  continuum of strategies  to  respond to inappropriate behavior . <ul><li>Error Corrections </li></ul><ul><...
Quick Error Corrections <ul><li>Your error corrections should be…   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… contingent : occur immediately...
Establish a  continuum of strategies  to  respond to inappropriate behavior . <ul><li>Be clear about what behaviors are to...
Establish  Behavioral Expectations/Rules Teach  Rules in the  Context of Routines Prompt  or Remind Students of Expected b...
Establish  Procedures for Encouraging Rule Following Establish  Procedures for Responding to Rule Violations Evaluate  the...
Continuum of School-Wide  Instructional and Positive Behavior Support Primary Prevention : School-/Classroom- Wide Systems...
Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management <ul><li>Maximize structure  in the classroom.  </li></ul><ul><li>Post, te...
Think-pair-share <ul><li>What is one thing you will do differently next week to improve behavior in your classroom? </li><...
Sources <ul><li>Brandi Simonsen, Ph.D. & Sarah Fairbanks, M.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The Center for Behavioral Education and R...
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Classroom Part 2: PBS In The Classroom MO SW-PBS SI 2008

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Classroom Part 2: PBS In The Classroom Presented at MO SW-PBS SI 2008 by Susan Brawley

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  • Classroom Part 2: PBS In The Classroom MO SW-PBS SI 2008

    1. 1. PBS in the Classroom Susan Brawley, M.Ed. Heart of Missouri RPDC University of Missouri
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the evidence based practices in classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on the practices currently in place in the classroom system. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a plan for including the classroom system in the Universal Schoolwide system. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Another Look at School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Non-classroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems
    4. 4. Continuum of School-Wide Instructional and Positive Behavior Support Primary Prevention : School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior 80% of Students 15% 5% OSEP Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports; http://www.pbis.org
    5. 5. Guiding Principle <ul><li>Apply the tiered prevention logic to classroom setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary for some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary for a few </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Link classroom to school-wide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School-wide expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom v. office managed rule violations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on classroom systems if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 60% of referrals are from classroom settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% or more of ODRs come from less than 10% of the classrooms </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Focusing on Classroom Behavior will. . . <ul><li>Improve general classroom and school climate </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease dependence on reactive disciplinary practices (ODR’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize impact of instruction to affect academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Improve behavioral supports for students with emotional and behavioral challenges </li></ul>
    8. 8. What “kind” of students can display problematic behavior? All students . Students with/without labels who are served in general/special education can display problematic behavior. This is not a special education issue. It is an education issue.
    9. 9. Prevention / Pre-Correction <ul><li>Correction procedures are designed to stop inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should always pre-correct when problem behavior is likely </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor behaviors can lead to more serious behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of minor behaviors can be as destructive to a building as the less occurring major behavior </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Guiding Principles <ul><li>Remember that good teaching is one of our best behavior management tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-correction </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management <ul><li>Maximize structure in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively engage students in observable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. </li></ul>(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Myers Sugai, in preparation)
    12. 12. 1. Maximize Structures <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your favorite store. </li></ul><ul><li>What is it you like about it? Why do you keep going back? </li></ul>
    13. 13. 1. Maximize structure in your classroom. <ul><li>Develop Predictable Routines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher routines : volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student routines : personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designate staff & student areas . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Design environment <ul><li>Four instances of praise for every correction (4:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Begin each class period with a celebration </li></ul><ul><li>Your first comment to a child establishes behavioral momentum </li></ul><ul><li>Provide multiple paths to success/praise </li></ul>
    15. 15. 2. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations <ul><li>Establish behavioral expectations/rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach rules in context of routines. </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules <ul><li>A small number (i.e., 3-5) of positively stated rules. Tell students what we want them to do , rather than telling them what we do not want them to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly post the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Should match SW Expectations </li></ul>
    17. 17. Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules <ul><li>What are some classroom rules (positively stated, easy to remember) that link with your schoolwide expectations? </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Operationally define what the rules look like across all the routines and settings in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>One way to do this is in a matrix format. </li></ul>Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules
    19. 19. Rules within Routines Matrix Routines Rules Entering Classroom Seat Work Small Group Activity Leaving Classroom Be Safe Be Respectful Be Responsible
    20. 20. Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules <ul><li>Close your eyes and visual your perfect classroom on a perfect day. What do you want to see and hear? </li></ul><ul><li>Open your eyes. Write down the five most important things you saw and heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer the behaviors to a sample classroom matrix. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Teach Rules in the Context of Routines <ul><li>Teach expectations directly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following within routine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actively involve students in lesson—game, role-play, etc. to check for their understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting. </li></ul>
    22. 22. “ Cool Tool” Skill Name Getting Help (How to ask for assistance for difficulty tasks) Teaching Examples 1. When you ’ re working on a math problem that you can ’ t figure out, raise your hand and wait until the teacher can help you . 2. You and a friend are working together on a science experiment but you are missing a piece of lab equipment, ask the teacher for the missing equipment. 3. You are reading a story but you don ’ t know the meaning of most of the words, ask the teacher to read and explain the word. Kid Activity 1. Ask 2-3 students to give an example of a situation in which they needed help to complete a task, activity, or direction. 2. Ask students to indicate or show how they could get help. 3. Encourage and support appropriate discussion/responses. Minimize attention for inappropriate responses. After the Lesson (During the Day) 1. Just before giving students difficult or new task, direction, or activity, ask them to tell you how they could get help if they have difficulty ( precorrection ). 2. When you see students having difficulty with a task (e.g., off task, complaining), ask them to indicate that they need help ( reminder ). 3. Whenever a student gets help the correct way, provide specific praise to the student.
    23. 23. Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context
    24. 24. Prompt or Remind Students of the Rule <ul><li>Provide students with visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Use pre-corrections , which include “verbal reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings were problem behavior is likely” (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997). </li></ul>
    25. 25. Monitor Students’ Behavior in Natural Context <ul><li>Active Supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look around ( Scan ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interact with students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide reinforcement and specific praise to students who are following rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Catch errors early and provide specific, corrective feedback to students who are not following rules. ( Think about how you would correct an academic error .) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Acknowledge & Recognize
    27. 27. Evaluate the effect of instruction <ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are rules being followed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If there are errors, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>who is making them? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>where are the errors occurring? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what kind of errors are being made? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Summarize data (look for patterns) </li></ul><ul><li>Use data to make decisions </li></ul>
    28. 28. 3. Actively engage students in observable ways. <ul><li>Provide high rates of opportunities to respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary individual v. group responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase participatory instruction (enthusiasm, laughter) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider various observable ways to engage students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing on individual white boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choral responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: ____________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link engagement with outcome objectives (set goals to increase engagement and assess student change CARs verbal/written) </li></ul>
    29. 29. 3. Range of evidence based practices that promote active engagement <ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Assisted Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Class-wide Peer Tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>Guided notes </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cards </li></ul>
    30. 30. 3. Actively engage students in observable ways. <ul><li>What are two strategies you use to actively engage students? </li></ul>
    31. 31. 4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior . <ul><li>Specific and Contingent Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Group Contingencies </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Token Economies </li></ul>
    32. 32. Specific and Contingent Praise <ul><li>Praise should be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… contingent : occur immediately following desired behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… specific : tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Good job” (not very specific) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Group Contingencies <ul><ul><li>“ All for one” Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency (e.g., targeted/individualized intervention approach) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One for all” Dependent Group Contingency (e.g., universal intervention approach) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To each his/her own” ( Independent Group Contingency) </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Class Behavioral Contracts <ul><li>A written document that specifies a contingency for an individual student or in this case… whole class </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the following elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational definition of BEHAVIOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear descriptions of REINFORCERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OUTCOMES if student fails to meet expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special BONUSES that may be used to increase motivation or participation. </li></ul></ul>(Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988)
    35. 35. 5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior . <ul><li>Error Corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Planned ignoring </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Time out from reinforcement </li></ul>
    36. 36. Quick Error Corrections <ul><li>Your error corrections should be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… contingent : occur immediately after the undesired behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… specific : tell learner exactly what they are doing incorrectly and what they should do differently in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… brief : after redirecting back to appropriate behavior, move on </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior . <ul><li>Be clear about what behaviors are to be dealt with in the classroom vs. those that should be sent to the office </li></ul>
    38. 38. Establish Behavioral Expectations/Rules Teach Rules in the Context of Routines Prompt or Remind Students of Expected behavior To Recap... Monitor Student's Behavior in the Natural Context
    39. 39. Establish Procedures for Encouraging Rule Following Establish Procedures for Responding to Rule Violations Evaluate the effect of instruction These are things you should do in any school environment!!!
    40. 40. Continuum of School-Wide Instructional and Positive Behavior Support Primary Prevention : School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior 80% of Students 15% 5% OSEP Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports; http://www.pbis.org
    41. 41. Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management <ul><li>Maximize structure in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively engage students in observable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. </li></ul>(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Myers Sugai, in preparation)
    42. 42. Think-pair-share <ul><li>What is one thing you will do differently next week to improve behavior in your classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you ensure that classroom systems are part of the Universal Schoolwide System? </li></ul>
    43. 43. Sources <ul><li>Brandi Simonsen, Ph.D. & Sarah Fairbanks, M.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The Center for Behavioral Education and Research </li></ul><ul><li>University of Connecticut, Iowa Behavioral Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Sprague, J. & Golly, A. (2005). Best Behavior: Building Positive Behavior Support in Schools. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. </li></ul><ul><li>Scheuermann, B.K. & Hall, J.A. (2008). Positive Behavioral Supports for the Classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul>
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