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Wireless Technology and Your Mobile Device

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  • 1. Wireless Technology and Your Mobile Device Michael Wakefield OEM Technical Account Manager Microsoft Services for Partners Microsoft Corporation
  • 2. Objectives
    • Overview of wireless technologies and connectivity scenarios using Microsoft mobile device platforms
    • Discuss the following wireless technologies: Bluetooth, Infrared (IrDA), WiFi (802.11b), 802.11a, 802.1x, GPRS/GSM, and CDMA/1xrtt
    • Demonstrate and discuss connectivity scenarios using these wireless technologies with existing Microsoft mobile device platforms
  • 3. Agenda
    • Bluetooth – Overview and connectivity scenarios
    • IrDA – Overview and connectivity scenarios
    • WiFi (802.11b), 802.11a, and 802.1x – Overview and 802.11b connectivity scenarios
    • GSM/GPRS and CDMA/1xrtt – Overview and GSM/GPRS connectivity scenarios
  • 4. Bluetooth Overview
    • Short-distance radio-based technology that operates at 2.4 GHz on the ISM (industrial, scientific, medical) band.
      • Same unlicensed frequency used by 802.11
      • Free and unlicensed spectrum throughout the world
    • Eliminates the need for cables, ports, and settings required to communicate between devices.`
    • The maximum operating range is about 10 meters. In the future, new specifications will provide ranges up to 100 meters.
    • Bluetooth supports data speeds of up to 721 Kbps (more than six times faster than a serial cable).
      • Not line-of-site like Infrared (IrDA)
    • Bluetooth technology also uses a fast frequency-hopping technique and provides security.
    • Enables a wireless phone as a wireless modem for your Pocket PC. Allows hands-free use of phones and an internet connection.
  • 5. Bluetooth (2) Overview
    • Bluetooth specification requires profiles that are used to define the services of a Bluetooth device
      • Supported application profiles in Bluetooth v1.1
        • Service discovery application (what can a Bluetooth device do?)
        • Cordless telephony (make calls on cell phone)
        • Intercom (walkie-talkie)
        • Serial port (serial cable replacement)
        • Headset (ultimate headset)
        • Dial-up networking (like a PC modem dial-up session)
        • Fax (fax from a cell phone)
        • File transfer (transfer files)
        • Synchronization (synchronize data)
  • 6. Bluetooth (3) Overview
      • Additional profiles
        • Basic Printing Profile (BPP) V0.95a (printing)
        • Hands-Free Profile (HFP) V0.96 (cell phones work with hand-free controls in car)
        • Human Interface Device Profile (HID) V0.95c (use a mouse and keyboard)
        • Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN) V0.95a (ad-hoc networking)
        • Basic Imaging Profile (BIP) V0.95c (transfer pictures from digital camera)
        • Audio Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP) V0.95b (audio/video interoperability)
        • SIM Access Profile (SAP) V0.95c (access SIM card in your GSM cell phone)
  • 7. Bluetooth Considerations
    • For Compaq Bluetooth-enabled iPAQs
      • Make sure you using the latest Bluetooth device drivers (on your PC) and the updated Compaq Bluetooth Manager (available from Compaq)
        • If this still does not solve connection issues, contact Compaq support at (800) 652-6672
      • Use only Bluetooth devices that are on Compaq's approved list, for example:
        • 3Com Wireless Bluetooth PC Card (use latest drivers)
        • TDK PC Card
    • Reference
      • http://www.compaq.com/products/wireless/wpan/btcompmatrix.html
      • http:// www.bluetooth.org /
    • Troubleshooting
      • For troubleshooting your connections, install vxUtil (see http://www.cam.com/ ), which lets you test pings and browse to Internet sites to test connectivity through your Bluetooth connection
  • 8. Bluetooth Prerequisites
    • A Bluetooth-enabled phone
      • Ericsson T39 and T68
      • Motorola Timeport 260 and 280
      • Nokia 6210 and 6310
    • A SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) that is activated with the GPRS service (T-Mobile, AT&T, Cingular)
      • Note: It is important to write down the GPRS settings on the phone because some settings will be used when setting up PPC GPRS connection
    • For Bluetooth-to-phone connections, you will need one of the following combinations:
      • Pocket PC Compaq iPAQ 3870 or 3970 with built-in Bluetooth
      • Compaq Bluetooth/CF Expansion Pack for use with Compaq iPAQ PPCs
      • Pocket PC 2002 device with a CompactFlash (CF) slot
      • Socket Bluetooth CF card
      • Pocket PC with SDIO (SD input/output) capable slot
        • See manufacturer for hardware capabilities
      • Toshiba e570 with Toshiba Bluetooth SD card
  • 9. Bluetooth How To
    • Click Start, click Settings, click Connections, and then click the Connections icon.
    • Click the Dialing Locations tab.
    • Click New.
      • Create a new location called GPRS
    • Click Dialing Patterns.
    • Make sure each entry is set to G.
    • Click OK.
  • 10. Bluetooth (2) How To
    • Click the Connections tab.
    • Click Modify (under Internet Settings).
    • Create a new dial-up connection with the following settings (depends on the Bluetooth hardware used).
      • Pictures here show modem, phone, and IrDA setups.
    • Click Next.
  • 11. Bluetooth (3) How To
    • Note: There may be a need to configure static DNS addresses as some carriers may not support DHCP. Ask your carrier for details as required.
    • Enter the dialing string shown in this figure. Replace the number “2” with the CID value you noted previously when setting up your phone with your carrier.
    • Click Next.
    • Click Finish.
    • Click OK.
    • Click OK.
  • 12. Bluetooth Devices and Connection Scenarios
  • 13. WiFi (802.11b) Overview
    • What can I do with WiFi?
      • Surf the Web!
      • Wirelessly sync up with your desktop
      • Check your e-mail
    • 802.11b is widely adopted. It operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band (can conflict with other users of the 2.4 GHz frequency band such as Bluetooth, microwaves, cordless phones; the conflict with Bluetooth is being resolved).
    • Supports bandwidths of up to a maximum of 11 MB with a range of about 150+ feet (bandwidth decreases with the range).
  • 14. WiFi (802.11b) Prerequisites
    • 802.11b WiFi PC Card with Pocket PC drivers (Card Bus is not supported)
    • Compaq PC Card Expansion Pack for iPAQs or PC Card adaptor for other devices, if available
    • Built-in CompactFlash (CF) Card slot or CF Card adaptor for device, if available
    • CompactFlash 802.11b network card
      • Agere
      • Symbol
      • Socket
      • Dlink
    • Built-in WiFi module in device
      • Toshiba e740
  • 15. WiFi (802.11b) (2) Prerequisites
    • Install the network card driver provided for your hardware as required
    • Make sure that the hardware is working according to the manufacturer. If you have problems, call the manufacturer to make sure your hardware is installed correctly and working properly.
  • 16. WiFi (802.11b) How To
    • Click Start, click Settings, and then click the Connections tab.
    • Click the Connections icon in the upper-right corner of the screen.
    • In the first drop-down box, select Internet Settings.
    • In the third drop-down box, select The Internet.
    • Click OK in the upper-right corner of the screen.
    • Now start any application that uses a network connection to verify your wireless connection.
  • 17. WiFi (802.11b) Hardware
  • 18. WiFi (802.11b) How To
    • If you want to connect your Pocket PC to your desktop computer or laptop using a network (Ethernet) card, you have at least two options:
      • You can set up a WINS (Windows® Internet Name Service) service on your PC and use the network card configuration in your Pocket PC
      • You can use Marc Zimmermann's Pocket Hosts utility to create a host entry in your Pocket PC registry with your desktop computer name and IP address
    • The first time you set up a partnership between your Pocket PC and your computer, you have to use a COM port (serial cradle), a USB (cradle), or an infrared connection
  • 19. WiFi (802.11b) (2) How To
    • Using WINS
      • When you have set up a WINS service on your computer, you have to enter the IP address of your computer in the WINS field in the network card settings dialog box.
      • Click Start, click Settings, click the Connections tab, and then click Network Adapters.
      • Select a network adapter (see manufacturer instructions as needed).
      • Click Properties.
      • Click the Name Servers tab, and enter the IP address of the desktop computer in the WINS field (see figure).
  • 20. WiFi (802.11b) (3) How To
    • Using Pocket Hosts
      • Another way is to install Marc Zimmermann's Pocket Hosts ( http://www.zimac.de/cestuff.htm ) utility.
        • It allows you to create a host entry with your computer's name and IP address (see figure).
    • Both figures use a sample IP address (10.0.10.1), and this figure uses a sample name for the computer ( mypcname ).
      • You should supply your own information or that of your network (contact your network administrator as needed).
  • 21. WiFi (802.11b) Hardware (CompactFlash)
  • 22. WiFi5 (802.11a) Overview
    • Based on IEEE 802.11a standard that rates 54 megabytes per second (MBps)
      • New name: WiFi5
      • 5-GHz radio spectrum
    • Range of about 150+ feet (bandwidth decreases with the range – similar to 802.11b)
    • Note: For Europeans, the 5-GHz radio spectrum is not freely available today in the European Union (EU); therefore, using WiFi5 equipment is forbidden and punishable in EU
      • 802.11a is certified only for indoor use because satellites use the same frequency band
    • Important: 802.11b and 802.11a are not interoperable or compatible
  • 23. WiFi5 (802.11a) Considerations
    • 802.11a supports a higher bandwidth than the 802.11b.
    • 802.11a is aimed at next generation applications such as real-time video and multimedia conferencing.
    • It is not widely deployed yet – 802.11a equipment is just staring to become available. It will be more expensive than 802.11b equipment.
    • To enable your Pocket PC to use 802.11a hardware, it must support CardBus PC Cards. At this time, none of the Pocket PCs support CardBus PC Cards. 
      • This is because of the design of the Intel StrongARM and XScale chipsets that support only PC Cards, CompactFlash, or SD/MMC peripherals.
    • 802.11a also requires more power to operate and might not have acceptable battery performance on mobile devices.
  • 24. 802.1x Overview
    • What is 802.1x?
      • IEEE 802.1X is an IEEE-certified data link layer protocol that enables a machine and the network to authenticate each other and generate a per session/user key for encrypting data on the wireless link.
      • Within the 802.1X implementation, this implementation supports the Extended Authentication Protocol for encapsulating Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) as an authentication protocol. In EAP-TLS, the wireless client and a back-end authentication (RADIUS) server conduct a TLS handshake that enables certificate-based mutual authentication and subsequent key generation for the encryption of all data packets.
    • Authentication can be handled using the RADIUS protocol for easy integration into most networks
    • Enhances security by blocking any networking activity until a successful user authentication is performed
    • Wired Equivalent Protocol encryption keys are managed and rotated on a per session basis
  • 25. 802.1x Support for Pocket PC 2002
    • Support provided by independent hardware vendors (IHV) bundled with hardware:
      • Agere
      • Toshiba (e740 PPC)
      • Symbol
      • Socket
    • The IHVs will bundle Microsoft infrastructure code with their driver and settings user interface (including certificate enrollment tools). The IHVs will distribute and support the 802.1x software.
    • Microsoft plans to provide support for the Protected EAP (PEAP) authentication scheme defined within the 802.1X implementation, but this support will not be provided in this Pocket PC 2002 release.
      • Note: There is a registry key that can be used to disable server validation. However, server validation cannot be disabled for PEAP because the user’s ID and password are transmitted during the PEAP authentication.
  • 26. 802.1x (2) Support for Pocket PC 2002
    • How will we support 802.1x in Pocket PC 2002?
      • We will support EAP – TLS
      • Our EAP (Extended Authentication Protocol)-TLS (Transport Layer Security) support includes verification of both the client and the server. The user enrolls for a Client Authentication certificate using the enrollment tool on the device. The enrollment tools are installed with the IHV drivers for the network card.
      • Certificate enrollment will require a PC connection through ActiveSync ® with desktop pass-through enabled to connect to the network.
      • You will also need to retrieve a root certificate, which is used for server authentication. At the time of authentication, the client requests the certificate of the authorization server. If that certificate does not chain to a trusted root certificate on the device then the client will assume the server is being spoofed and will terminate the connection.
        • Note: There is an option (registry key) to disable server validation for TLS.
  • 27. 802.1x Diagram
  • 28. 802.1x Considerations
    • When roaming between WiFi access points, auto-reauthentication will take place.
    • You do not roam seamlessly between subnets in this release. You must unplug/reinsert the card or soft reset the device.
    • It is best that enterprise networks not enable multiple TCP/IP wireless subnets in a single building/roamed area because roaming between subnets is not supported in this release.
    • SSN (Safe Secure Networking) authentication (all the security of 802.1x with NO servers involved) is not part of this release.
      • This is emerging technology from the Microsoft Windows development group.
    • 802.1x will probably be supported natively in the next major Pocket PC release (but this is not guaranteed).
    • IHVs are expected to release their 802.1x hardware/software solutions in November 2002.
  • 29. Infrared (IrDA) Overview
    • A cordless data connection using infrared light.
    • Types of Infrared:
      • FIR (fast infrared) has the capability to transfer data up to 4 megabits per second (Mbps).
        • Some of the Handheld PC Pro units can communicate at up to 4 Mbps.
      • SIR (serial infrared) has the capability to transfer data at 115 Kbps.
    • Each Pocket PC can use Infrared Data Association-compliant (IrDA) communications for data transfer. Some are Consumer IR (infrared remote control) capable.
    • Operating systems that support IrDA:
      • Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 2000, and Windows XP
    • Distance and lighting can prevent two units from talking. 
    • Most units do not work reliably beyond 12 to 24 inches.
  • 30. Infrared (IrDA) What You Need
    • A desktop computer or laptop with a built-in or add-on infrared port and IrDA driver.
    • If you have a desktop computer without an infrared port, you can install an adapter that converts your serial or USB port into an IrDA-compatible infrared port.
      • Extended Systems JetEye PC or Access USB IrDA adapter
      • ACTiSYS IrDA USB adapter
    • For computers running Microsoft Windows NT®, Extended Systems offers IrDA support for Windows NT with QuickBeam Suite .
    • ActiveSync software.
  • 31. Connect to ActiveSync Using IR Pocket PC
    • Select the infrared connection by clicking ActiveSync from the Start menu.
    • From the Tools menu (bottom-left corner), click Connect via IR.
    • Now line up those infrared ports and synchronize without wires!
  • 32. Exchanging Data Via Infrared (IrDA) Pocket PC
    • Transfer a contact
      • Open Contacts.
      • Click and hold a highlighted contact.
      • Select “Send via Infrared” on the menu that appears.
      • Wait for confirmation that the data has transferred to the other device.
    • Receive a contact
      • Line up the infrared ports of the two devices, and the contact will begin copying.
      • When the contact has been received, you will see an icon at the top of the screen and hear a sound.
      • Click this icon to see the message.
      • Click Yes to add it to your Contacts list.
  • 33. IrDA Devices and Connection Scenarios
  • 34. GSM/GPRS Overview
    • GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications
      • GSM is an open, standards-based system that is constantly evolving.
    • GPRS
      • The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a new non-voice data service that permits information to be sent and received across a mobile telephone network. Theoretical maximum speeds of up to 171.2 Kilobits per second (Kbps) are achievable with GPRS using all eight timeslots at the same time.
      • GSM/GPRS Carriers
        • AT&T Wireless
        • Cingular
        • T-Mobile (formerly VoiceStream)
  • 35. GSM/GPRS Preparation
    • Connecting to GPRS is fairly easy.
    • The ETSI specifies how a mobile phone connects to the GPRS network. Typically, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) establishes the GPRS standard.
    • If you have all of this required information from your carrier, you can connect your Pocket PC within minutes.
  • 36. GSM/GPRS (2) Preparation
    • Before you can set up your Pocket PC to use GPRS, find out how many Access Point Names (APNs) your carrier uses and what their names and numbers are.
    • Some networks use additional APNs for different services, such as Internet access or Wireless Application Protocol (WAP).
    • You will also need the DNS used by your carrier, if required. Ask your carrier’s customer service for this information.
  • 37. GSM/GPRS Phone/Carrier Considerations
    • GPRS/VPN connections to the Internet
      • Some carriers permit VPN connections, others do not. First, contact the carrier to see if their connection supports VPN. If not, customers might be able to request setup for VPN.
    • How Pocket PC “Talks” with a Cell Phone http://www.microsoft.com/mobile/pocketpc/columns/ppcomm.asp
    • How to Connect to GPRS Cell Phone via IrDA http://www.ppcw.net/stories.php?story=01/10/19/5205351
    • Connect a GSM Mobile Phone via Infrared for Using Circuit Switched Data network http://www.ppcw.net/stories.php?story=01/10/19/5044495
    • Connect a GSM Mobile Phone via Infrared for Using High Speed Circuit Switched Data http:// www.ppcw.net/stories.php?story =01/10/19/5146335
  • 38. GSM/GPRS (2) Phone/Carrier Considerations
    • The following modem initialization string might help to reduce the time that it takes to log on to the GPRS network from well above 30 seconds (sometimes a lot more) to less than 10!
    • What you are doing is selecting a UDI circuit setup that is the native ISDN-like format on most GSM networks
      • Insert the following string in the modem setup: +cbst=71,0,1
      • Note: This may not work on non-GSM networks
  • 39. GSM/GPRS How To
    • Click Start, click Settings, and then click the Connections tab.
    • Click the Connections icon.
    • Click Modify to open the dial-up networking file.
    • Click New.
    • Enter a connection name (in this case, GPRS Connection).
    • Connect using a modem (usually the Generic IrDA modem).
    • Now set up the baud rate (suggested rate: 57600; I had the best results with this speed using different mobile phones).
  • 40. GSM/GPRS (2) How To
    • Click Advanced, and then click the Name Servers tab.
    • Type the DNS and Alt DNS addresses, if your carrier requires this (see figure).
    • Click OK, and then tap Next.
  • 41. GSM/GPRS (3) How To
    • Enter the phone number your Pocket PC must dial (this is where it differs from dialing a regular ISP)
    • Typically, the Pocket PC must dial *99#, which is a GSM code telling the network that this call is not a regular voice call, but a GPRS call
    • On most phones, you will also need the APN (Access Point Name) number that you want to access
      • In this figure, the APN number that is dialed is *99***APN number#
  • 42. GSM/GPRS (4) How To
    • Click Next, and clear “Wait for dial tone before dialing.”
    • Click Finish.
    • Your Pocket PC is now ready to connect to GPRS.
    • Note: If your mobile phone does not support the ETSI dial string, *99***APN number# (the Motorola Timeport 260 does not, for example), just enter *99# as the phone number, and then click Next (see figure).
  • 43. GSM/GPRS (5) How To
    • Again, clear “Wait for dial tone before dialing.”
    • Type the APN name in the “Extra dial-string modem commands” box.
      • “ INTERNET”, in this figure, is the APN name used by your network operator.
    • This will look like: +cgdcont=1,"IP","INTERNET.”
    • Click Finish.
    • You can now connect your Pocket PC to the Internet using your mobile phone.
  • 44. GSM/GPRS Phone Edition - GPRS
    • Click Start, click Settings, and then click the Connections tab.
    • Click the Connections icon.
    • Click Modify (under Internet Settings).
  • 45. GSM/GPRS (2) Phone Edition - GPRS
    • Click New on the Modem tab
    • On the Make New Connection screen, type a name for the connection
      • This example uses GPRS Connection
    • Select a modem: Cellular Line (GPRS)
    • Select a baud rate: Use the default setting
  • 46. GSM/GPRS (3) Phone Edition - GPRS
    • Click Advanced, and complete the following:
      • TCP/IP tab: Select “Use server-assigned IP address” or type information provided by your carrier
  • 47. GSM/GPRS (4) Phone Edition - GPRS
    • Name Servers tab: Select “Use server-assigned IP address” or type information provided by your carrier in these fields:
      • DNS
      • Alt DNS
      • WINS
      • Alt WINS
    • Click OK, and then click Next.
  • 48. GSM/GPRS (5) Phone Edition - GPRS
    • Here you will be asked to provide an APN (Access Point Name) for your carrier’s internet portal
      • This example uses: “internet.<domain>.com”
    • Click Finish
  • 49. GSM/GPRS Hardware
  • 50. GSM/GPRS Applications for Pocket PC Phone Edition
    • Applications to monitor GPRS data usage on Pocket PC Phone Edition devices
      • ALL-locations GPRS Traffic Counter - http:// www.pocketgear.com/software_detail.asp?id =3964&associateid=18
      • Spb GPRS Monitor 1.5 - http:// www.pocketgear.com/software_detail.asp?id =5351&associateid=18
  • 51. CDMA/1xrtt
    • What is CDMA?
      • CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
        • Currently, there is only one commercial system that uses CDMA, covered by the specifications IS-95 and J-STD-008. The term CDMA is often used to refer to that system. CDMA was designed by QUALCOMM in the United States.
        • IS-95 is a standard that describes a cell system that uses a CDMA link and operates at 800 MHz. Sometimes the term is also used to describe 1900 MHz CDMA, which is covered by J-STD-008. This explains why most CDMA phones operate on 800- to 1900-MHz frequencies.
      • History note: CDMA technology was first used by the military in WWII against jamming.
  • 52. CDMA/1xrtt (2)
    • What is 1xrtt?
    • Enhancing CDMA cellular technology data capabilities is the 1xrtt CDMA standard. This first phase of CDMA2000, called 1xrtt, is designed to double current voice capacity and support always-on data transmission speeds ten times faster than is typically available today (some are 144 Kbps).
    • CDMA/1xrtt carriers
      • Verizon Wireless
      • Sprint
  • 53. CDMA/1xrtt (3)
    • CDMA FAQ
      • http://cellphones.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fdenbeste.nu%2Fcdmafaq%2F
    • About.com – What is CDMA?
      • http://www.cellphones.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_cdma.htm
    • Focus on CDMA
      • http:// www.cellular.co.za/cdma.htm
  • 54. Additional Resources
    • Microsoft Pocket PC Web site
      • http://www.microsoft.com/mobile/pocketpc/default.asp
    • Microsoft Mobile Devices Web site
      • http://www.microsoft.com/mobile/
    • Microsoft Smartphone Web site
      • http://www.microsoft.com/mobile/ smartphone/default.asp
    • Mobilize Yourself! The Microsoft Guide to Mobile Technology , Microsoft Press ® book
      • http://www.microsoft.com/MSPress/books/5589.asp
    • The IEEE 802 Web site
      • http://www.ieee802.org/
    • Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA)
      • http://www.wi-fi.org/OpenSection/index.asp
    • Introduction to IrDA
      • http://www.hw.cz/english/docs/irda/irda.html
  • 55. KB Articles
    • Terminal Services client and VPN:
      • Q314537 , “HOW TO: Use a Handheld PC or a Pocket PC as a Mobile Terminal”
    • Connecting and configuring:
      • Q312896 , “HOW TO: Use Dial-Up Networking to Access a Corporate Network with a Pocket PC”
      • Q313296 , “HOW TO: Connect to Peripheral Devices with IrDA”
      • Q168688 , “How to Connect to the Internet Using a Proxy Server”
      • Q312901 , “HOW TO: Configure a Pocket PC Device to Access the Internet Through a Computer That Is Running ICS”
  • 56. Web Site Articles
    • Configuring Your Dial-up Connection
      • http://www.microsoft.com/MOBILE/pocketpc/stepbystep/connection.asp
    • Pocket PC VPN client does not support IPSec or L2TP VPNs (resolution). Use a third-party client for IPSec or L2TP VPN connectivity.
      • Movian is a company that has a VPN client for IPSec that runs on the Pocket PC. For more information, visit: http:// www.movianvpn.com/products/products_vpn.html
    • The third-party products discussed in this message are manufactured by vendors independent of Microsoft. Microsoft makes no warranty, implied or otherwise, regarding these products' performance or reliability.
  • 57. Glossary
    • SSN – Safe Secure Networking
    • APN – Access Point Name
    • PC Card – PCMCIA
    • SD – Secure Digital card
    • MMC – Multimedia Card
    • CF – Compact Flash
    • Carrier – Used in place of a cellular service provider
  • 58. Glossary (2)
    • Bluetooth Bluetooth is a low power radio technology being developed with the objective of replacing the wires currently used to connect electronic devices, such as personal computers, printers, and a wide variety of handheld devices, such as palm top computers and mobile phones. The development of Bluetooth began in early 1998 and was led by a number of telecommunications and computer industry leaders. The Bluetooth specification will be open and royalty-free, and available to anyone who wishes to use it in their products. Bluetooth operates in the 2.4GHz ISM (industrial, scientific, medical) band, and devices equipped with Bluetooth should be capable of exchanging data at speeds up to 720 Kbps at ranges up to 10 meters. This is achieved using a transmission power of 1mW and the incorporation of frequency hopping to avoid interference. If the receiving device detects that the transmitting device is closer than 10 meters, it will automatically modify its transmitting power to suit the range. The device should also shift to a low-power mode as soon as traffic volume becomes low or ceases altogether.
  • 59. Glossary (3)
    • GPRS - GSM Packet Radio Service GPRS, which has been standardized by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) as part of the GSM Phase 2+ development, represents the first implementation of packet switching within GSM, which is essentially a circuit switched technology. Instead of sending a continuous stream of data over a permanent connection, packet switching only uses the network when there is data to be sent. Using GPRS will permit users to send and receive data at speeds of up to 115 Kbps. The implementation of GPRS will bring tremendous benefits to GSM network operators. It brings Internet Protocol (IP) capability to the GSM network for the first time and enables connection to a wide range of public and private data networks using industry standard data protocols, such as TCP/IP. GPRS is extremely efficient in its use of scarce spectrum resources and permits GSM operators to introduce a wide range of value-added services for market differentiation. GPRS is ideal for ‘bursty’ type data applications, such as e-mail or Internet access, and can also enable ‘virtual permanent connection’ to data sources, allowing information to arrive rather than being sought. This cannot be achieved using standard circuit-switched networks.
    • WAP - Wireless Application Protocol The development of WAP is being driven by the WAP Forum, initially founded by Motorola, Nokia, Ericsson and Unwired Planet. Since its inception the WAP Forum has grown dramatically and now comprises of over 80 members drawn from the world’s leading telecommunications and software companies. WAP is a technology designed to provide users of mobile terminals with rapid and efficient access to the Internet. WAP is a protocol optimized, not only for use on the narrow band radio channels used by second generation digital wireless systems, but also for the limited display capabilities and functionality of the display systems used by today’s mobile terminals. WAP integrates telephony services with micro browsing and enables easy-to-use interactive Internet access from the mobile handset. Typical WAP applications include over-the-air e-commerce transactions, online banking, information provisioning and messaging. Further information: http://www.wapforum.org/ .
  • 60.
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