The 802 series of standards promulgated by the IEEE support networking at the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. 802.11 is the familiar 11 Mbps or 54 Mbps WiFi standards. The ‘g’ is backward compatible with ‘b’, using the same frequency. ‘a’ is at a different frequency. WPAN is Wireless Personal Area Networking and BBWA is the Broad Band Wireless Access standards group. The 802.11 series is widely deployed and well known.
Figures and technical information from Specifications for WPANS , Retrieved on October 7, 2003 from http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.1-2002_sectionone.pdf Retrieved on October 7, 2003 from http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.1-2002_sectionone.pdf
1.Specifications for WPANs, p.19 Retrieved on October 7, 2003 from http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.1-2002_sectionone.pdf
Mapping OSI model to IEEE 802 AND 802.15.1 Standards
Radio: DSSS and FHSS operate at 2 Mbps in the 2.5 GHz band and provide a distance that can cover a small campus area (10 meters) Power consumption: 1 mW of transmit power The two most common kinds of radiated media used in wireless LANs are spread-spectrum radio (SSR) and infrared light ; SSR is the most widely used; there are two major types of SSR ( Frequency hopping and Direct sequencing) : Frequency hopping : this SSR technique changes the transmission frequency at regular intervals over a fixed spectrum; data are transmitted at one frequency, then the data are transmitted at a different frequency. Each piece of data is transmitted over several frequencies to increase the probability that it will be successfully received. Both Bluetooth and HomeRF rely on frequency hopping SSR Direct sequencing : this SSR transmission technique simultaneously transmits the same data on different frequencies in order to increase the probability of success. Most 802.11 WLANs use direct sequencing
The range is divided into 79 separate 1MHz channels. Each channel transmits a signal There are usually 1600 channel changes (called hops) per second
Format of an over the air payload bearing Bluetooth WPAN packet
Time Division Duplexing (TDD) and timing
This approach minimizes interference because if one frequency channel suffers from interference, it will soon be avoided. Potential problem with DSSS interference if Bluetooth piconets are within 2 meters of an 802.11b NIC or Access Point
Meant to show WPAN applications. Also shows a LAN attached gateway (AG) Applications: Large warehouse floor; Disney/Epcot Center, hotel lobby Bluetooth enables devices such as printers, laptops, headsets, and fax machines to communicate Bluetooth chip – enables travelers to avoid carrying cords/cables for connectivity
A Wireless Personal Area Network is a wireless network composed of a number of independent data devices with in mutual communication range of each other (Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R., 2000). Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R. (2000). Wireless Personal Area Networks: An Overview of the IEEE P802.15 Working Group. ACM Sigmobile Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 4 (1), 26-33.
In effect a Wireless Personal Area Network is a personal network for a single individual, handling the person’s interactions with other digital devices, and provides the connection infrastructure between the various personal, home and office electronic systems that a person uses daily. The aim of a Wireless Personal Area Network is to address the problem of seamlessly getting information between devices (Heile, 2000). Heile, B. (2000, February 14). Wireless PANs Tie Data into Home. Electronic Engineering Times, 1100 , 110 – 111.
Due to general availability worldwide and low cost radio solutions, the 2.4 GHZ Industrial, Scientific and Medical band is the frequency of interest for Wireless Personal Area Network since no governmental approval is needed for transmission (Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R., 2000; Thinkative Ltd., 1999-2002). Wireless Personal Area Network can operate in an area up to 10 meters in diameter. However, the range can be extended to 100 meters in order to support the home environment as well as for other uses (Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R., 2000). Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R. (2000). Wireless Personal Area Networks: An Overview of the IEEE P802.15 Working Group. ACM Sigmobile Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 4 (1), 26-33. Thinkative Ltd. (1999-2002). Wireless Glossary . Retrieved October19, 2003, from http://www.thinkative.com/wireless/glossary.html
Small devices are often limited to battery power, which limits wireless transfer of data. Research however is being conducted in ways to reduce power consumption. Another problem is with device association. If for example, two components are near each other, are they part of the same wireless network? With a wired network the answer is simple, with a wireless network the answer is not as clear. Also, data rates are reduced. Maximum data rates for a wired network far outstrip a wireless connection. However, many wireless applications have modest data rate requirements (Fiskin, K., Partridge, K., & Chatterjee, S., 2002). Fiskin, K., Partridge, K., & Chatterjee, S. (2002). Wireless User Interface Components for Personal Area Networks. Pervasive Computing, 1 (4), 49-55.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers has increased the speed of Wireless Personal Area Networks from 1 Megabytes Per Second to 55 Megabytes Per Second for broad use of multimedia, digital imagery, high-quality audio and other high-bandwidth applications (IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks, 2003). IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks. (2003). RCR Wireless News, 22 (32), 13.
To quote the IEEE 802.15 Working Group Chair, quote “ We created the standard in response to the strong demand from end users and manufacturers who want to interconnect portable devices without undue expense yet transfer multimedia, still digital images and audio content in home networks”, end quote. IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks. (2003). RCR Wireless News, 22 (32), 13.
Corporate Deployments: Recent declines in earning have stalled corporate implementations. Demand is still strong for mobile workers for productivity, mail, Intranet, Internet, Custom Software Strong use by students in university campus environments. Contained environment within campus’ Public Usage: Retail – Starbucks. Flexible, requires an additional ISP account. Home Usage: Functional but limited in overall need. Low ROI. Low implementation cost.
Campus wide deployment: Conference rooms, common areas, most office have a moderate signal. Primary use is for conference rooms: Meetings, Training, Project Teams Signal is generally strong with moderate conflicts.
Future Use : Dedicated wireless user instead of only roaming usage Peripherals on wireless Mobile and Temp office usage for Home office working on campus temporarily Technology Upgrades for Performance
Overview of Compaq deployment and partnership with Starbucks
ISP for Starbucks and multiple others.
T-Mobiles North America wireless access point distribution. Goal – To show the full spectrum of HW Vendor to Retail Customer to Service Customer for the retail customers. Deployment for internal usage and retail usage for customers continues to gain acceptance and usefullness which will drive additional implementations.
There are always new challenges when a new networking medium is introduced into a new environment. Some of these challenges occur from the differences between wired LANs and wireless LANs. For example, there is a measure of security inherent in a cabled network where the data is contained by the cable plant. However, Wireless networks present new challenges, since data is traveling thru the air on radio waves. Other challenges arise out of the unique capabilities of wireless networking. With the freedom of movement gained by removing the wire, users are free to roam from room to room, building to building, city to city and so on, expecting uninterrupted connectivity all the time.
With a wired network there is an inherent security in that a potential data thief has to gain access to the network through a wired connection, usually meaning physical access to the network cable plant. On top of this physical access, other security mechanisms can be layered. When wires no longer contain the network, the freedom gained by the users of the network can also be extended to the potential data thief. The network now may become available in the hallways, insecure waiting areas, even outside of the building. In a home environment, your network could extend to your neighbors houses if the proper security mechanisms aren’t adopted by the networking gear or used properly. Since its inception, 802.11 has provided some basic security mechanisms to make this enhanced freedom less of a potential threat. For example, Wi-Fi access points (or sets of access points) can be configured with a service set identifier (SSID). This SSID must also be known by the NIC in order to associate with the AP and thus proceed with data transmission and reception on the network. This is very weak security if at all because: • The SSID is well known by all NICs and APs • The SSID is sent through the air in the clear (even beaconed by the AP) • Whether the association is allowed if the SSID is not known can be controlled by the NIC/Driver locally • No encryption is provided through this scheme While there may be other problems with this scheme, already this is enough to stop none but the most casual of hacker. Additional security is provided through the 802.11 specifications through the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm. WEP provides 802.11 with authentication and encryption services. The WEP algorithm defines the use of a 40-bit secret key for authentication and encryption and many IEEE 802.11 implementations also allow 104-bit secret keys. This algorithm provides mostly protection against eavesdropping and physical security attributes comparable to a wired network. A principal limitation to this security mechanism is that the standard does not define a key management protocol for distribution of the keys. This presumes that the secret, shared keys are delivered to the IEEE 802.11 wireless station via a secure channel independent of IEEE 802.11. This becomes even more challenging when a large number of stations are involved such as on a corporate campus. To provide a better mechanism for access control and security the inclusion of a key management protocol in the specification is required. The 802.1X standard, which is described later in this paper, was developed specifically to address this issue.
As a user or station roams from access point to access point, an association must be maintained between the NIC and an access point for network connectivity to be maintained. This can present an especially difficult problem if the network is large and the user must cross subnet boundaries or realms of administrative control. If the user crosses a subnet boundary, the IP address originally assigned to the station may no longer be appropriate for the new subnet. If the transition involves a crossing of administrative domains, it is possible that the station may no longer be allowed to access the network in the new domain based on their credentials. Beyond simply roaming within a corporate campus, several other roaming user scenarios are very real. With airports and restaurants adding wireless connectivity to the Internet and wireless networks becoming popular networking solutions for the home. Now it becomes more likely the user could leave the office to meet with someone from another company that also has a compatible wireless network. On the way to this meeting the user could find himself in a train station, restaurant or airport with wireless access and need to retrieve files from the home office. It would be useful for this user to be authenticated and use this connection to access their corporate network. When the user arrives at their destination they he may not be allowed access to the local corporate network he is visiting. It would be fortuitous however, if the user could be provided access to the Internet in this foreign environment. This access could then be used to create a virtual private network connection to his corporate network. The user might then leave for home and wish to connect to his home network to upload or print files to work on that evening. The user has now roamed into a new wireless network, possibly even running in ad hoc mode. For the example above, roaming is a situation that must be carefully thought through. Configuration becomes an issue for the roaming user as multiple different network configurations could cause a challenge if the user’s wireless station is not somewhat self-configuring.
Now that we have a wireless network connection and the added complexity, there are potentially many more things to configure. For example we might need to configure the SSID of the network we are connecting to. Or, we might need to configure a set of WEP keys for security; possibly multiple sets if we have multiple networks to connect to. We might need to have a configuration for work where we have a network operating in infrastructure mode and a configuration for home where we are operating in ad hoc mode. Then we might need to choose which of these configurations to use based on where we are at this time.
Wi-Fi technology, also called 802.11, has emerged as an increasingly popular technology that provides high-speed wireless Internet access in many locations around the world (NAN,MAN), including airports, cafes, corporate offices, universities, factories and homes. Concourse Communications Reports in Sept. a surge in Airport WiFi Usage 19% increase in 30 days. In July 2003, there were about 15 airports in North America equipped with airport-wide WiFi including, LaGuardia, JFK, Newark Liberty, Detroit Wayne County Metropolitan Airport and the Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport. These systems support wireless voice, data and video services offered by commercial wireless service providers, airport operators and their airline tenants. For more information, please visit www. concoursecommunications .com There will be around 12.8 million users of public WLAN services in the USA by 2007, with the total number of hotspots reaching 57 000 in locations such as airports, hotels and restaurants, according to Public Wireless LAN Access in Western Europe and the USA: market analysis and forecasts, a report published by Analysys, the global adviser on telecoms and new media. A wireless community, also called a Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) or a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), lets you connect to the Internet cheaply and quickly. NANs are created when one or more people put up an 802.11b access point (AP), to cover a small geographic area. The coverage of a standard AP such as the Apple &quot;AirPort&quot; usually covers only one hundred square meters or so, but this can be extended up to 1 kilometer in radius if the AP owner uses an omnidirectional antenna. Neighbors participating in the NAN would then use a directional antenna pointed back at the AP, set up their own AP and then their neighbors will point back to them to connect and then they set up ...and so on, and so on, until you have the beginnings of a Metropolitan Area Network. (http://www.pdacortex.com/802_11b.htm) Researchers at NEC have taken Wi-Fi wireless connectivity to new levels by successfully demonstrating handovers between access points while traveling past them at bullet-train speed. The test involved four IEEE802.11b (the technology standard behind Apple's AirPort for Macs) access points placed at 500-metre intervals along a portion of the Japan Automobile Research Institute's test track in Ibaraki prefecture
IOGEAR, the connectivity and peripheral specialist, has announced that it will expand its product line to include Wi-Fi hardware solutions. Gartner estimates that by 2006, more than 99 million end-users will have Wi-Fi equipped devices. IOGEAR will enter the Wi-Fi market with the introduction of a number of innovative Wi-Fi access products, including USB 2.0 flex adapters, routers and CardBus cards. Worldwide wireless LAN hardware revenue is projected to grow to $3.2 billion in 2003, up about 100% from $1.6 billion in 2002, according to Infonetics Research's quarterly worldwide market share and forecast service, Wireless LAN Hardware.
3. The 802.16a Standard WiMAX – Not just another standard Broadband wireless access provides more capacity at lower cost than DSL or cable for extending the fibre networks and supporting multimedia and fast internet applications in the enterprise or home. But it has been held back by the lack of a standard, so that solutions have been based on proprietary, single-vendor efforts. Standardization through the IEEE 802.16 specification raises the potential to: • Stall wired broadband and make wireless the key platform of the future • Extend the range of Wi-Fi so that the myth of ubiquitous wireless can become a reality • Provide an alternative or complement to 3G • Provide an economically viable communications infrastructure for developing countries and mobile blackspot regions in developed nations IEEE earlier this year passed a key amendment (IEEE 802.16a) to the 802.16 Standard which was approved in April, 2002. The 802.16 standard specifies the WirelessMAN-SC air interface, a single-carrier (SC) modulation scheme designed to operate in the 10-66 GHz spectrum. This opens the door for the creation of fixed Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), which could provide network access support to buildings with speeds that approach those offered by high-speed fiber optic networks. The new 802.16a standard defines three physical layer modes. It retains the single-carrier access method for special-purpose networks, but adds a 256-carrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexed , or OFDM, layer which splits the radio signal into multiple smaller sub-signals that are then transmitted simultaneously at different frequencies to the receiver, allowing for the transmission of large amounts of digital data and reducing multipath (reflections of a signal -- caused when the signal bounces off metal obstructions -- which can create interference). The standard also defines a 2,048-carrier OFDMA, or orthogonal frequency division multiple access, layer, which offers advanced multiplexing in tiered MANs and supports selective multicast applications.
There's been a lot of talk about voice over IP (VOIP) on wireless LANs (WLANs), but term &quot;Wi-Fi&quot; is really taking over lately. VOIP involves implementing digital voice telephony over an Internet Protocol (IP) connection, typically a LAN (sometimes with Internet connectivity as well, such as the services offered by Vonage and Net2Phone ), or the interconnection of LANs carrying voice traffic via WANs. Connections can be point-to-point and all-IP through a network, or gateways can be used to convert between VOIP signals and traditional telephone connections. Many believe that VOIP will eventually constitute all telephony, but if it happens, it is many years away. There are a lot of copper loops in the world, and these are by no means obsolete just because we can do voice over IP.
Researchers at the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Mobile Wireless Technologies for Persons with Disabilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology are adapting wireless technology to aid millions of disabled people worldwide. Target is on wireless aids for mobility, vision, and hearing impairments. Captioning device – movie theatres: PDA’s, mini monitor on eye glasses, Remote Gesture Controls – Will allow the manipulation of switches and buttons with a wave of a hand. Audio Navigator – Will help the vision impaired using a GPS sensor mounted with preprogrammed routes. Pharmacy on a chip -- Having trouble remembering to take your medicine? Langer and others are developing a microchip that can be implanted under the skin to deliver drugs on cue. The chip has tiny reservoirs that can hold different types of medicine as well as varying doses of the same medicine. It can be programmed to release drugs at specific time intervals, and it could also change the way we think about medical recording. &quot;Every time you take a drug, it could actually transmit that information from the chip to the computer at your house, to the doctor's office or hospital,&quot; Langer says. (American Chemical Society's Pro Spectives Conference, &quot;Future Directions of Drug Delivery Technologies,&quot; in Boston in October - Robert Langer, Ph.D., a professor of chemical and biomedical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Public release date: 25-Nov-2002 ,
Group Presentation by: Kevin Shaffer Standards Jill Young Bluetooth Dana Wiggins Wireless Personal Area Networks David White Business Sector Applications Robert Hambly Government Applications Ali Abedin Network Challenges Douglas Newton Security Kamal Al-Nasser Costs Kofi Frimpong Future of Wireless
The term personal area network (PAN) is meant to describe interconnecting personal devices: notebooks, cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs)
Untethered version => WPAN, can be viewed as a “personal communications bubble around a person. Within this bubble, which moves as a person moves around, personal devices can connect to one another.” 1
WPAN => mobile (versus, WLAN => portable) WPAN connection lasts only as long as it is needed; has a finite lifespan. Connections created by a mobile device are ad hoc and temporary; previous or future connections may or may not resemble devices to which it was or will be connected. Example: notebook computer may connect to a PDA for a moment; then to a digital camera; then to a cell phone; later it may connect to several of these devices simultaneously
Based on the Bluetooth™ specifications (Bluetooth is an industry specification for short-range radio frequency (RF)-based connectivity for portable personal devices)
Defines the lower transport layers [(Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP), Link Manager Protocol (LMP), baseband, and radio] of the Bluetooth™ wireless technology.
The IEEE 802.15.1 Task Group has reviewed and provided a standard adaptation of the Bluetooth specifications (version 1.1) medium access control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer (DLL) and physical layer (PHY) (radio)
Technology uses a short-range radio link optimized for small, lightweight devices
Supports synchronous for telephony-grade voice communication and asynchronous communication channels for data communication
Operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band, 1600 hops/s using 79 slotted channel packets of 625 s duration. Each packet is transmitted on a different frequency in the hopping sequence. A packet nominally covers a single slot, but can be extended to three or four. (Figure follows for a general format for a single slot payload).
Full duplex is enabled with a fast time division duplex (TDD) scheme
"We created the standard in response to the strong demand from end users and manufacturers who want to interconnect portable devices without undue expense yet transfer multimedia, still digital images and audio content in home networks,'' said Robert F. Heile, IEEE 802.15 working group chair. (IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks, 2003)
Corporate Wireless Applications and Initiatives David T. White
Overview of Industry Utilization and Implementations Corporate Deployments – Strong demand, lagging use University Campus - Represents the highest daily usage Public Retail Usage – Continued growth, next largest Home Wireless - Currently the smallest user base
References White Paper by Tom Fount, Microsoft Corporation, Published: July 2001, Retrieved from World Wide Web: 04/15/2003. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/pro/techinfo/planning/wirelesslan/default.asp The Wireless LAN Alliance: www.alan.com The Wireless LAN Association (WLANA): www.wlana.org
Wi-Fi technology, also called 802.11 , provides high-speed wireless Internet access in many locations around the world called Hotspots , including airports, cafes, corporate offices, universities, factories and homes.
Providers: Boingo Wireless, HereUAre Communications, Joltage, FatPort, and Surf and Sip. T-Mobile and AT&T Wireless have joined and Sprint PCS and Verizon Wireless say it is an important part of their 3G wireless strategy.
Eg. Starbucks, Newark Liberty airport; McDonalds in Idaho ( http://www. iwifi -here.com/ WiFi -Locations. htm )
Recent test – Airport WiFi tested at 205MPH (330kph)in Tokyo by NEC (http://www. macworld .co. uk /news/main_news. cfm ? NewsID =7114)
Wi-Fi Growth Predictions - Standards
802.11g – variant of 802.11a but uses same 2.4 GHz frequency as current Wi-Fi
802.11i - addresses security weaknesses inherent to the technology
802.11h – aimed at meeting regional needs. Will add some capabilities to 802.11a that allows it to meet certain frequency-regulation requirements in Europe.
802.11j – Also aimed at meeting regional needs. Will adapt 802.11a for Japan.
future developments will be shaped by the following issues: (1) the continued growth and evolution of dual-mode 2.4/5GHz capable equipment, (2) Intel’s ability to push outs its Banias mobile platform, which includes a Wi-Fi mini-PCI solution, and (3)the shift toward 802.11g as the preferred 2.4 GHz WLAN technology.
IOGear – the connectivity and peripheral specialist, current and future products. http://www. iogear .com/
Wireless-G USB 2.0 Flex Adapter Rotates 300 degrees in any direction and pivots 180 degrees for optimum reception. Plugs into the USB port to leave your CardBus slots free for other devices. Wireless-G Notebook Network Card Low profile antenna leaves room for other Card Bus connections to operate simultaneously. Software Access Point included for systems running Windows XP. Wireless-G Broadband Gateway/Print Server An all-in-one wireless access point, router and print server for both small and home office users. Surf the Internet, share files, chat with your friends, and print... Wirelessly!
Wireless for the Disabled (Technology Review: MIT ‘s mag., Dec. ’03/Jan. ‘04)
Researchers at the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Mobile Wireless Technologies for Persons with Disabilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology are adapting wireless technology to aid millions of disabled people worldwide. Target is on wireless aids for mobility, vision, and hearing impairments.
Captioning device – movie theatres: PDA’s, mini monitor on eye glasses,
Remote Gesture Controls – Will allow the manipulation of switches and buttons with a wave of a hand.
Audio Navigator – Will help the vision impaired using a GPS sensor mounted with preprogrammed routes.
Pharmacy on a chip - an under-skin pharmacy on a microchip
Chip has tiny reservoirs that can hold different types of medicine as well as varying doses of the same medicine
Can be programmed to release drugs at specific time intervals, and it could also change the way we think about medical recording.
Wi - Fi Planet Conference & Expo , December 2 - 5, 2003 at the McEnery Convention Center in San Jose, Calif., where Margaret LaBrecque, marketing manager in Intel's Broadband Wireless division and the president of the WiMax Forum, will discuss how WiMax will work in conjunction with 802.11 in a panel called "Fatter Wireless Pipes: How do they Fit into the Wi-Fi Landscape .