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  • The 802 series of standards promulgated by the IEEE support networking at the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. 802.11 is the familiar 11 Mbps or 54 Mbps WiFi standards. The ‘g’ is backward compatible with ‘b’, using the same frequency. ‘a’ is at a different frequency. WPAN is Wireless Personal Area Networking and BBWA is the Broad Band Wireless Access standards group. The 802.11 series is widely deployed and well known.
  • Figures and technical information from Specifications for WPANS , Retrieved on October 7, 2003 from Retrieved on October 7, 2003 from
  • 1.Specifications for WPANs, p.19 Retrieved on October 7, 2003 from
  • Mapping OSI model to IEEE 802 AND 802.15.1 Standards
  • Radio: DSSS and FHSS operate at 2 Mbps in the 2.5 GHz band and provide a distance that can cover a small campus area (10 meters) Power consumption: 1 mW of transmit power The two most common kinds of radiated media used in wireless LANs are spread-spectrum radio (SSR) and infrared light ; SSR is the most widely used; there are two major types of SSR ( Frequency hopping and Direct sequencing) : Frequency hopping : this SSR technique changes the transmission frequency at regular intervals over a fixed spectrum; data are transmitted at one frequency, then the data are transmitted at a different frequency. Each piece of data is transmitted over several frequencies to increase the probability that it will be successfully received. Both Bluetooth and HomeRF rely on frequency hopping SSR Direct sequencing : this SSR transmission technique simultaneously transmits the same data on different frequencies in order to increase the probability of success. Most 802.11 WLANs use direct sequencing
  • The range is divided into 79 separate 1MHz channels. Each channel transmits a signal There are usually 1600 channel changes (called hops) per second
  • Format of an over the air payload bearing Bluetooth WPAN packet
  • Multi-slot packets
  • Time Division Duplexing (TDD) and timing
  • This approach minimizes interference because if one frequency channel suffers from interference, it will soon be avoided. Potential problem with DSSS interference if Bluetooth piconets are within 2 meters of an 802.11b NIC or Access Point
  • Meant to show WPAN applications. Also shows a LAN attached gateway (AG) Applications: Large warehouse floor; Disney/Epcot Center, hotel lobby Bluetooth enables devices such as printers, laptops, headsets, and fax machines to communicate Bluetooth chip – enables travelers to avoid carrying cords/cables for connectivity
  • A Wireless Personal Area Network is a wireless network composed of a number of independent data devices with in mutual communication range of each other (Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R., 2000). Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R. (2000). Wireless Personal Area Networks: An Overview of the IEEE P802.15 Working Group. ACM Sigmobile Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 4 (1), 26-33.
  • In effect a Wireless Personal Area Network is a personal network for a single individual, handling the person’s interactions with other digital devices, and provides the connection infrastructure between the various personal, home and office electronic systems that a person uses daily. The aim of a Wireless Personal Area Network is to address the problem of seamlessly getting information between devices (Heile, 2000). Heile, B. (2000, February 14). Wireless PANs Tie Data into Home. Electronic Engineering Times, 1100 , 110 – 111.
  • Due to general availability worldwide and low cost radio solutions, the 2.4 GHZ Industrial, Scientific and Medical band is the frequency of interest for Wireless Personal Area Network since no governmental approval is needed for transmission (Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R., 2000; Thinkative Ltd., 1999-2002). Wireless Personal Area Network can operate in an area up to 10 meters in diameter. However, the range can be extended to 100 meters in order to support the home environment as well as for other uses (Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R., 2000). Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R. (2000). Wireless Personal Area Networks: An Overview of the IEEE P802.15 Working Group. ACM Sigmobile Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 4 (1), 26-33. Thinkative Ltd. (1999-2002). Wireless Glossary . Retrieved October19, 2003, from
  • Small devices are often limited to battery power, which limits wireless transfer of data. Research however is being conducted in ways to reduce power consumption. Another problem is with device association. If for example, two components are near each other, are they part of the same wireless network? With a wired network the answer is simple, with a wireless network the answer is not as clear. Also, data rates are reduced. Maximum data rates for a wired network far outstrip a wireless connection. However, many wireless applications have modest data rate requirements (Fiskin, K., Partridge, K., & Chatterjee, S., 2002). Fiskin, K., Partridge, K., & Chatterjee, S. (2002). Wireless User Interface Components for Personal Area Networks. Pervasive Computing, 1 (4), 49-55.
  • The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers has increased the speed of Wireless Personal Area Networks from 1 Megabytes Per Second to 55 Megabytes Per Second for broad use of multimedia, digital imagery, high-quality audio and other high-bandwidth applications (IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks, 2003). IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks. (2003). RCR Wireless News, 22 (32), 13.
  • To quote the IEEE 802.15 Working Group Chair, quote “ We created the standard in response to the strong demand from end users and manufacturers who want to interconnect portable devices without undue expense yet transfer multimedia, still digital images and audio content in home networks”, end quote. IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks. (2003). RCR Wireless News, 22 (32), 13.
  • Corporate Deployments: Recent declines in earning have stalled corporate implementations. Demand is still strong for mobile workers for productivity, mail, Intranet, Internet, Custom Software Strong use by students in university campus environments. Contained environment within campus’ Public Usage: Retail – Starbucks. Flexible, requires an additional ISP account. Home Usage: Functional but limited in overall need. Low ROI. Low implementation cost.
  • Campus wide deployment: Conference rooms, common areas, most office have a moderate signal. Primary use is for conference rooms: Meetings, Training, Project Teams Signal is generally strong with moderate conflicts.
  • Future Use : Dedicated wireless user instead of only roaming usage Peripherals on wireless Mobile and Temp office usage for Home office working on campus temporarily Technology Upgrades for Performance
  • Overview of Compaq deployment and partnership with Starbucks
  • ISP for Starbucks and multiple others.
  • T-Mobiles North America wireless access point distribution. Goal – To show the full spectrum of HW Vendor to Retail Customer to Service Customer for the retail customers. Deployment for internal usage and retail usage for customers continues to gain acceptance and usefullness which will drive additional implementations.
  • There are always new challenges when a new networking medium is introduced into a new environment. Some of these challenges occur from the differences between wired LANs and wireless LANs. For example, there is a measure of security inherent in a cabled network where the data is contained by the cable plant. However, Wireless networks present new challenges, since data is traveling thru the air on radio waves. Other challenges arise out of the unique capabilities of wireless networking. With the freedom of movement gained by removing the wire, users are free to roam from room to room, building to building, city to city and so on, expecting uninterrupted connectivity all the time.
  •   With a wired network there is an inherent security in that a potential data thief has to gain access to the network through a wired connection, usually meaning physical access to the network cable plant. On top of this physical access, other security mechanisms can be layered. When wires no longer contain the network, the freedom gained by the users of the network can also be extended to the potential data thief. The network now may become available in the hallways, insecure waiting areas, even outside of the building. In a home environment, your network could extend to your neighbors houses if the proper security mechanisms aren’t adopted by the networking gear or used properly. Since its inception, 802.11 has provided some basic security mechanisms to make this enhanced freedom less of a potential threat. For example, Wi-Fi access points (or sets of access points) can be configured with a service set identifier (SSID). This SSID must also be known by the NIC in order to associate with the AP and thus proceed with data transmission and reception on the network. This is very weak security if at all because: • The SSID is well known by all NICs and APs • The SSID is sent through the air in the clear (even beaconed by the AP) • Whether the association is allowed if the SSID is not known can be controlled by the NIC/Driver locally • No encryption is provided through this scheme While there may be other problems with this scheme, already this is enough to stop none but the most casual of hacker. Additional security is provided through the 802.11 specifications through the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm. WEP provides 802.11 with authentication and encryption services. The WEP algorithm defines the use of a 40-bit secret key for authentication and encryption and many IEEE 802.11 implementations also allow 104-bit secret keys. This algorithm provides mostly protection against eavesdropping and physical security attributes comparable to a wired network. A principal limitation to this security mechanism is that the standard does not define a key management protocol for distribution of the keys. This presumes that the secret, shared keys are delivered to the IEEE 802.11 wireless station via a secure channel independent of IEEE 802.11. This becomes even more challenging when a large number of stations are involved such as on a corporate campus. To provide a better mechanism for access control and security the inclusion of a key management protocol in the specification is required. The 802.1X standard, which is described later in this paper, was developed specifically to address this issue.
  •   As a user or station roams from access point to access point, an association must be maintained between the NIC and an access point for network connectivity to be maintained. This can present an especially difficult problem if the network is large and the user must cross subnet boundaries or realms of administrative control. If the user crosses a subnet boundary, the IP address originally assigned to the station may no longer be appropriate for the new subnet. If the transition involves a crossing of administrative domains, it is possible that the station may no longer be allowed to access the network in the new domain based on their credentials. Beyond simply roaming within a corporate campus, several other roaming user scenarios are very real. With airports and restaurants adding wireless connectivity to the Internet and wireless networks becoming popular networking solutions for the home. Now it becomes more likely the user could leave the office to meet with someone from another company that also has a compatible wireless network. On the way to this meeting the user could find himself in a train station, restaurant or airport with wireless access and need to retrieve files from the home office. It would be useful for this user to be authenticated and use this connection to access their corporate network. When the user arrives at their destination they he may not be allowed access to the local corporate network he is visiting. It would be fortuitous however, if the user could be provided access to the Internet in this foreign environment. This access could then be used to create a virtual private network connection to his corporate network. The user might then leave for home and wish to connect to his home network to upload or print files to work on that evening. The user has now roamed into a new wireless network, possibly even running in ad hoc mode. For the example above, roaming is a situation that must be carefully thought through. Configuration becomes an issue for the roaming user as multiple different network configurations could cause a challenge if the user’s wireless station is not somewhat self-configuring.
  • Now that we have a wireless network connection and the added complexity, there are potentially many more things to configure. For example we might need to configure the SSID of the network we are connecting to. Or, we might need to configure a set of WEP keys for security; possibly multiple sets if we have multiple networks to connect to. We might need to have a configuration for work where we have a network operating in infrastructure mode and a configuration for home where we are operating in ad hoc mode. Then we might need to choose which of these configurations to use based on where we are at this time.
  • Wi-Fi technology, also called 802.11, has emerged as an increasingly popular technology that provides high-speed wireless Internet access in many locations around the world (NAN,MAN), including airports, cafes, corporate offices, universities, factories and homes. Concourse Communications Reports in Sept. a surge in Airport WiFi Usage 19% increase in 30 days. In July 2003, there were about 15 airports in North America equipped with airport-wide WiFi including, LaGuardia, JFK, Newark Liberty, Detroit Wayne County Metropolitan Airport and the Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport. These systems support wireless voice, data and video services offered by commercial wireless service providers, airport operators and their airline tenants. For more information, please visit www. concoursecommunications .com There will be around 12.8 million users of public WLAN services in the USA by 2007, with the total number of hotspots reaching 57 000 in locations such as airports, hotels and restaurants, according to Public Wireless LAN Access in Western Europe and the USA: market analysis and forecasts, a report published by Analysys, the global adviser on telecoms and new media. A wireless community, also called a Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) or a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), lets you connect to the Internet cheaply and quickly. NANs are created when one or more people put up an 802.11b access point (AP), to cover a small geographic area. The coverage of a standard AP such as the Apple "AirPort" usually covers only one hundred square meters or so, but this can be extended up to 1 kilometer in radius if the AP owner uses an omnidirectional antenna. Neighbors participating in the NAN would then use a directional antenna pointed back at the AP, set up their own AP and then their neighbors will point back to them to connect and then they set up ...and so on, and so on, until you have the beginnings of a Metropolitan Area Network. ( Researchers at NEC have taken Wi-Fi wireless connectivity to new levels by successfully demonstrating handovers between access points while traveling past them at bullet-train speed. The test involved four IEEE802.11b (the technology standard behind Apple's AirPort for Macs) access points placed at 500-metre intervals along a portion of the Japan Automobile Research Institute's test track in Ibaraki prefecture
  • IOGEAR, the connectivity and peripheral specialist, has announced that it will expand its product line to include Wi-Fi hardware solutions. Gartner estimates that by 2006, more than 99 million end-users will have Wi-Fi equipped devices. IOGEAR will enter the Wi-Fi market with the introduction of a number of innovative Wi-Fi access products, including USB 2.0 flex adapters, routers and CardBus cards. Worldwide wireless LAN hardware revenue is projected to grow to $3.2 billion in 2003, up about 100% from $1.6 billion in 2002, according to Infonetics Research's quarterly worldwide market share and forecast service, Wireless LAN Hardware.
  • 3. The 802.16a Standard WiMAX – Not just another standard Broadband wireless access provides more capacity at lower cost than DSL or cable for extending the fibre networks and supporting multimedia and fast internet applications in the enterprise or home. But it has been held back by the lack of a standard, so that solutions have been based on proprietary, single-vendor efforts. Standardization through the IEEE 802.16 specification raises the potential to: • Stall wired broadband and make wireless the key platform of the future • Extend the range of Wi-Fi so that the myth of ubiquitous wireless can become a reality • Provide an alternative or complement to 3G • Provide an economically viable communications infrastructure for developing countries and mobile blackspot regions in developed nations IEEE earlier this year passed a key amendment (IEEE 802.16a) to the 802.16 Standard which was approved in April, 2002. The 802.16 standard specifies the WirelessMAN-SC air interface, a single-carrier (SC) modulation scheme designed to operate in the 10-66 GHz spectrum. This opens the door for the creation of fixed Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), which could provide network access support to buildings with speeds that approach those offered by high-speed fiber optic networks. The new 802.16a standard defines three physical layer modes. It retains the single-carrier access method for special-purpose networks, but adds a 256-carrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexed , or OFDM, layer which splits the radio signal into multiple smaller sub-signals that are then transmitted simultaneously at different frequencies to the receiver, allowing for the transmission of large amounts of digital data and reducing multipath (reflections of a signal -- caused when the signal bounces off metal obstructions -- which can create interference). The standard also defines a 2,048-carrier OFDMA, or orthogonal frequency division multiple access, layer, which offers advanced multiplexing in tiered MANs and supports selective multicast applications.
  • There's been a lot of talk about voice over IP (VOIP) on wireless LANs (WLANs), but term "Wi-Fi" is really taking over lately. VOIP involves implementing digital voice telephony over an Internet Protocol (IP) connection, typically a LAN (sometimes with Internet connectivity as well, such as the services offered by Vonage and Net2Phone ), or the interconnection of LANs carrying voice traffic via WANs. Connections can be point-to-point and all-IP through a network, or gateways can be used to convert between VOIP signals and traditional telephone connections. Many believe that VOIP will eventually constitute all telephony, but if it happens, it is many years away. There are a lot of copper loops in the world, and these are by no means obsolete just because we can do voice over IP.
  • Researchers at the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Mobile Wireless Technologies for Persons with Disabilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology are adapting wireless technology to aid millions of disabled people worldwide. Target is on wireless aids for mobility, vision, and hearing impairments. Captioning device – movie theatres: PDA’s, mini monitor on eye glasses, Remote Gesture Controls – Will allow the manipulation of switches and buttons with a wave of a hand. Audio Navigator – Will help the vision impaired using a GPS sensor mounted with preprogrammed routes. Pharmacy on a chip -- Having trouble remembering to take your medicine? Langer and others are developing a microchip that can be implanted under the skin to deliver drugs on cue. The chip has tiny reservoirs that can hold different types of medicine as well as varying doses of the same medicine. It can be programmed to release drugs at specific time intervals, and it could also change the way we think about medical recording. "Every time you take a drug, it could actually transmit that information from the chip to the computer at your house, to the doctor's office or hospital," Langer says. (American Chemical Society's Pro Spectives Conference, "Future Directions of Drug Delivery Technologies," in Boston in October - Robert Langer, Ph.D., a professor of chemical and biomedical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Public release date: 25-Nov-2002 ,
  • Transcript

    • 1. Wireless Technologies
    • 2. Group Presentation by: Kevin Shaffer Standards Jill Young Bluetooth Dana Wiggins Wireless Personal Area Networks David White Business Sector Applications Robert Hambly Government Applications Ali Abedin Network Challenges Douglas Newton Security Kamal Al-Nasser Costs Kofi Frimpong Future of Wireless
    • 3. Wireless Standards Kevin Shaffer
    • 4. Standardization
      • Increases competition and lowers prices
      • Provides interoperability
      • Improves selection
      • Formal Standards Process is Slow
      • Collaboration may appear to violate anti-trust laws
      • Collusion may occur, but not be caught
    • 5. Influential Groups
      • IEEE http:// /
      • ANSI http:// /
      • ISO http:// /
      • UL http:// /
      • FCC http:// /
      • ITU http:// /
      • WiFi Alliance /
      • WLANA http:// /
      • IETF http:// /
    • 6. IEEE Wireless Standards
      • 802 Series of Standards for Networking
        • 802.11 WiFi
          • a, b, e, g, i
        • 802.15 WPAN
        • 802.16 BBWA
    • 7. Local Area Networking
      • 802.11b
        • 11 Mbps top speed, subject to distance and interference (raw data rate)
        • CSMA/CA
        • 2.4 GHz spectrum, public, microwaves, cordless phones
      • 802.11g
        • 54 Mbps, compatible with ‘b’
      • 802.11a
        • 54 Mbps, 5 GHz, also public spectrum
    • 8. Initiatives in Standardization
      • Implementing security for WLAN
        • 802.1X
        • EAP
      • No. of Channels depend on allocations
        • Japan 14 channels
        • Europe 13
        • US 11
    • 9. Personal Area Networks PANs and WPANs Jill Young
    • 10. Background
      • The term personal area network (PAN) is meant to describe interconnecting personal devices: notebooks, cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs)
      • Untethered version => WPAN, can be viewed as a “personal communications bubble around a person. Within this bubble, which moves as a person moves around, personal devices can connect to one another.” 1
      • WPAN => mobile (versus, WLAN => portable) WPAN connection lasts only as long as it is needed; has a finite lifespan. Connections created by a mobile device are ad hoc and temporary; previous or future connections may or may not resemble devices to which it was or will be connected. Example: notebook computer may connect to a PDA for a moment; then to a digital camera; then to a cell phone; later it may connect to several of these devices simultaneously
    • 11.  
    • 12. WPAN Architecture
      • IEEE Std. 802.15.1-2002
      • Based on the Bluetooth™ specifications (Bluetooth is an industry specification for short-range radio frequency (RF)-based connectivity for portable personal devices)
      • Defines the lower transport layers [(Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP), Link Manager Protocol (LMP), baseband, and radio] of the Bluetooth™ wireless technology.
      • The IEEE 802.15.1 Task Group has reviewed and provided a standard adaptation of the Bluetooth specifications (version 1.1) medium access control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer (DLL) and physical layer (PHY) (radio)
    • 13. Bluetooth WPAN
      • Technology uses a short-range radio link optimized for small, lightweight devices
      • Supports synchronous for telephony-grade voice communication and asynchronous communication channels for data communication
      • Operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band, 1600 hops/s using 79 slotted channel packets of 625  s duration. Each packet is transmitted on a different frequency in the hopping sequence. A packet nominally covers a single slot, but can be extended to three or four. (Figure follows for a general format for a single slot payload).
      • Full duplex is enabled with a fast time division duplex (TDD) scheme
    • 14.  
    • 15.  
    • 16.  
    • 17. Topology - Piconet
      • Can link to 8 devices; Can link to other piconets to form a larger network.
      • Master/Slave relationship - One device designated as the piconet master and the other devices are slaves.
      • The master controls the piconet, scheduling frequencies and access control used by the master and the slaves.
      • All messages are sent from a slave to the master and from the master to a slave. The slaves do not communicate directly with each other.
      • All devices share the same frequency ranges so the network behaves in the same manner as a shared bus topology.
      • The master controls which channel will be used, so the master and the slave with which it is communicating are synchronized so that they both know which frequencies will be used at which point.
    • 18.  
    • 19.  
    • 20. WPAN Dana Wiggins
    • 21. WPAN
      • A Wireless Personal Area Network is a system that allows independent data devices within mutual communication.
      (Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R., 2000)
    • 22. WPAN
      • Personal Network
      • Provides Connection Infrastructure
      • Handles Interactions Between digital Devices
      (Heile, 2000)
    • 23. WPAN
      • Worldwide 2.4 GHz ISM Band
      • 10 Meters in Diameter Range
      • Range can be extended to 100 meters
      (Braley, R., Gifford, I., & Heile, R., 2000)
    • 24. WPAN
      • Disadvantages
        • Less Available Power
        • Association Problem
        • Reduced Data Rates
      (Fiskin, K., Partridge, K., & Chatterjee, S., 2002)
    • 25. WPAN
      • The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has increased the speed of Wireless Personal Area Networks from 1MBps to 55MBps.
      (IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks, 2003)
    • 26. WPAN
      • Speed Increase From 1MBps to 55MBps
      "We created the standard in response to the strong demand from end users and manufacturers who want to interconnect portable devices without undue expense yet transfer multimedia, still digital images and audio content in home networks,'' said Robert F. Heile, IEEE 802.15 working group chair. (IEEE Increases Speeds for WPAN Networks, 2003)
    • 27. Corporate Wireless Applications and Initiatives David T. White
    • 28. Overview of Industry Utilization and Implementations Corporate Deployments – Strong demand, lagging use University Campus - Represents the highest daily usage Public Retail Usage – Continued growth, next largest Home Wireless - Currently the smallest user base
    • 29. Hewlett-Packard Co.
      • Implementations :
      • Company-Wide Deployment Internally
      • Wireless Access Point Deployment in Common Areas
      • Performance: 11Mbps for a Range of 150 Feet
      • Device Type Usage :
      • Notebooks
      • PDA’s (IPAQ)
      • Blackberry
    • 30. Hewlett-Packard Co. cont.
      • Implementation Benefits and Detail:
      • Limited Hardwiring Needed
      • Immediate Information When Mobile
      • Reduced Response Times for Support Teams
      • Single Signon (Same as Primary Account)
      • Seamless Roaming (Inside Buildings)
      • On-Campus Access Limitations
    • 31. Starbucks
      • Infrastructure from Compaq / HP
      • T-Mobile ISP Access Accounts
      • Wireless access in over 2000 locations
      • VPN company access if available
      • Limitations on IM Security
    • 32.
      • 3044 Access Points
      • Account Cost $29.00
      • Locations :
      • Borders Books (1000 Locations)
      • Starbucks (2300 Locations)
      • American Airlines Clubs (500 Locations)
      Consumer Wireless Access Points
    • 33. Access Point Distribution
    • 34. Government Applications Robert Hambly
    • 35. The Basics
      • Mobile, Wireless, Mobile-Wireless
        • Mobile – capable of moving or being moved.
        • Wireless – without wires.
        • Almost all mobile devices are wireless, but wireless devices are not always mobile.
      • 30% of Federal Government Employees are Mobile
      • 2004 – 60% of Federal Government Employees carry or own three (3) mobile devices.
      • 2004 – USASOC (5/7)
    • 36. E-Government
      • 2004 – 6 Billion Wireless Devices (PDA, computers, phones, GPS, etc.)
      • Third World Nations – Bypassing Wired Connections
      • University of Maryland Center for e-Service and Rockbridge Associates (Peoples’ Choice – Government Web Sites)
      • E-Government Strategy Report (OMB-2002) – “primary focus of the ‘expanding E-Government’ initiative is on citizen service – to make it easy for citizens to obtain services…”
    • 37. E-Government Technology Requirements
      • Ubiquitous Interactivity
        • Mobile and Wireless
        • Handy and Available
      • Personal (tracked to an individual vs. department)
      • Location Aware (tracking when on)
    • 38. Technology Implications
      • Accessibility – access to Government services and agencies at any time and from any place.
      • Individuals can be targeted specifically and reached by a Government agency instantaneously.
      • Global War On Terrorism (GWOT).
      • Invasion of Privacy.
    • 39. Strategies for Successful Wireless Adoption
      • Dependent on Four (4) Factors:
        • Extent of Mobility in Target Segment
        • Information Access Needs
        • Security/Privacy Requirements
        • Technology Readiness of the Target Segment
      • Harvest the “Low Hanging Fruit”
    • 40. “ Low Hanging Fruit”
      • Sacramento Police Department: 800MHz radio network allowing data networking and helicopter video downlink.
      • New Jersey Parking Enforcement: Hand-held devices print parking tickets and send information directly to DMV database.
      • Edmonton, Alberta: Building Inspectors use mobile devices to enter inspection reports directly into database.
      • Centers for Disease Control (CDC): GPS-equipped devices collect data on bio-terrorism related incidents.
    • 41. Network Challenges Ali Abedin
    • 42. Current Wireless LAN Challenges
      • Security Challenges
      • Roaming User Challenges
      • Configuration Challenges
    • 43. Current Wireless LAN Challenges
      • Security Challenges
        • Infrastructure Vulnerability to potential data thief.
        • Service Set Identifier (SSID) is a weak security.
        • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm lacks a key management protocol.
    • 44. Current Wireless LAN Challenges
      • Roaming User Challenges
        • Maintaining Network Connectivity.
        • Network Access Permissions across subnets.
    • 45. Current Wireless LAN Challenges
      • Configuration Challenges
        • Multiple different network configurations
    • 46. References White Paper by Tom Fount, Microsoft Corporation, Published: July 2001, Retrieved from World Wide Web: 04/15/2003. The Wireless LAN Alliance: The Wireless LAN Association (WLANA):
    • 47. Wireless Networking Security Douglas Newton
    • 48. Wireless Networking Security
      • Service Set Identifier (SSID):
        • The SSID, also called the network name, ensures that only wireless network devices configured with the same SSID are permitted access to the network.
        • The SSID name is included in the header of every data packet broadcast in the wireless network’s coverage area.
    • 49. Wireless Networking Security
      • MAC filtering:
        • MAC address filtering is a mechanism that limits user access to the wireless network.
        • Access to the wireless network is limited based on the physical, hard-wired address of the units’ wireless network adapter.
        • A table stored in the wireless access point lists the MAC addresses that are permitted to participate in the wireless network.
    • 50. Wireless Networking Security
      • Wireless Equivalency Privacy (WEP) encryption:
        • WEP encryption must be enabled to ensure that data is secured while in transit over the airwaves.
        • It uses standard 40-bit encryption to scramble data packets.
        • WEP provides a level of authentication based on the wireless node’s MAC address.
        • It works on the Data Link layer and the Physical layer of the OSI model.
    • 51. Wireless Networking Security
      • Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA):
        • WPA serves as a sort of security protocol upgrade to WEP-enabled devices.
        • It offers security enhancements such as an encryption key integrity-checking feature and user authentication through the industry-standard Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP).
    • 52. Wireless Cost and Business Justification Kamal Al-Nasser
    • 53. Wireless Cost and Business Justification
      • Overall driver is to lower TCO.
        • Initial construction of network environments.
        • Ongoing maintenance.
      • Increase end-user and IT productivity.
    • 54. Wireless Cost Case Study
      • Interviews for this study were conducted with wireless LAN users in the following industries:
      • Education: In-building K-12, University/College connectivity, Healthcare (Point of Care)
      • Manufacturing: Production, Distribution, Maintenance, Shipping, Receiving.
      • Retail: Point of Sale
      • Financial/Office –Automation: Stock Exchange, Banking, Consulting
    • 55. Wireless Cost Case Study
      • Real-Time Access to Information. One of the consistent findings of this study was:
        • How end-users benefited from real-time information.
        • 97% of respondents said they either strongly agree or agree that the wireless LAN contributed to the speed in which they completed a task requiring real-time or near real-time access to information.
    • 56. Wireless Cost Case Study
      • 89% of the companies experienced a successful implementation.
      • 92% of respondents interviewed believe there is a definite economic and business benefit after installation.
      • 92% of respondents reported that they will continue to deploy wireless technology in their network through 2000 because of the benefits experienced by end users and/or IT staff.
      • Payback was less than one year, across all industries surveyed.
      • The survey combines both telephone and written responses from 34 organizations
    • 57. Wireless Cost Case Study
      • The percentages for wireless LAN expenses, by category, were as follows:
        • WLAN Hardware/End User Devices: 50%
        • Monthly expenses: 1%%
        • Management expenses: 16%
        • Application development expenses: 16% Outsourcing: 16% Downtime: 1%
    • 58. Wireless Cost Case Study
      • With large investments in wireless LAN technology at approximately $300,000 to $4.2 million dollars per year
      • Organizations implementing an average of 300 client cards reaped annual savings of up to $4.9 million, which translated into per user savings of $15,989.
      • Across all industries, the wireless LAN paid for itself within 12 months time.
    • 59. Future of Wireless Kofi Frimpong
    • 60. Wi-Fi: Wireless Technology That Matters
      • Future Outlook
        • Wi-Fi technology, also called 802.11 , provides high-speed wireless Internet access in many locations around the world called Hotspots , including airports, cafes, corporate offices, universities, factories and homes.
        • Providers: Boingo Wireless, HereUAre Communications, Joltage, FatPort, and Surf and Sip. T-Mobile and AT&T Wireless have joined and Sprint PCS and Verizon Wireless say it is an important part of their 3G wireless strategy.
          • Eg. Starbucks, Newark Liberty airport; McDonalds in Idaho ( http://www. iwifi WiFi -Locations. htm )
          • Recent test – Airport WiFi tested at 205MPH (330kph)in Tokyo by NEC (http://www. macworld .co. uk /news/main_news. cfm ? NewsID =7114)
        • Wi-Fi Growth Predictions - Standards
          • 802.11g – variant of 802.11a but uses same 2.4 GHz frequency as current Wi-Fi
          • 802.11i - addresses security weaknesses inherent to the technology
          • 802.11h – aimed at meeting regional needs. Will add some capabilities to 802.11a that allows it to meet certain frequency-regulation requirements in Europe.
          • 802.11j – Also aimed at meeting regional needs. Will adapt 802.11a for Japan.
    • 61. Wi-Fi: Wireless Technology That Matters
        • Wi-Fi Hardware Solutions
          • future developments will be shaped by the following issues: (1) the continued growth and evolution of dual-mode 2.4/5GHz capable equipment, (2) Intel’s ability to push outs its Banias mobile platform, which includes a Wi-Fi mini-PCI solution, and (3)the shift toward 802.11g as the preferred 2.4 GHz WLAN technology.
        • IOGear – the connectivity and peripheral specialist, current and future products. http://www. iogear .com/
      Wireless-G USB 2.0 Flex Adapter Rotates 300 degrees in any direction and pivots 180 degrees for optimum reception. Plugs into the USB port to leave your CardBus slots free for other devices. Wireless-G Notebook Network Card Low profile antenna leaves room for other Card Bus connections to operate simultaneously. Software Access Point included for systems running Windows XP. Wireless-G Broadband Gateway/Print Server An all-in-one wireless access point, router and print server for both small and home office users. Surf the Internet, share files, chat with your friends, and print... Wirelessly!
    • 62. Wireless Metropolitan-Area Networking(WiMAN)
      • WirelessMAN
        • IEEE 802.16(a) enable computers to communicate wirelessly over kilometers
        • WiMAX Forum – Industry group of about 25 companies including Intel and Nokia formed to promote the new technology.
        • Compatible product should be available by end of 2004.
    • 63. VOIP on WLANs
      • VOIP involves implementing digital voice telephony over an Internet Protocol (IP) connection, typically a LAN, or the interconnection of LANs carrying voice traffic via WANs.
      • Point-to-point and all-IP through a network connection, or gateways can be used to convert between VOIP signals and traditional telephone conversations.
      • “ Point Coordination Function” mechanism of 802.11 standard is being improved by IEEE 802.11e Working Group to further enhance the performance of time-bounded packets within a wireless LAN.
      • Analyst predict VOIP on WLANS will be major driver of WLANS installations over next couple of years.
      • VOIP product already exists from
        • Cisco (Cisco Wireless IP Phone 7920 – uses IEEE 802.11b - http://www. cisco .com/en/US/products/hw/phones/ps379/ps5056/index.html )
        • Spectralink (Netlink e340 and i640 Wireless Telephones - http://www. spectralink .com/)
        • Telesym(SymPhone System– Delivers high-quality voice communication on Laptops, PCs and Pocket PC mobile devices with 802.11 wireless IP networks). Available http://www. telesym .com/ .
    • 64. Wireless Network Initiatives
      • Wireless for the Disabled (Technology Review: MIT ‘s mag., Dec. ’03/Jan. ‘04)
      • Researchers at the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Mobile Wireless Technologies for Persons with Disabilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology are adapting wireless technology to aid millions of disabled people worldwide. Target is on wireless aids for mobility, vision, and hearing impairments.
        • Captioning device – movie theatres: PDA’s, mini monitor on eye glasses,
        • Remote Gesture Controls – Will allow the manipulation of switches and buttons with a wave of a hand.
        • Audio Navigator – Will help the vision impaired using a GPS sensor mounted with preprogrammed routes.
      • Pharmacy on a chip - an under-skin pharmacy on a microchip
        • Chip has tiny reservoirs that can hold different types of medicine as well as varying doses of the same medicine
        • Can be programmed to release drugs at specific time intervals, and it could also change the way we think about medical recording.
      • Upcoming Events
        • Wi - Fi Planet Conference & Expo , December 2 - 5, 2003 at the McEnery Convention Center in San Jose, Calif., where Margaret LaBrecque, marketing manager in Intel's Broadband Wireless division and the president of the WiMax Forum, will discuss how WiMax will work in conjunction with 802.11 in a panel called "Fatter Wireless Pipes: How do they Fit into the Wi-Fi Landscape .
    • 65. References
      • Beyond patches and pills: the remarkable future of drug delivery. Available: http://www. eurekalert .org/pub_releases/2002-11/ acs -bpa112502. php . Last modified November 25, 2002.
      • Genesis Of An Anthill: Wireless Technology And Self-Organizing Systems
      • IEEE Advances Wirelesss MAN Standard. Available: http://www. wi - fiplanet .com/news/article. php /1577591 . Last modified January 31, 2003
      • McDonald’s WiFi Locations in Idaho. Available http://www. iwifi .us/hotspots/ mcdonalds - wifi - locatiions -in-Idaho. htm
      • VOIP on WLANs. . Last modified October 31, 2003.
      • WiMAX: The Critical Wireless Standard. Available: http://www. arcchart .com/pr/blueprint/ pdf / BluePrint _ WiFi _REPORT_I. pdf . Last modified October 2003
      • Wireless for the Disabled. Available: Technology Review (MIT). December 2003/January 2004.
    • 66. Wireless Technologies Thank You