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  • 1. Draw three digital waves (A,B,C) under time slices. Use three colors Always digital 2. Draw three analog waves (A,B,C) over FDM figure. Use three colors Always analog 3. FDM is how cable TV works.
  • PBX - Private Branch Exchange PBX - a special purpose computer designed for handling and switching office telephone calls at a company site. They can also be used to switch digital information among computers and office devices.
  • Nerd - Business (hacker.wmf) Phone - Arts & Letters
  • Background - IMSI
  • Background - Arts & Letters
  • Background - Arts & Letters
  • Background - Arts & Letters
  • Background - Arts & Letters
  • Transcript

    • 1. Telecommunications and Networks
    • 2. Overview of Communication
      • Communication is the transmission of a signal by way of a medium from a sender to a receiver .
      You’re FIRED.
    • 3. Overview of Communication
      • Communication is the transmission of a signal by way of a medium from a sender to a receiver.
    • 4. Overview of Communication
      • Communication is the transmission of a signal by way of a medium from a sender to a receiver.
      You’ve got Mail Please, NO more E-Mail
    • 5. Telecommunications
      • Telecommunications :
        • Electronic transmission of signals for communications, usually including:
          • Telephone
          • Radio
          • Television
          • Computer data
    • 6. Telecommunications
      • Data Communications :
        • A specialized subset of telecommunications and consists of:
          • Computer data
            • Includes the collection, processing, and distribution of computer data.
    • 7. Some Common Elements of a Telecommunications System Digital Signal Digital Signal Analog Signal (Modem) (Modem)
    • 8. Telecommunication Electronic Terms Frequency Amplitude Bits per second Analog signal Digital signal Baud Baseband Broadband Frequency modulation Amplitude modulation Phase modulation
    • 9. Analog and Digital Signals
      • Analog Signal
      • A continuously varying signal over time.
      • Modem signal, household voltage, telephone voice, radio & TV signals
    • 10. Analog and Digital Signals
      • Digital Signal
      • A discretely varying signal between two states:
        • High (binary 1), 5 volts in a computer
        • Low, (binary 0), 0 volts in a computer
    • 11. Amplitude
      • Amplitude
      • The height of the wave, as measured from peek to peek.
      • Measured in volts.
      • Applies to both analog and digital waves.
    • 12. Frequency
      • Frequency
      • The number of waves generated per second.
      • Measured in Hz (Hertz) or cycles second.
      • Applies to both analog and digital waves.
      1 second 1 Hz 2 Hz 4 Hz
    • 13. AM, FM, and PM
      • AM -- Amplitude Modulation
      • Two different amplitudes are used:
        • High (binary 1)
        • Low, (binary 0)
      Modem Modem
    • 14. AM, FM, and PM
      • FM -- Frequency Modulation
      • Two different frequencies are used:
        • High frequency, (binary 1)
        • Low frequency, (binary 0)
      Modem Modem
    • 15. AM, FM, and PM
      • PM -- Phase Modulation
      • An 180 degree phase shift denotes:
        • Binary 0
      • NO change in wave phase denotes:
        • Binary 1
      Modem Modem 180 degree phase shift
    • 16. bps vs. Baud
      • bps -- bits per second
        • bps is a measure of the amount of information transmitted in one second.
        • In other words, the number of 1’s and 0’s that can be transmitted in one second.
        • Common Modem speeds: 14,400, 28,800, 56,600 bps.
      Modem Modem
    • 17. bps vs. Baud
      • BAUD
        • BAUD -- The number to times per second the wave changes some physical characteristic.
          • Amplitude, Frequency and/or Phase.
        • Baud is NOT the same as bps .
        • It is a term which engineers use, not users.
      Modem Modem
    • 18. bps vs. Baud
      • Baud vs bps
      • A modem with a Baud of 4,800 would have a bps speed of 9,600 if 2 bits of information were transmitted on every wave phase shift.
      Shift Bits Degrees Transmitted 0 00 90 01 180 10 270 11
    • 19. bps vs. Baud
      • Summary (bps vs. Baud)
      • Baud -- the number of times per second the signal changes its physical characteristics.
      • bps -- the number of information bits (0’s &1’s) transmitted each second.
    • 20. Bandwidth
      • Bandwith -- is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies.
        • Telephone: 3000 Hz (3300 - 300 Hz)
        • Hearing: 19,980 Hz (20,000 - 20 Hz)
        • Fiber optic cable: 200 trillion Hz
        • The greater the bandwidth, the greater the transmission capacity.
          • Fiber optics can handle up to 32,000 calls simultaneously on a single fiber.
    • 21. Broadband vs. Baseband
      • Broadband -- a type of transmission which uses analog signals.
        • Has a WIDE bandwidth
        • Can carry MANY channels at once, such as, cable TV, satellites, microwave, etc.
    • 22. Broadband vs. Baseband
      • Baseband -- a type of transmission which uses digital signals
        • Has a NARROW bandwidth
        • Carries only ONE channel at once, such as, LANs.
        • The single channel uses the entire bandwidth.
    • 23. Types of Communications Media Microwave Cellular Infrared Satellites Twisted-pair wire Fiber-optic cable Coaxial cable
    • 24. Twisted-pair wire
      • Twisted-pair wire
      • Local area networks
        • Shielded, high grade,100 Mbps
      • Telephone
        • Unshielded, low grade, 56Kbps
    • 25. Coaxial cable
      • Coaxial cable
      • Local area networks & cable TV
      • Shielded to reduce interference
      • 1 Mbps to 200 Mbps
    • 26. Fiber-optic Cable
      • Fiber-optic cable
      • Network backbones, homes, businesses
      • 2.5 Gbps and above.
      • Can’t be tapped without detection
    • 27. Fiber-optic Cable Light pulses traveling through a fiber optic cable.
    • 28. Microwave Transmission
      • Microwave
      • Telephone & computer data
      • 275 Mbps
      • Point-to-point (30 to 75 miles)
      • Not secure
    • 29. Satellite Transmission
      • Satellite
      • Telephone, TV & computer data
      • 2 Mbps
      • Point-to-point (22,300 miles)
        • Geosynchronous orbit
      • Not secure
      • 3 Satellites can cover earth
    • 30. Cellular Transmission
      • Cellular Transmission
        • A geographical area is divided into cells.
        • Calls can be made and received within cells.
        • Cell phone signals are integrated into regular telephone service where calls can originate and be sent.
    • 32. Cellular Transmission RAT STUDIES Radio signals from cell phones caused cells in three areas of rats’ brains to die. The three affected areas were the cortex, which plays a role in high-level mental function; the hippocampus, which is important in learning; and the basal ganglia, which plays a role in the experience of sensation. Researchers exposed three groups of rats to different intensity radio frequency electromagnetic fields for a period of two hours . Rats that received more intense exposure had more dead and damaged neurons. Damage to neurons appear to be selective, however, as damaged cells were often surrounded by normal cells. The reasons for the selectivity, along with the mechanism causing the neuron death, are not known. Researchers say that the study does not demonstrate cell phone use is harmful to people, but recommend the use of a hands-free device to keep the cell phone as far from the brain as possible, adding that the use of cell phones is a "huge biological experiment."
    • 33. Cellular Transmission Nerve Cell Damage in Mammalian Brain after Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones Leif G. Salford, 1 Arne E. Brun, 2 Jacob L. Eberhardt, 3 Lars Malmgren, 4 and Bertil R. R. Persson 3 1 Department of Neurosurgery, 2 Department of Neuropathology, 3 Department of Medical Radiation Physics, and 4 Department of Applied Electronics, Lund University , The Rausing Laboratory and Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Abstract The possible risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for the human body is a growing concern for our society. We have previously shown that weak pulsed microwaves give rise to a significant leakage of albumin through the blood-brain barrier. In this study we investigated whether a pathologic leakage across the blood-brain barrier might be combined with damage to the neurons. Three groups each of eight rats were exposed for 2 hr to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found highly significant ( p < 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats. Key words: blood-brain barrier, central nervous system, microwaves, mobile phones, neuronal damage, rats. Environ Health Perspect 111:881-883 (2003)
    • 34. Cellular Transmission Albumin is the protein of the highest concentration in plasma. Albumin transports many small molecules in the blood (forexample, bilirubin , calcium, progesterone, and drugs). It is also of prime importance in maintaining the oncotic pressure of the blood (that is, keeping the fluid from leaking out into the tissues). This is because, unlike small molecules such as sodium and chloride, the concentration of albumin in the blood is much greater than it is in the extra cellular fluid. Because albumin is synthesized by the liver, decreased serum albumin may result from liver disease. It can also result from kidney disease, which allows albumin to escape into the urine. Decreased albumin may also be explained by malnutrition or a low protein
    • 36. Cellular Transmission
      • Johnnie Cochran
      • Died at 67
      • Brain Cancer
      • Cell phone
      • Wife and his doctor say cell phone usage
      • caused his cancer.
      • Used cell phone on left side of head, exactly where tumor was located.
      • Law suite
    • 37. Cellular Transmission US high court won't hear wireless radiation appeal by cell companies. By Jeremy Pelofsky WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Class-action lawsuits against wireless telephone providers and manufacturers over radiation emissions will be able to go forward, after the U.S. Supreme Court Monday declined to hear an appeal by the companies . The high court rejected hearing an appeal by companies like Nokia and Cingular Wireless challenging a decision by a U.S. appeals court that reinstated the lawsuits that argued manufacturers knew about and hid the risks of radiation emissions wireless phones posed to users . Wireless phones are radios that emit frequency radiation and in the United States the Federal Communications Commission must approve any device that sends out such radiation. Exposure to high levels of radiation can cause adverse health effects, but it is less clear the impact on a wireless phone user who is exposed to low levels of radiation when a phone is held to an ear directly. Health advocates have expressed concerns about radiation causing problems ranging from headaches to tumors . But the wireless industry has pointed to U.S. government statements that scientific evidence so far has not shown any health problems associated with wireless phone use. Five class-action lawsuits were filed in state courts seeking damages, including money for wireless users to buy a headset or reimburse those who had already had purchased one. A U.S. district court judge dismissed the five lawsuits on the grounds that state regulation of wireless phone emissions was preempted by the FCC, but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit overturned that decision and reinstated the cases.
    • 38. Cellular Transmission US high court won't hear wireless radiation appeal by cell companies By Jeremy Pelofsky &quot;The court was satisfied that the issues had been treated responsibly by the Fourth Circuit,&quot; said Harley Thomas Howell, a lawyer at Howell & Gately who represents those who sued the manufacturers. Nokia spokeswoman Arja Suominen said the company was disappointed by the decision, but declined further comment. Cingular, the largest U.S. wireless carrier, declined to comment. The wireless industry is worried about being required to adhere to numerous different emissions requirements imposed by states, something the service providers and manufacturers argue would wreak havoc on the industry and consumers. &quot;This court's intervention is necessary to prevent the balkanization of network standards ... which will, if uncorrected, undermine the ability of consumers to use an FCC-approved wireless telephone in every state of the union,&quot; they said in their appeal to the court. Other companies that joined in the appeal include Motorola Inc. and Qualcomm Inc. Cingular Wireless is a joint venture of BellSouth Corp. and SBC Communications Inc. As a result of the top court's action, one lawsuit will go forward in federal court while the four other lawsuits will advance in state court.
    • 39. RF Transmission
      • RF (Radio Frequency) Transmission
      • Radio Frequency waves sed to connect computers and peripheral devices.
      Look, a mouse with no tail. WHAT?
    • 40. Telecommunications Devices Modem Fax modem Special-purpose modems Multiplexers WiFi
    • 41. Telecommunications Devices
      • Modem (MO+DEM)
      • Encodes a digital wave into an analog wave.
        • MO ulation.
      • Decodes an analog wave into a digital wave.
        • DEM odulation.
    • 42. Telecommunications Devices WiFi - Short for Wireless Fidelity 802.11b – A protocol (Standard) from IEEE ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) _ Speed: 11 Mbps _ Frequency: 2.4 GHz _ Distance: About 100 to 200 feet 802.11g – A protocol (Standard) from IEEE _ Speed: 54 Mbps _ Frequency: 2.4 GHz _ Distance: About 100 to 200 feet 802.11n – A protocol (Standard) from IEEE _ Speed: 200 + Mbps _ Frequency: 2.4 or 5 GHz _ Distance: About 100 to 200 (or more) feet _ Not fully standardize yet.
    • 43. Telecommunications Devices Hot Spot _ It is connection point for a WiFi network. _ Has a 802.11 radio _ It is connected to the Internet by Cable or DSL _ Up to 100 users _ Transmits 100 to 200 feet. _ Found in: _ Universities _ Restaurants (Now in McDonalds) _ Hotels _ Libraries _ Airports _ Homes _ Coffee Shops
    • 44. Telecommunications Devices WiFi Routers USB WiFi Router USB Cable WiFi Router Cable WiFi Adapters PDA Personal Digital Assistant WiFi USB Adapter WiFi PCI Adapter WiFi Laptop Adapter Built-in WiFi WiFi Chip Adpater
    • 45. Telecommunications Devices Satellite
    • 46. Telecommunications Devices WEP and WPA _ Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)--OK - Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)--Better _ A security code that is needed to get into the network _ is part of the IEEE 802.11 standard (ratified in September 1999), and is a scheme used to secure wireless networks (WiFi). Because a wireless network broadcasts messages using radio, it is particularly susceptible to eavesdropping; WEP was designed to provide comparable confidentiality to a traditional wired network, hence the name: WEP Hot spot finder WiFi Hotspots
    • 47. Telecommunications Devices DSL – Digital Subscriber Line _ Uses telephone lines _ Must be close to telephone company’s central office. (Within 4 miles.) _ Typical Speeds 1.5 Mbps (Download) 64 to 640 Mbps (Upload) _ Best Possible Speeds 8 Mbps (Download) 640Kbps (Upload)
    • 48.
      • Modem
      • Internal
      • External
      Telecommunications Devices
    • 49.
      • Copy machines
      • Modem within machine
      • Many have other features:
        • Computer printer
        • Copier
        • FAX
        • Scanner
      Telecommunications Devices
    • 50.
      • Cellular modem
        • Inside notebook computers.
        • Can communicate with other computers and fax machines through telephone companies.
      Telecommunications Devices
    • 51.
      • Multiplexing
      • Multiplexing allows two or more devices, such as computers and terminals, using multiplexers, to share a single data channel .
      Telecommunications Devices 1 Channel A B C A C B ABC MUX MUX
    • 52.
      • Multiplexers:
      • Time division multiplexer
      • Frequency division multiplexer
      Telecommunications Devices A (low frequency)
    • 53.
      • Sprint’s Fiber-optic Multiplexer
      • Optical Wavelength Digital Multiplexing
      • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
      • Merge Data, Video, and Voice
      Telecommunications Devices
    • 54. Telecommunications Carriers and Services Switched lines PBX Value-added carriers Dedicated lines Common carriers WATS Caller ID ISDN Digital subscriber line
    • 55.
      • Telecom Carriers provide:
      • telephone lines,
      • satellites, microwave,
      • switching circuits,
      • modems, MUXs,
      • other equipment, and technology.
      Telecom. Carriers & Services
    • 56.
      • Two types of carriers:
      • Common carriers
        • Own lots of equipment.
      • Value-added carriers
        • Use common carriers’ equipment, but add a value such as packet switching, or frame relay, and better rates.
      Telecom. Carriers & Services
    • 57. Telecom. Carriers & Services Orlando Leased line Switched Line Sacramento
    • 58. Telecom. Carriers & Services PBX - Private Branch Exchange
    • 60. Telecom. Carriers & Services WATS Line
      • WATS - Wide-Area Telecommunications Services
        • 800 & 888 numbers
        • Cost varies by geographical location and usage.
      900? But, I thought the psychic network was an 800 number.
    • 61. Telecom. Carriers & Services Caller ID
      • Caller ID
      • ANI - Automatic Number Identification
      • Identifies caller
      • Can link caller to information stored in
      • a computer.
      Caller ID stopped those weird calls from normal people.
    • 62. Telecom. Carriers & Services Digital Subscriber Line
      • DSL
      • Developed by Bellcore Labs
        • Owned by 7 Bell companies.
      • Upload speed MAX ( 640Kbps)
      • Download speed MAX (8 Mbps)
      • Cost ($ 29 to $48 per month)
      • Twisted pair cable
    • 63. Telecommunications Act 1996 Deregulate Cable V-chip TV Bandwidth Video Promote competition
    • 64. Computer Networks Processing Strategies Network Topologies Types of Networks Benefits of Networks
    • 65. Computer Network Characteristics
      • Networks consist of communications media, devices, and software.
      • Networks connect two or more computers or devices.
      • Network computers can share data, information, and the processing of jobs.
    • 66. Network Processing Stratagies Centralized Processing
    • 67. Network Processing Stratagies Decentralized Processing
    • 68. Network Processing Stratagies Distributed Processing
    • 69. Benefits of Networks
      • Benefits:
      • Help gain competitive advantage.
      • Will allow for the sharing of hardware, software, and databases across the organization.
      • Distant workgroups could share documents and opinions.
      • Could make the organization more creative.
      • Better and faster information could make the organization more effective and efficient.
    • 70. Network Topologies Hybrid Ring Star Bus Bus
    • 71. Ring Topology
      • Ring Topology
      • One computer can talk at a time.
      • Must have the token to talk.
      • Only one token in a ring.
        • Token is an electronic signal.
      • Token moves around the ring from computer to computer.
      I have the token.
    • 72. Bus Topology
      • Bus Topology
      • One computer talks at a time.
      • Uses contention to talk.
      • Most popular topology.
      Bus We use contention to talk. Bus
    • 73. StarTopology
      • Star Topology
      • Hub computer controls all communication.
      • If hub computer goes down, the entire network goes down.
      I control everything.
    • 74. Hybrid Topology
      • Hybrid Topology
      • This a mixture of two or more topologies.
      I’m a hybrid. Star and Ring
    • 75. Types of Networks VAN WAN Metropolitan LAN
    • 76. Local Area Network (LAN)
      • LAN
      • Connects computer systems and devices within the same geographical (or LOCAL) area, such as, an office
      • building.
      • Any network topology will work.
      I’m a LAN.
    • 77. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
      • MAN
      • Connects computer systems and devices to a metropolitan area, such as, a city or county.
      • May use microwave, telephone lines and cable.
      Bay area
    • 78. Wide Area Network (WAN)
      • WAN
      • Connects computer systems and devices to a WIDE geographical area, such as, across cities, states, or countries.
      • May use satellites, microwave, telephone lines, and fiber-optic cable.
    • 79. Value-added Network (VAN)
      • VAN
      • They lease communications lines from a public company and enhance services.
        • They add special equipment and services, such as, America Online.
        • Packet-switching service is another example.
      America Online turns me on.
    • 80. Distributed Processing Client/Server File server
    • 81. Client/Server Model
      • Client/Server
      • Client and Server both hold components of the application and share running the application.
        • Server holds database and part of the application
        • Client holds the remaining part of the application.
      Data & SQL Server Client
    • 82. Client/Server Model Data & SQL Server Client
      • Client
      • GUI.
      • Input data to server.
      • Data queries to server.
      • Retrieved data for spread sheet analysis.
      • Database Server
      • Update DB files from new data entered by client.
      • Fetch requested data for client.
      • Process payroll.
      Payroll Example
    • 83. Client/Server Model Data & SQL Server Client
      • Possible Disadvantages
      • Cost of conversion.
      • Loss of control.
      • Complex multivendor environment .
      • Possible advantages
      • Elimination of mainframes and proprietary software.
      • Less traffic on network.
      • Added security in stored procedures.
      • Better use of processing power.
      Advantages vs. Disadvantages
    • 84. Client/Server Model
      • Client Server
      • It is a model for computing that splits the processing between clients and servers, assigning functions to the machine on a network most able to perform that function.
      Client/Server Defined Communications Database Printing Applications Client Client Client
    • 85. Communications Software & Protocols Protocals Network OS Network Management Bridges, Routers, and Gateways Coordinating Data Data Transfer Modes
    • 86. Network Operating System
      • NOS - Network Operating System
      • Controls the operation of the network, and resides on server .
      • Popular NOS’s
        • Windows XP and Vista
          • This OS has a NOS built in.
        • UNIX
          • This OS has a NOS built in.
        • LINUX
          • This OS has a NOS built in.
    • 87. Communications Protocols
      • Protocols
      • Common protocols allow computers of different types and from different manufactures to talk to each other .
      I’m an IBM running OS/2. I’m an HP running UNIX.
    • 88. Communications Protocols
      • OSI - Open Systems Interconnection
      Application Layer (7) Presentation Layer (6) Transport Layer (4) Session Layer (5) Network Layer (3) Data Link Layer (2) Physical Link Layer (1)
    • 89. OSI Model (i)
      • Application Layer (7)
        • Interfaces application programs to the network.
      • Presentation Layer (6)
        • Handles the display, formatting and appearance of information on the screens.
      • Session Layer (5)
        • Establishes logon/logoff process. Handles accounting and billing.
      • Transport Layer (4)
        • Routes data through several networks. Handles data security.
      • Network Layer (3)
        • Routes data within the network. Handles PADs.
      • Data Link Layer (2)
        • Polling, error detection & correction.
      • Physical Link Layer (1)
    • 90. Bridges, Routers, Gateways (i)
    • 91. Communications Protocols
      • Other popular protocols:
        • TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
          • The major protocol used by the government and internet.
        • Ethernet
          • Used by LAN’s
        • X.400 and X.500
          • Used in e-mail systems.
    • 92. Bridges, Routers, and Gateways
      • Bridge
      • A bridge is a device used to connect networks using the same protocol, such as, Ethernet.
      • The bridge interprets the data link portion of the message to see if the message needs to be sent to the connected LAN.
      B ridge I do too. I use Ethernet.
    • 93. Bridges, Routers, Gateways (i)
    • 94. Bridges, Routers, and Gateways
      • Router
      • Determines the best path between two networks having multiple paths between them.
      • A router is a device used to connect networks using the same protocols, such as, Ethernet.
    • 95. Bridges, Routers, Gateways (i)
    • 96. Bridges, Routers, and Gateways
      • Gateway
      • A gateway is a device used to connect networks using very different protocols, such as, Ethernet and SNA.
      Gateway I use Ethernet. I use SNA.
    • 97. Bridges, Routers, Gateways (i)
    • 98. Data Transfer Modes
      • Packet Switching Network
    • 99. Packet Switching (i) 128 Bytes in Length
    • 100. Data Transfer Modes
      • ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode
      • High speed network which transports:
        • Voice, data, video, images, and text.
        • Uses 53 byte cells.
        • Switches data using only hardware, thus faster.
        • Up to 2.4 Gbits/s
        • Fiber Optic
    • 101. Telecommunications Applications E-Mail PC to Mainframe Voice Mail Document Distribution Software Distribution Telecommuting Conferencing EDI
    • 102. Voice Mail
    • 103. E-Mail
      • No more E-mail!
    • 104. Electronic Document Distribution
    • 105. Electronic Software Distribution
    • 106. Telecommuting Could this be happening to 7 million others?
    • 107. Videoconferencing Mary, we must release the product by March.
    • 108. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
      • EDI
      Could you spare some change? Chemical Factory Chemical Distributor ACE ACE
    • 109. QUIZ
      • MODEM stands for modulation/demodulation.
      • a. True
      • b. False
    • 110. QUIZ
      • If a MODEM has a baud of 1,200 and uses phase
      • shift modulation with 0, 90, 180, 270 degree shifts, what is it bps?
      • a. 2,400 bps
      • b. 4,800 bps
      • c. 9,600 bps
      • d. 19,200 bps
    • 111. QUIZ
      • Cable TV uses:
      • Frequency Division Multiplexing
      • Phase Shift Modulation
      • Time Division Multiplexing
      • Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
    • 112. QUIZ
      • This computer model places one part of an
      • application on the user’s computer and the
      • other part on a server.
      • a. Client-Server
      • b. User-Server
      • c. Application-Server
      • d. Server Model
      • e. Client Model
    • 113. QUIZ
      • Protocols such as OSI and TCP/IP allow
      • dissimilar computer systems to communicate with each other?
      • a. True
      • b. False
    • 114. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
      • EDI
      Could you spare some change? Chemical Factory Chemical Distributor The End ACE ACE