1. Draw three digital waves (A,B,C) under time slices. Use three colors Always digital 2. Draw three analog waves (A,B,C) over FDM figure. Use three colors Always analog 3. FDM is how cable TV works.
PBX - Private Branch Exchange PBX - a special purpose computer designed for handling and switching office telephone calls at a company site. They can also be used to switch digital information among computers and office devices.
Nerd - Business (hacker.wmf) Phone - Arts & Letters
Cell phone signals are integrated into regular telephone service where calls can originate and be sent.
ELECTROPOLUTION ELECTOMAGNETIC RADIATION (EMR) THERE IS NO PROOF THAT SMOKING CAUSES CANCER COMMON STATEMENT YEARS AGO EDWARD BERNAYS (Start at 10 min point.)
Cellular Transmission RAT STUDIES Radio signals from cell phones caused cells in three areas of rats’ brains to die. The three affected areas were the cortex, which plays a role in high-level mental function; the hippocampus, which is important in learning; and the basal ganglia, which plays a role in the experience of sensation. Researchers exposed three groups of rats to different intensity radio frequency electromagnetic fields for a period of two hours . Rats that received more intense exposure had more dead and damaged neurons. Damage to neurons appear to be selective, however, as damaged cells were often surrounded by normal cells. The reasons for the selectivity, along with the mechanism causing the neuron death, are not known. Researchers say that the study does not demonstrate cell phone use is harmful to people, but recommend the use of a hands-free device to keep the cell phone as far from the brain as possible, adding that the use of cell phones is a "huge biological experiment."
Cellular Transmission Nerve Cell Damage in Mammalian Brain after Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones Leif G. Salford, 1 Arne E. Brun, 2 Jacob L. Eberhardt, 3 Lars Malmgren, 4 and Bertil R. R. Persson 3 1 Department of Neurosurgery, 2 Department of Neuropathology, 3 Department of Medical Radiation Physics, and 4 Department of Applied Electronics, Lund University , The Rausing Laboratory and Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Abstract www.protectingourhealth.org/newscience/learning/2003/2003-0129salfordetal.htm The possible risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for the human body is a growing concern for our society. We have previously shown that weak pulsed microwaves give rise to a significant leakage of albumin through the blood-brain barrier. In this study we investigated whether a pathologic leakage across the blood-brain barrier might be combined with damage to the neurons. Three groups each of eight rats were exposed for 2 hr to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found highly significant ( p < 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats. Key words: blood-brain barrier, central nervous system, microwaves, mobile phones, neuronal damage, rats. Environ Health Perspect 111:881-883 (2003)
Cellular Transmission Albumin is the protein of the highest concentration in plasma. Albumin transports many small molecules in the blood (forexample, bilirubin , calcium, progesterone, and drugs). It is also of prime importance in maintaining the oncotic pressure of the blood (that is, keeping the fluid from leaking out into the tissues). This is because, unlike small molecules such as sodium and chloride, the concentration of albumin in the blood is much greater than it is in the extra cellular fluid. Because albumin is synthesized by the liver, decreased serum albumin may result from liver disease. It can also result from kidney disease, which allows albumin to escape into the urine. Decreased albumin may also be explained by malnutrition or a low protein www.protectingourhealth.org/newscience/learning/2003/2003-0129salfordetal.htm
Used cell phone on left side of head, exactly where tumor was located.
Cellular Transmission US high court won't hear wireless radiation appeal by cell companies. By Jeremy Pelofsky WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Class-action lawsuits against wireless telephone providers and manufacturers over radiation emissions will be able to go forward, after the U.S. Supreme Court Monday declined to hear an appeal by the companies . The high court rejected hearing an appeal by companies like Nokia and Cingular Wireless challenging a decision by a U.S. appeals court that reinstated the lawsuits that argued manufacturers knew about and hid the risks of radiation emissions wireless phones posed to users . Wireless phones are radios that emit frequency radiation and in the United States the Federal Communications Commission must approve any device that sends out such radiation. Exposure to high levels of radiation can cause adverse health effects, but it is less clear the impact on a wireless phone user who is exposed to low levels of radiation when a phone is held to an ear directly. Health advocates have expressed concerns about radiation causing problems ranging from headaches to tumors . But the wireless industry has pointed to U.S. government statements that scientific evidence so far has not shown any health problems associated with wireless phone use. Five class-action lawsuits were filed in state courts seeking damages, including money for wireless users to buy a headset or reimburse those who had already had purchased one. A U.S. district court judge dismissed the five lawsuits on the grounds that state regulation of wireless phone emissions was preempted by the FCC, but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit overturned that decision and reinstated the cases.
Cellular Transmission US high court won't hear wireless radiation appeal by cell companies By Jeremy Pelofsky "The court was satisfied that the issues had been treated responsibly by the Fourth Circuit," said Harley Thomas Howell, a lawyer at Howell & Gately who represents those who sued the manufacturers. Nokia spokeswoman Arja Suominen said the company was disappointed by the decision, but declined further comment. Cingular, the largest U.S. wireless carrier, declined to comment. The wireless industry is worried about being required to adhere to numerous different emissions requirements imposed by states, something the service providers and manufacturers argue would wreak havoc on the industry and consumers. "This court's intervention is necessary to prevent the balkanization of network standards ... which will, if uncorrected, undermine the ability of consumers to use an FCC-approved wireless telephone in every state of the union," they said in their appeal to the court. Other companies that joined in the appeal include Motorola Inc. and Qualcomm Inc. Cingular Wireless is a joint venture of BellSouth Corp. and SBC Communications Inc. As a result of the top court's action, one lawsuit will go forward in federal court while the four other lawsuits will advance in state court.
Telecommunications Devices WiFi - Short for Wireless Fidelity 802.11b – A protocol (Standard) from IEEE ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) _ Speed: 11 Mbps _ Frequency: 2.4 GHz _ Distance: About 100 to 200 feet 802.11g – A protocol (Standard) from IEEE _ Speed: 54 Mbps _ Frequency: 2.4 GHz _ Distance: About 100 to 200 feet 802.11n – A protocol (Standard) from IEEE _ Speed: 200 + Mbps _ Frequency: 2.4 or 5 GHz _ Distance: About 100 to 200 (or more) feet _ Not fully standardize yet.
Telecommunications Devices Hot Spot _ It is connection point for a WiFi network. _ Has a 802.11 radio _ It is connected to the Internet by Cable or DSL _ Up to 100 users _ Transmits 100 to 200 feet. _ Found in: _ Universities _ Restaurants (Now in McDonalds) _ Hotels _ Libraries _ Airports _ Homes _ Coffee Shops
Telecommunications Devices WiFi Routers USB WiFi Router USB Cable WiFi Router Cable WiFi Adapters PDA Personal Digital Assistant WiFi USB Adapter WiFi PCI Adapter WiFi Laptop Adapter Built-in WiFi WiFi Chip Adpater
Telecommunications Devices WEP and WPA _ Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)--OK - Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)--Better _ A security code that is needed to get into the network _ is part of the IEEE 802.11 standard (ratified in September 1999), and is a scheme used to secure wireless networks (WiFi). Because a wireless network broadcasts messages using radio, it is particularly susceptible to eavesdropping; WEP was designed to provide comparable confidentiality to a traditional wired network, hence the name: WEP Hot spot finder WiFi Hotspots
Telecommunications Devices DSL – Digital Subscriber Line _ Uses telephone lines _ Must be close to telephone company’s central office. (Within 4 miles.) _ Typical Speeds 1.5 Mbps (Download) 64 to 640 Mbps (Upload) _ Best Possible Speeds 8 Mbps (Download) 640Kbps (Upload)