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    TCP.ppt TCP.ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Transport Layer Improvements in 802.11 Networks Eryk Schiller Bartosz Wieczorek
    • Outline
      • Wireless technologies
      • TCP basics
      • Impact of transmission errors on TCP performance
      • Approaches to improve TCP performance in Wireless networks
        • Classification
        • Discussion of selected approaches
    • Protocol Stack source: 802.11-1999
    • Wireless Technologies
      • Wireless local area networks
        • IEEE 802.11 WLAN Standard
        • last hop to a wireless host
        • wireless connectivity between hosts on the LAN
    • Wireless Technologies (2)
      • Multi-Hop Wireless
        • May need to traverse multiple links to reach a destination
        • Mobility causes route changes (MANETs)
    • IP – Internet Protocol
      • IP – Best effort delivery
        • Packets may be delivered out-of-order
        • Packets may be lost
        • Packets may be duplicated
    • TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
      • TCP – Reliability
        • Reliable ordered delivery
        • Implements congestion avoidance and control
        • Reliability achieved by means of retransmissions if necessary
    • TCP acknowledgments
      • Acknowledgments sent to TCP sender confirm delivery of data received by TCP receiver
      • ACK for data is sent only after data has reached receiver
      • TCP assigns byte sequence numbers
      • ACK indicates the next expected byte that receiver wants to receive
    • TCP acknowledgments (2)
      • Single
      S R data:n ACK:n+1 data:n+1 ACK:n+2 S R data:n data:n+2 ACK:n+3 data:n+1
      • Cumulative
      S R data:n data:n+2 ACK:n data:n+1
      • Duplicate
      ACK:n
    • Window Based Flow Control
      • Sliding Window size determines how many segments can travel at the moment (can be unacknowledged)
      • Prevents from overflowing receiver’s buffer
      • Window size minimum of
        • receiver’s advertised window - determined by available buffer space at the receiver
        • congestion window CWND - determined by the sender, based on feedback from the network, bounds the amount of data that can be sent per round-trip time RTT, actual throughput depending on CWND/RTT
    • Sliding Window - example
      • Window size = 6
      Sent and already acknowledged Sent but not yet acknowledged Already allowed to be sent Not yet allowed to be sent
    • Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance
      • Slow Start
        • initially, cwnd = 1 MSS (Max. segment size)
        • increment window size by 1 MSS on each new ACK ( exponential growth)
        • slow start phase ends when window size reaches the slow-start threshold
      • Congestion Avoidance
        • On each new ACK, increase cwnd by 1/cwnd packets ( linear increase of 1 MSS per RTT)
    • Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance (2) time [RTTs] CWND [segments] Slow start Congestion avoidance Slow start threshold
    • Congestion Control
      • On detecting a packet loss, TCP sender assumes that network congestion has occurred and drastically reduces the congestion window
      • Reducing congestion window reduces amount of data that can be sent per RTT - throughput may decrease
    • Congestion Control - Packet losses
      • Causes of packet losses:
        • packet corruption (less probable)
        • buffer overflows on the network
      • Detecting losses:
        • exceeding RTO (Retransmission Time-Out) RTO is dynamically calculated, based on RTT (Round Trip Time) changes, RTO > RTT
        • receiving duplicate acknowledgments (dupacks)
    • Congestion Control - Timeout
      • SSThresh = ½ CWND (Slow Start Threshold)
      • CWND = 1 MSS
      • The slow start is initiated
      SSThresh = 8 SSThresh = 10 CWND = 20 After timeout
    • Congestion Control - Fast R etransmit
      • Fast retransmit [RFC 2001]
        • Initiated after receiving 3 dupacks
        • The lost packet is immediately retransmitted
        • No need to wait for RTO to expire
        • Often followed by Fast Recovery
    • Congestion Control - Fast Recovery
      • Fast recovery [RFC 2001]
        • SSThresh = ½ cwnd
        • cwnd = SSThresh + number of dupacks
        • cwnd = SSThresh (avoiding Slow -s tart Stage)
      3 dupacks receivces dupacks ACK new data
    • TCP Reno / TCP New Reno
        • TCP Reno
          • Slow-start
          • Congestion avoidance regimen
          • Fast retransmit [RFC 2001]
          • Fast recovery [RFC 2001]
        • Improvement of TCP Reno  TCP New Reno
        • In TCP New Reno case Partial ACK indicates another packets losses. Algorithm stay in Fast Recovery stage until cumulative ACK. Multiple losses/RTT may cause RTO. Motivation to create extension that will tell more about losses.
    • TCP Vegas
        • Modifications of TCP Reno
          • Linearly adjust TCP’s cwnd upwards/downwards
          • Detect packet loss after first dupack and decrease cwnd to ¾ instead of ½
          • Halves SS to avoid packet losses
        • TCP Vegas was created to avoid congestion so the impact on TCP performance in 802.11 Networks is not so significant
    • TCP Westwood
        • Westwood improves TCP performance in wired and wireless networks
        • TCP Westwood relies on end-to-end bandwidth estimation to discriminate cause of packet loss
        • Bandwidth estimation is calculated by a measure of returning ACK flow
        • Bandwidth estimation is then used to correctly set SSThresh and cwnd after timeout or dupacks.
    • SACK – Selective Acknowledgments
      • SACK [RFC 2018]
        • Advertised in the option field during the handshake
        • Must be approved by two sides
        • Every dupack should bear SACK option
        • SACK contains information about unacknowledged, out of order contiguous block of data
        • Only three blocks are announced in 1 SACK option (length of TCP header is limited)
        • Recent block should be announced in SACK
        • Each block should be announced 3 times
    • SACK – Selective Acknowledgments (2) SEQ = 0 SEQ = n SEQ = 2n SEQ = 3n SEQ = 4n ACK = n ACK = n, SACK = { [2n, 3n) } ACK = n, SACK = { [2n, 3n), [4n, 5n) } S R d ata data data data data ACK ACK ACK
    • SACK – Selective Acknowledgments (3)
      • Hardware
        • Celeron 2,4 GHz Linux 2.6.12 (Workstation) with Ethernet Adapter
        • AMD 64-bit 1,8 GHz Linux 2.6.12 (Notebook) with Wi - Fi 802.11g Network Adapter
        • Linksys WAP54G
      • Conditions
        • Signal Level: -84dBm
        • Rate: 54Mbps
        • 64-bit WEP
    • SACK – Selective Acknowledgments (4)
    • SPLIT CONNECTION APPROACH
      • End-to-end TCP connection is broken into two TCP connections - one on the wired part of route and the other over wireless part of the route
      • If wireless link is not last on route, then more than two TCP connections may be needed
      • Connection between wireless mobile host MH and fixed host FH goes through base station BS
      FH MH BS Base Station Mobile Host Fixed Host
    • SPLIT CONNECTION APPROACH
      • Split connection results in independent flow control for the two parts
      • Flow/error control protocols, packet size, time-outs, may be different for each part
      TCP connection TCP connection wireless physical link network transport application physical link network transport application physical link network transport application rxmt
    • SPLIT CONNECTION - Advantages
      • BS-MH connection can be optimized independent of FH-BS connection
      • Different flow / error control on the two connections
      • Local recovery enables faster recovery due to relatively shorter RTT on wireless link
      • Good performance achievable using selective acks when multiple packet losses occur per window (preventing from timeouts stalling BS-MH connection)
    • SPLIT CONNECTION - Disadvantages
      • Ack may be delivered to sender, before data delivered to the receiver
      • BS failure can result in loss of data (unreliability):
        • BS fails to send a packet to MH
        • BS acks successful receipt to FH
        • FH deletes the ack’d packet from the buffer
        • The packet will not be restored by MH
      • Buffer space needed at BS for each TCP connection (overload for many slow connections)
      • May not be useful if data and acks traverse different paths (both do not go through the base station)
    • SNOOP PROTOCOL
      • Retains local recovery of the Split Connection approach
      • Buffers data packets at the base station BS to allow link layer retransmission
      • When dupacks received by BS from MH, retransmit on wireless link, if packet present in buffer
      2 Mbps Wireless link