Sample Research Outline

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Sample Research Outline

  1. 1. DOCUMENT DISCLAIMER!! The following document is ONLY intended to provide current students with a “sample” of what previous students have submitted as a final research outline. This document is NOT intended to serve as an exemplar of the optimal way to complete this assignment. Instead, this document can serve as a learning tool on how to avoid typical grading mistakes made by research groups that have developed this document in previous semesters. Listed below are “some” of the written comments I provided the group as part of my grading summary: - Tell (convince) the audience why the topic you are going to present will be valuable to them in their professional career. - Include page numbers in your summary. - Be careful of using “single sentence” bullet points in your summary. Typically, bullet points with only a single sentence to not provide enough detail to show me that your group has fully researched your topic. (KEY POINT) - If your use technical term or abbreviations – be sure to explain to the audience what the terms or abbreviation mean (e.g., Mbps, PCMICA, etc.). - Be sure to include proper line spacing between main and supporting points. - Since you are discussing the operation of a technology – you may want to include some pictures or diagrams that best illustrate: what the key components look like, and how the key components operate as a system. - Your group did a fabulous job research data communications standards. You may want to “scale down” your summary of the technical aspects of each standard to the core capabilities concerning each standard (e.g., distance, quality, etc.). You also may want to compare and contrast the capabilities of each standard. - Good idea to bring examples of core technological components of Wi-Fi to class so your classmates can actually see the technology. - Good discussion of the advantages of Wi-Fi – BUT, be sure to minimize single sentence bullet points in your summary! - Good discussion of disadvantages facing Wi-Fi – BUT, your list of how security risks could impact an organization is NOT supported by additional information. Any point your team makes in their outline should be followed by supporting information! - Your discussion of disadvantages facing Wi-Fi had too many “unsupported” lists (e.g., Power Management, System Operability, etc.). YOU MUST provide additional supporting information for all main points presented in your outline. - It looks like your group tried to include too many examples of how Wi-Fi is being used to support business operations. The end results of your efforts were a number of “incomplete” business examples. I would highly recommend that you select only four or five strong business examples that you can fully support and document in your paper. - Good idea to include photographs that FULLY SUPPORT your outline’s core topics. - Once again – it looks like your group “threw together” a number of unrelated points regarding the future of Wi-Fi. I would recommend that your group selects four or five interesting points concerning the future of Wi-Fi. - The summary section was very weak and incomplete. It should summarize the key points you want the audience to take away from the presentation. - I would have liked to see some discussion on your groups opinion of Wi-Fi. Now that you have researched the topic – what’s your opinion! - The literature review on the topic was acceptable. I would have liked to see a few more published sources This outline received the following grade: 43
  2. 2. Project Team Number: 1 Project Team Location: DeKalb Project Team Members: Bob Beatty, Chung Liu, and Samantha Rice Presentation Topic: Wi-Fi Current Date: January 1, 2004 Presentation Title: Current and Future Role of Wi-Fi Technology Introduction With the growing popularity and use of Wi-Fi, it is important to understand what it is, what it can do, its advantages, limitations, and its future. • Present members of group. o Bob Beatty, Chung Liu, and Samantha Rice The goal of this outline is to: • Define and describe Wi-Fi. o A brief history of Wi-Fi, talk about what it is, who makes Wi-Fi products, their applications (brief), and the various types and uses. • Examine the Advantages and Disadvantages of Wi-Fi. • Discuss Applications of Wi-Fi: o A brief look at some business applications with a featured business case • State the Future of Wi-Fi. What is Wi-Fi? • Define and describe Wi-Fi (Ohrtman, 2003) o Wi-Fi is the industry standard for products based on IEEE 802.11 as defined by the Wi-Fi Alliance. Wi-Fi products are tested for compatibility among different manufacturers. o Wi-Fi also represents freedom. It allows the user to receive data while outdoors, in a warehouse, a conference room, or lounging on a sofa. If a client is within range of a base station, they can access Internet service with out the fuss of connecting any cables. o The downside is that when outside of your own area, at a hotspot, you must use several passwords, or codes to access the Internet. o The process of Wi-Fi is best explained in contrast to cable
  3. 3. o Cable:  A typical desktop computer is connected to a larger network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), or the Internet via a network cable to a hub, router, or switch.  The computer uses a card (network interface card, NIC) to send zeros and ones down the cable while changing the voltage on the wires from +5 volts to -5 volts in a prearranged cadence. o Wi-Fi:  Wi-Fi replaces the use of a cable with small, low-powered two-way radios.  Instead of changing the voltage, the zeros and ones are encoded by laying an alternating radio signal over a constant existing signal in a prearranged cadence.  The alternating signal encodes zeros and ones on the radio waves.  802.11b specification allows for the wireless transmission of approximately 11 Mbps of raw data at distances up to a few hundred feet over the 2.4 GHz unlicensed band.  Distance of the signal is influenced by various impediments, materials, and line of sight. o Wi-Fi Interfaces  These come in many shapes, sizes and form factors. They are built into many devices, such as standalone security cameras.  Many laptops come with built-in Wi-Fi transmitter-receivers.  If not, you must add a PCMICA card. Older PDA’s require an adapter.  The cards are the shape and size of a credit card, and fit into a corresponding slot in the laptop.  They can be easily taken out and used in other devices. • Data Transmission o 802.11 standard provide two radio frequency (RF) variations (as opposed to infrared) of the physical (PHY) layer. o DSSS-direct sequence spread spectrum  Use technology similar to Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and some types of cell phones.  Each information bit is combined with a longer pseudoramic numerical (PN) in the transmission process.  This results in a high-speed digital stream, which is modulated onto a carrier frequency using differential phase-shift keying (DPSK)  DSSS works by taking a data stream of zeros and ones and modulating it with a second pattern-the chipping sequence.  This sequence is also known as the Barker code, which is an 11-bit sequence (10110111000)  This chipping or spreading code is used to generate a redundant bit pattern to be transmitted, and the resulting signal appears as wideband noise to the unintended receiver.
  4. 4.  A big advantage with this system is even if bits in the chip are lost in transmission the radio can recover the original transmission.  Chipping is used to convert each bit of user data into a series of redundant bit patterns. This aids in checking and ensuring data is sent correctly. o FHSS-frequency-hopping spread spectrum.  A signal is sent using random distribution over time across a series of frequencies.  Each transmission is brief to avoid interruption or jamming.  The main problem in developing this system was synchronization between the transmitter and receiver to the frequency being used at any point in time  The hopping rate is set at 2.5 hops per second with each transmission occupying a channel less than 400 milliseconds. o Both were designed to comply with the FCC regulations for operation in the 2.4 GHz band, which is an unlicensed spectrum. • Networking technologies: (Aspinwall, 2003) o In most wireless schemes, you build a network by connecting radio transmitters to computers and PDAs and then use a central access point to manage the network. o All networks include stations, usually network adapters installed in or connected to computers. o A network adapter, required for each device on the network, includes a radio transmitter/receiver and usually an antenna to boost the radio’s signal. o Most networks include at least one access point (AP), which is a device that manages the network and extends its range. o The AP features a radio and usually has an external antenna. o Management software allows the access point to authenticate network users, provide security, and share resources over the network. o Adhering to the same wireless standards is important in transmitting information. o The process starts at the radio. All radios must operate at the same frequency level to transmit and receive each other’s signals. o To turn these signals into packets of information, devices must also be used which adhere to the same wireless standard, which specifies the frequencies at which the radios communicate, as well as a number of other requirements for communication among them. o Access points should be placed in a proper location to be most effective. In the middle of the desired coverage area, on a high wall, away from any physical obstructions is often best. o The use of multiple access points on a single network is known as roaming.
  5. 5. o Multiple access points on the same network must share the same SSID name, but be set to different non-overlapping channels to avoid interference.
  6. 6. • Range (Ohrtman, 2003) o One misconception of 802.11b is limited range of 100 meters. With the right set up, it can reach 20 miles point to point. o The primary networking architectures are MAN, WAN, LAN and Mesh o By stepping down from a MAN to lower bandwidth networks, wireless networks can reach out to residential and other low-density markets. o Wi-Fi systems act like small routers, with each node relaying to its nearest neighbors. o Messages hop peer to peer across a broad interconnected nexus. o The cool things about the new peer-to-peer structure is it is an example of viral telecommunications, which is a new, bottom-up phenomenon, and it’s performance increases with the number of nodes. o Metcalf’s law states that the value of a network increases exponentially with the addition of every new node. More nodes equal better service. o By empowering the subscribers to be the network, cost to service providers go down. o The exciting thing is the network could be communally owned. • Standards (Various Types and their Evolution) (Brisbin, 2002) o Interchangeable parts (Smith, 2003)  The key to the utility of Wi-Fi is its adherence to a global standard.  It works against hardware platforms and network operating systems.  You can put a network together using pieces from a dozen different manufacturers interchangeably.  You can carry your PC from room to room, house to house, or hotel to coffee shop, and not have to worry about the brand access point in use at those places.  The standards are detailed descriptions of how an over-the-air interface between a client and base station, or between two clients, must operate.  They define signal strength, data information, and speed. They also act as a recipe for encryption. o IEEE 802.11  The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (pronounced I triple E) develops and approves standards for a wide variety of computer technologies.  IEEE designates networking standards on which new products can be based.  IEEE designates networking standards with the number 802.  Wireless networking standards use the subset 802, and are designated by the number 11.  The first IEEE wireless standard was adopted in 1997.  This was a RF-based standard operating in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, with a maximum throughput of 2 Mbps.
  7. 7.  In 1999, 802.11 High Rate was renamed 802.11b, and 802.11a; a higher speed standard using a different spread-spectrum method was added. In 2002, 802.11g joined the ranks of approved wireless standards. o 802.11b  Apple computer introduced the first widely available 802.11b products in 1999.  They were called Air-Port, and their line consisted of a wireless access point (base station) and a PC card for Macintosh laptops. Apple didn’t invent the technology, but were the first to exploit it.  Most wireless networking products today are based on 802.11b o 802.11a  Appeared in 2002.  Instead of using the crowded 2.4 GHz band where other 802.11 standards operate, the 5 GHz band utilized is wide open, with few competing for access.  Since the FCC has allocated a greater swath of the 5 GHz spectrum, the wider band can provide more channels and bandwidth for wireless communication.  More expensive due to lack of compatibility. You can’t use it with 802.11b technology. o 802.11g  Approved in 2002 as the third IEEE networking standard.  Has a maximum speed of 54 Mbps, and uses the same OFDM spread- spectrum technology found in 802.11a.  Operates in the 2.4 GHz band, and is compatible with 802.11b. This makes it a good fit for small business and consumers. o Bluetooth  Backed by IBM, Intel, and Erickson among others, Bluetooth is a standard developed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group.  It is similar to 802.11b and g in the fact it uses radio-based technology that operates in the 2.4 GHz band and uses FHSS.  Its top speed is 1 Mbps, with a range around 50 feet.  The main difference with Bluetooth is it acts as a personal area network (PAN). This makes it useful in connecting computers and peripheral located close to one another or for synchronization of PDA’s and host devices.  Microsoft and Apple backed Bluetooth in 2002, showing support for their products. o HomeRF  A radio-based standard operating in the 2.4 GHz band.  Use FHSS, like Bluetooth.  Remains significantly behind 802.11 in the marketplace.  Described as an all-inclusive standard that can move both voice and data around a home network.
  8. 8. o HiperLAN  Developed in Europe by the Broadband Radio Access Network (BRAN) group within the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)  Not popular in United States yet.  Used to facilitate communication among wireless stations, rather than routing it through a central access point. o Wi-Fi:  Wi-Fi was a term used as a substitute for IEEE 802.11.  The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) adopted Wi-Fi as an easily understood brand for all qualifying 802.11b products.  WECA was formed by product vendors to promote IEEE 802 and develop a certification program, designed to ensure that wireless products are fully compliant with the 802.11 standard.  WECA tests and certifies products and grants vendors whose products meet the requirements to use the Wi-Fi logo on their equipment and marketing materials.  Wi-Fi certification only applies to 802.11b products. The WECA plan to expand the certification to include 802.11a and g in the future. • Hotspots: (Ohrtman, 2003) o Hotspots are areas with public Wi-Fi LAN access. o They are places where any person who purchased equipment with the IEEE 802.11 capability can legitimately connect to an access point and get service from an open location, such as McDonalds. o The most exciting element about this innovation is it poses a real threat to the cellular phone industry. If enough access points are installed in public places, IEEE 802.11 could eventually provide universal wireless broadband access in cities. o Hotspots have the following components: Subscribers, Access points to provide wireless coverage, Hotspot controllers to provide access control, authentication server to verify legitimate users, local content intranet services, and public Internet services. • Examples of Wi-Fi Hardware o Display an access point and a wireless network interface card. • Comparison of the wireless connectivity (Rothman, 2003) o Short-range radio – 6 ft. to 20 ft. o Infrared – 20 ft. to 50 ft. o Bluetooth – up to 30 ft. o Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi) – up to 300 feet o Cordless phones – 500 ft. to 7,000 ft. o Family radio service – up to 3 miles o Citizens band – up to 5 miles o Mobile-phone networks – 2 miles to 12 miles per cell tower
  9. 9. Advantages of Wi-Fi • User Mobility o Users can access files, network resources, and the Internet without having to physically connect to the network with wires. o Users can be mobile yet retain high-speed, real-time access to the enterprise LAN. o And the best thing of all, it's fast. In fact, it's several times faster than the fastest cable modem connection. o Workplace continues to evolve beyond the traditional desktop as employees and workgroups become more mobile. When people conduct business away from their desktop environment, they lose access to valuable applications, Internet content and communications tools. Wi-Fi would be able to provide this because of its user mobility • What are the benefits of enterprise mobility (Wi-Fi) for a company? o Improved productivity  Enhanced worker efficiency through increased accesses to online resources.  Increased knowledge sharing amongst workers, customers, and partners. o Customer Loyalty  Better customer service- employees are better informed, have shorter response times, have an improved ability to sense and respond.  Higher quality interaction with customer o Cultural Enhancement  Attracting and retaining employees, by allowing them to work where and when they choose, and by providing them the personalized tools for appropriate, customized info.  Strengthens corporate culture o Business Resilience  Able to quickly react to adversity via multiple channels  Rapid deployment in reaction to an “event.” o Cost Savings  Reduced cabling costs  Reduced costs to move and add people to network • Rapid Installation o The time required for installation is reduced because network connections can be made without moving or adding wires, or pulling them through walls or ceilings, or taking modifications to the infrastructure cable plant. o The WLAN Internet connectivity is great for any company whose site is not conducive to LAN wiring because of building or budget limitations, such as older buildings, leased space, or temporary sites.
  10. 10. o For example, WLANs are often cited as making LAN installations possible in buildings that are subject to historic preservation rules. o Installation is much less expensive then wired LAN. o While the initial investment required for WLAN hardware can be higher than the cost of traditional wired LAN hardware, overall installation expenses and life-cycle costs can be significantly lower. Long-term cost benefits are greatest in dynamic environments requiring frequent moves and changes. • Flexibility o Enterprises can also enjoy the flexibility of installing and taking down WLANs in locations as necessary. o For example, users can quickly install a small WLAN for temporary needs such as a conference, trade show, or standards meeting. • Scalability o WLAN network topologies can easily be configured to meet specific application and installation needs and to scale from small peer-to-peer networks to very large enterprise networks that enable roaming over a broad area. Disadvantage of Wi-Fi • Security o There have been numerous published reports and papers describing attacks on 802.11 wireless networks that expose organizations to security risks. o How will this affect a organization  Loss of proprietary information  Legal and recovery costs  Tarnished image  Loss of network availability  Loss of confidentiality  Loss of Integrity  Many other security risk o Following figure shows different kinds of attacks against WLANs: (wireless local area networks).
  11. 11. o The three basic security services defined by IEEE for the WLAN environment, WEP or Wired Equivalent Privacy, are as follows:  Authentication: A primary goal of WEP was to provide a security service to verify the identity of communicating client stations. This provides access control to the network by denying access to client stations that cannot authenticate properly. This service addresses the question, “Are only authorized persons allowed to gain access to my network?”  Confidentiality (Privacy): Confidentiality, or privacy, was a second goal of WEP. It was developed to provide “privacy achieved by a wired network.” The intent was to prevent information compromise from casual eavesdropping (passive attack). This service, in general, addresses the question, “Are only authorized persons allowed to view my data?”  Integrity: Another goal of WEP was a security service developed to ensure that messages are not modified in transit between the wireless clients and the access point in an active attack. This service addresses the question, “Is the data coming into or exiting the network trustworthy—has it been tampered with?” o Security problems with WEP include the following:  Security features in vendor products are frequently not enabled • Security features, albeit poor in some cases, are not enabled when shipped, and users do not enable when installed. Bad security is generally better than no security.  WEP is vulnerable. • WEP provides no forgery protection • WEP provides no replay protection • Radio Frequency Interference o Unregulated Frequency - anyone can use it. o With popularity also comes congestion. o Some common items that can cause interference:  Microwaves  Elevators  Cordless phone • Bandwidth Limitations o Wireless means sharing bandwidth. It’s a step back for Ethernet as wired equipment offers better access without sharing bandwidth with other users. o Wired offers gigabit speeds, 1000 megabits per second, whereas wireless is from 11-54 megabits per second. • Power Management o Wireless devices are generally mobile and running out of battery power is an issue. • System Operability o Different vendors
  12. 12. o Different standards – 802.11x • Installation Issues o More difficult to plan installations than wireless o Walls, ceilings, and other obstacles can cause some waved to change their transmission path. • Health Risks o As with other wireless (cellular) communications, any long term risks are unknown. o Citations in the scientific literature that suggest physical or neurological damage from exposure to microwaves and other radio emissions. (Swinder, 2003). Wi-Fi Applications • Phones • Wireless home networks o It’s a fast way to share an Internet connection among several computers (Buechner, 2003) • Wireless college campuses o 90% of public universities have deployed some sort of wireless network. (Akin, 2003) o Drexel University in Philadelphia - The first major university to be completely wireless indoors and out with 300 access points in 2000 (Akin, 2003) • By 2006, there will be 103,841 public hot spots, tech consultancy Gartner estimates.(Nemes, 2003) o Internet Service Providers  In May of 2003, Verizon 150 Wi-Fi access points in Manhattan for existing customers. o Airports and Hotels  Get access through memberships with providers or at daily access rates.  Baltimore BWI Airport and the Willard InterContinental offer wireless Internet access at no charge. (Harris, 2003) o RV Parks and Campgrounds  Of the seven million households with RVs, 16% access the Internet. (Thomas, 2003). o Coffee shops  Starbucks has 2600 stores with Wi-Fi for customers. (Hamilton, 2003) o Conference Centers  QCenter – St. Charles business conference center with hot spots in public areas for their clients to surf.
  13. 13. • Hospitals o Hospitals are using Wi-Fi to save time and be more accurate with patient records. (Geier, 1999) o Physicians value saving minutes as a quantifiable gain. (Rogoski, 2003) • Featured Business Case: Delnor-Community Hospital - 2001 o Hospital Information: Not-for-profit, Mid-sized 118 beds o Pre-Wi-Fi infrastructure: 164 four year old computers, combination of Planars (wall-mounted terminals) using Windows 95 personal computers connected with Cat 3 cable to hubs. o Problems with current equipment:  Not HIPAA compliant  End of useful life at over four years old as they could not support software updates because of operating system  Systems were old so repairs were frequent  Could not run needed application to read scanned documents  Could not run web browser needed for research • Project objective: To replace the Planar Computer devices in the patient care areas and departments with a solution that would meet the needs of the staff with minimal disruption to the end user and patients. • Considerations o Limited budget o Support privacy o Scalable o Limited room at nurse’s station
  14. 14. • Alternatives o Wired computers and replace wiring at an estimated cost of $600 per connection o Mobile computers with a wireless solution • Solution o COWS – computers on wheels o Standards-based WLAN o LEAP – Cisco’s solution to wired equivalent privacy • Advantages of Solution o Replaced 164 computers with 91 (60 on carts) o Wired 30 access points instead of 164 computers o Utilization of PCs increased as the computers are not in patient rooms o Privacy enabled – computer could be positioned for private viewing o Nurse’s stations gained valuable room as the computers were not placed at stations o Main application (telnet) is encrypted over wireless, not over wired o Delnor was named as one of the most wireless hospitals in Hospitals & Health Networking Magazine in July of 2003.
  15. 15. • Disadvantages o Limited bandwidth – wired offers speeds up to 1000 Mbs. o Carts are expensive - $1000 – almost doubles cost of computers o Haven’t really capitalized on WLAN two years later  No PDAs  No bar scanners  No physician access  Medical systems run on same frequency  Carts are bulky and storage space is scarce • Business application conclusion o Anywhere access to networked services has made people more productive o Information is real time o Increases accuracy of information o Saved money – even with the cost of the cart the wireless project was less than a wired solution. Future of Wi-Fi • Agree on Standards (Molta, 2003) o 802.11a - 54-Mbps WLAN using OFDM signal in 5-GHz UNII bands.  Arguably the most significant enterprise WLAN standard thru 2010. o 802.11b - 11-Mbps WLAN using CCK signal in the 2.4-GHz band.  The original Wi-Fi, it’s a cheap and ubiquitous legacy standard suitable for many applications. o 802.11g - 54-Mpbs WLAN using OFDM signal in the 2.4GHz band  Promises backward compatibility with 802.11b, but at the cost of overall system performance. o 802.11i – 802.11 MAC enhancements for security.  The foundation is there but deliberation on details is painstaking. o 802.11e – 802.11 MAC enhancements for quality of service.  Critical to support for time-sensitive applications, including voice and video. o WPA - Wi-Fi Alliance’s Wi-Fi Protected Access interim security standard.  Based on key components of 802.11i, an interim security solution.
  16. 16. o 802.1x - Port-based security standard used to support WLAN authenticate.  Stable, but uncertainty exists regarding standard authentication types like TLS, LEAP, TTLS, PEAP. o 802.11n - Enhancements for higher throughput.  Just forming, working to push channel data rates past 100 Mbps. o LWAPP – Lightweight Access Point Protocol.  IETF foray into WLAN standards, may be significant in standardizing communication between APs and switches. • Security: Is a major concern being addressed by developers. Standard 802.11i addresses security. • VoWLAN: Voice over wireless LAN. Instead of creating new hardware devices, VoWLAN puts the burden on the network and lets software do the work for already-existing handsets. (Molta, 2003) o Revenue Forecasts o Comparison of Features o Security – this is the number one hurdle for VoWLAN o Voice Quality – The upcoming 802.11e standard will add QoS to Wi-Fi o Roaming – Both within Wi-Fi networks and from WLANs to wide area networks (WAN) is a key challenge. • AirForce One by Broadcom is the first Wi-Fi solution to combine a 2.4 GHz radio, power amplifier, 802.11b baseband processor, and medium-access controller on a single CMOS chip that’s smaller than a postage stamp. (Quain, 2003) o 70% less transmit power o 80% less receive power o 97% less standby power o Low price of $12 per chip • More ‘HotSpots’ planned by McDonald’s, SBC, Cometa Networks. (Schwartz, 2003) • UPS tests Wi-Fi at 66 retail stores in the Chicago market. (Brewin, 2003) • Growth and Use of Wi-Fi o Wi-Fi spending on hardware and subscriptions is expected to reach $3.4 billion this year and is growing at the rate of 30%. o Wi-Fi is an amplifier of other technologies. It turns nearly every machine, from laptops to cash registers, into network devices. o It fuels the demand for always-on broadband connections. o This paves the way for the next generation of Internet services.
  17. 17. Summary In this outline the following has been expressed: • Explanation of Wi-Fi. • Wi-Fi has a lot of advantages and some disadvantages with a large one being security. • Wi-Fi is being used in many different applications. • A glimpse of the future of Wi-Fi. Although Wi-Fi is a popular and convenient method of access networked services, it has some vulnerabilities. Understanding the technology and its weaknesses will help implement and safeguard the use of it.
  18. 18. Bibliography 1. Akin, J. (2003): Unwiring at School. PC Magazine. Volume 22, Number 18, p. 91-94 2. Aspinwall, Jim. (2003). Installing, Troubleshooting, and Repairing Wireless Networks. New York: McGraw-Hill 3. Bradner, S. (Sep 15, 2003). So Why Isn’t It Wireless? Network World. Volume 20, p.24. 4. Brewin, B. (Sep 15, 2003). UPS Tests Wi-Fi at Retail Stores, Eyes Global Rollout. Computerworld. Vol. 37, Issue 37, p. 7. 5. Brisbin, Shelly. (2002). Build Your Own Wi-Fi Network. Berkeley, California: McGraw-Hill 6. Buechner, M. (Nov 3, 2003). Home Networking The Wireless Way. Time, Vol. 162, p. A3-37. 7. Edney, Jon., & Arbaugh, William A. (2003). Real 802.11 Security: Wi-Fi Protected Access and 802.11i. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley 8. Ellison, C. (Fall, 2003). Unwire Everywhere. PC Magazine. Volume 22, Number 18, p. 97-104. 9. Geier, J. (1999). Wireless LANS Implementing Interoperable Networks. USA: Macmillan Technical Publishing. 10. Hamilton, A. (Nov 3, 2003). Starbucks Unwired. Time, Vol. 162, 14, p. A20-A21. 11. Harris, J. (Sept 15, 2003). Hoteliers weigh benefits of wired, wireless Internet access. Hotel & Motel Management, Vol. 218 Issue 14, p4-5 12. Hoppszallern, S. (July 2003). Most Wired 2003. Hospitals and Health Networks. P. 38-48. 13. Miller, M. (2nd Qtr, 2002). Packet Magazine: Cisco Systems. Volume 14, Number 2, p. 33-35. 14. Molta, D. (Oct 2003). Generation W. Network Computing. Retrieved on 10/31/2003 from http://www.nwc.com. 15. Molta, D. (Oct 2003). Poised for Takeoff. Network Computing. Retrieved on 10/31/2003 from http://www.nwc.com. 16. Nemes, J. (Jan 27, 2003). Cellular Picks Its Hot Spots. Advertising Age, v74 no4, pS4. 17. Ohrtman, Frank. & Roeder, Konrad. (2003). Wi-Fi Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill 18. Pearrow, Mark. (2002). The Wireless Web Usability Handbook. Hingham, MA: Charles River Media 19. Quain, J. (Oct 28, 2003). Wi-Fi Here, Wi-Fi There. PC Magazine. Vol. 22, Issue 19. 20. Rogoski, R. (July 2003). Untethered. Health Management Technology, p. 10-14. 21. Rothman, W. (Nov 3, 2003). Wireless Pursuit. Time, Vol. 162 p. A38. 22. Schwartz, E. (Aug 18, 2003). Public Wi-Fi in a Death Spiral. Infoworld. Vol. 25, issue 32, p. 12. 23. Shaw, Russell. (2003). Wireless Networking Made Easy. New York: Amacom 24. Simmons, Curt. (2001). Wireless Internet Access For Dummies. New York: Hungry Minds
  19. 19. Bibliography 25. Smith, Raymond. (2003). WiFi Home Networking. New York: McGraw-Hill 26. Swinder, T. (Oct 20, 2003). Is Wi-Fi Bad for your Health? Retrieved on 11/06/03 from http://www.wi-fiplanet.com/columns/print.php/3095831. 27. Thomas, C. (Nov 3, 2003). Wi-Fi Gets Rolling. Time, Vol. 162 p. A16-18.

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