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  1. 1. Introduction <ul><li>Group Members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team #44 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Finn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rory Shea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team #45 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brett Bachtell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brad Weber </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Project Objective <ul><li>The original objective of our project was to utilize Bluetooth technology to transfer hi-fidelity audio wirelessly. We also planned to explore the topic of channel bonding as an option to increase transfer rates. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Bluetooth?? <ul><li>Wireless Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Many Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handhelds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bluetooth Introduction <ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>Exact Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Quality* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Bluetooth cont’d <ul><li>Actions controlled by Bluetooth Special Interest Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3Com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ericsson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toshiba </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Bluetooth Specification 1.0 <ul><ul><li>A low cost, low power wireless network for use within 30 feet between devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes a frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) modulation in the unlicensed 2.4Ghz ISM band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of 64 kbps synchronous voice transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of 432.6 kbps asynchronous transfer </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Block Diagram
  8. 8. Hardware: Bluetooth Cards <ul><li>Model PTPCM100 card designed to Bluetooth Radio Specification V1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Provided by Motorola (Kevin Jones) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate Support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCMCIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapters attempted </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hardware: Bluetooth Adapters <ul><li>Belkin PCI Network Adapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed on Windows Machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never properly recognized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for cards non-existent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined fault in Bluetooth/Card relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually acquired laptops to avoid any further complications </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Software: BTSWS <ul><li>Bluetooth Software Suite V1.09 by Digianswer is a fully qualified Bluetooth stack to run on Windows </li></ul><ul><li>BTSWS contains a full-featured Bluetooth protocol and profile stack, a Bluetooth API, and a number of user applications for managing Bluetooth communication </li></ul>
  11. 11. Companies Bundling BTSWS with PCMCIA and USB products <ul><li>Motorola </li></ul><ul><li>Toshiba </li></ul><ul><li>IBM </li></ul><ul><li>DELL </li></ul><ul><li>NEC </li></ul>
  12. 12. Coming Soon For BTSWS <ul><li>Run BTSWS on 3 rd party hardware with the BTSWS Evaluation Kit </li></ul><ul><li>This kit will support hardware for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-CSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Silicon Wave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Broadcom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-3com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-ALPS (a CSR derivative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Taiyo Yuden (a Silicon Wave derivative) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Profiles Supported by BTSWS <ul><li>OBEX File transfer profile </li></ul><ul><li>LAN access using PPP profile </li></ul><ul><li>Dial-up network profile </li></ul><ul><li>Headset profile </li></ul><ul><li>Serial port profile </li></ul><ul><li>Generic audio profile (Digianswer propriety, basically an SCO link) </li></ul>
  14. 14. File Transfer <ul><li>Basic transferring of files between computers </li></ul><ul><li>File type does not matter </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum transfer rate was 33 Kbps </li></ul><ul><li>Human interference does not degrade transfer rates </li></ul><ul><li>Movement between Bluetooth units does alter transfer rates </li></ul>
  15. 15. Data Transfer
  16. 16. Streaming Audio Transfer <ul><li>Included by Digianswer for professional users </li></ul><ul><li>Two audio link uses: </li></ul><ul><li>- Bluetooth speaker phone </li></ul><ul><li>- Bluetooth audio device </li></ul>
  17. 17. Speaker Phone Mode <ul><li>Two computers were successfully used as walkie-talkies </li></ul><ul><li>Voice stream was clearly understood </li></ul><ul><li>Some delay was introduced into the signal </li></ul><ul><li>Echo was also a problem at short distances </li></ul><ul><li>Files can also be transferred simultaneously </li></ul>
  18. 18. Audio Device Mode <ul><li>Used to transfer streaming .wav files using Microsoft sound recorder </li></ul><ul><li>Audio files can be played on transmitting end and recorded on receiving end for comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Software converts files to radio quality(22,050 Hz, 8 Bit, Mono) for transfer </li></ul>
  19. 19. File Comparison <ul><li>We transmitted a 5 second radio quality sample wirelessly </li></ul><ul><li>The sample lost considerable amplification, and some noise was introduced </li></ul><ul><li>The basic qualities of the sample were maintained </li></ul>
  20. 20. Before Amplification
  21. 21. After Amplification
  22. 22. Frequency Domain
  23. 23. Spectrograms
  24. 24. Audio Transfer Conclusions <ul><li>With the hardware available to us, the best possible streaming quality is radio quality (22kbps) because the max transfer rate is 33 kbps </li></ul><ul><li>CD quality isn’t attainable with buffering because the necessary transfer rate of 172 kbps is much larger than the attainable rate </li></ul>
  25. 25. Audio Transfer Conclusions <ul><li>If real time compression and decompression of mp3’s was used, CD quality audio may be attainable </li></ul><ul><li>If the hardware can be improved to increase transfer rate, higher quality audio can be transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>One way to do this is channel bonding </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ethernet Channel Bonding (ECB) <ul><li>What It Is </li></ul><ul><li>How It Can Be Beneficial to Our Cause </li></ul>
  27. 27. ECB cont. <ul><li>Double Speed – Messages>1500Bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Beowulf </li></ul>
  28. 28. Design of ECB
  29. 29. Previously Documented Results
  30. 30. Our Idea <ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><li>Expected Obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final Plan </li></ul>
  31. 31. Parts/Cost <ul><li>4 10/100Mbps Ethernet Cards (~$15/each) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Netgear FA311 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 Switches (Supplied by group members) </li></ul><ul><li>Linux Software (~$40) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Implementation of ECB <ul><li>Network Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel Update </li></ul><ul><li>Ifenslave.C </li></ul><ul><li>Testing using netperf </li></ul>
  33. 33. Roadblocks and Fixes <ul><li>Network Card Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of support </li></ul><ul><li>Different Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Edit Files </li></ul><ul><li>Check Kernel </li></ul>
  34. 34. Final Results <ul><li>No success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible Reasons: Lack of speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of specific documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Cards </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. What ECB Has Taught Us <ul><li>Difficult to Implement </li></ul><ul><li>NT research has begun </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility does still exist </li></ul>
  36. 36. Project Successes <ul><li>Advanced Mobile Choons project to streaming of radio quality audio </li></ul><ul><li>Learned a great deal about Bluetooth and about channel bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Learned how to use BTSWS, an application that can be used with many different Bluetooth devices </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained corporate funding for project </li></ul>
  37. 37. Challenges <ul><li>Obtaining the necessary Bluetooth hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to use BTSWS with limited support or instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Struggling with the Microsoft sound recorder and its limitations </li></ul>
  38. 38. Other Tests <ul><li>Repeatability studies on transfer rates </li></ul><ul><li>Use of software package PEMO, which is an audio comparison tool that is currently being licensed </li></ul><ul><li>Use an articulation index measure to quantify how much the processing has degraded the intelligibility of the sent .wav file </li></ul>
  39. 39. Recommendations <ul><li>Attempt to obtain Bluetooth cards that meet the new Bluetooth Specification V1.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to incorporate compression and decompression into the software used </li></ul>
  40. 40. Questions?