Network+ Guide to Networks 5 th  Edition Chapter 6 Network Hardware
Objectives <ul><li>Identify the functions of LAN connectivity hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Install, configure, and different...
NICs (Network Interface Cards)
NICs (Network Interface Cards) <ul><li>Connectivity devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable device transmission </li></ul></u...
NICs (cont’d.) <ul><li>Smart hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform prioritization (link Ch 6a) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Types of NICs <ul><li>Before ordering or installing NIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know device interface type </li></ul></ul><u...
Types of NICs (cont’d.) <ul><li>Bus  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit, signaling pathway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboa...
Internal Bus Standards <ul><li>Expansion slots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple electrical contacts on motherboard </li></ul...
Internal Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>Multiple bus types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCI bus: most popular expansion board NI...
<ul><li>ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original PC bus type (early 1980s) </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>PCIe (PCI Express) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32- or 64-bit bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum 133-MHz clock speed ...
Internal Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>PCIe advantages over PCI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient data transfer </li>...
<ul><li>Determining bus type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look inside PC case </li>...
Peripheral Bus Standards <ul><li>Attach peripheral devices externally </li></ul><ul><li>External connection advantage </li...
<ul><li>CardBus standard (1990s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit interface running at 33 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match...
Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>ExpressCard standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many different external devices conn...
Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) Figure 6-5  ExpressCard modules
Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>USB (universal serial bus) port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two USB standards </li></...
Types of NICs (cont’d.) Figure 6-6 A USB NIC
Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>Firewire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Computer (1980s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>FireWire-connected peripherals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to USB- and PCMCIA...
Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) Figure 6-7  FireWire connectors (4-pin and 6-pin)
Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>CompactFlash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed by CompactFlash Association (CFA) <...
Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) Figure 6-8 A CompactFlash NIC
On-Board NICs  <ul><li>Connect device directly to motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-board ports: mouse, keyboard </li><...
<ul><li>Contain antennas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send, receive signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All bus types supported </...
Installing NICs <ul><li>Three general steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install NIC ...
Installing and Configuring NIC Hardware  <ul><li>Read manufacturer’s documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Install expansion car...
Figure 6-10 A properly inserted NIC
<ul><li>Physically install PCMCIA-standard NIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert card into PCMCIA slot </li></ul></ul>Installin...
Installing and Configuring NIC Hardware (cont’d.) <ul><li>Modern operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not require re...
Installing and Configuring NIC Software <ul><li>Device driver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Installing and Configuring NIC Software (cont’d.) <ul><li>Operating system built-in drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automati...
Figure 6-12 Windows Vista Update Driver Software dialog box
Interpreting LED Indicators <ul><li>After NIC is installed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test by transmitting data </li></ul></ul...
IRQ (Interrupt Request) <ul><li>Message to computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop and pay attention to something else </li></...
Table 6-1 IRQ assignments
IRQ (Interrupt Request) (cont’d.) <ul><li>Two devices using same interrupt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource conflicts, perfo...
IRQ (Interrupt Request) (cont’d.) <ul><li>CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microchip r...
Memory Range <ul><li>Memory NIC, CPU use for exchanging, buffering data </li></ul><ul><li>Some are reserved for specific d...
Base I/O Port <ul><li>Memory area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel for moving data between NIC and CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Firmware Settings <ul><li>Contain NIC’s transmission characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E...
Firmware Settings (cont’d.) <ul><li>Configuration utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View IRQ, I/O port, base memory, node addr...
Choosing the Right NIC <ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility with existing system </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Table 6-2 NIC characteristics
Repeaters and Hubs <ul><li>Repeater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest connectivity device regenerating signals </li></ul></ul...
Repeaters and Hubs (cont’d.) <ul><li>Hub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeater with more than one output port </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Repeaters and Hubs (cont’d) <ul><li>Hub (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices share same bandwidth amount, collision dom...
Repeaters and Hubs (cont’d) Figure 6-13 Hubs in a network design
<ul><li>Hub (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubs vary according to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported media type, d...
Bridges
Bridges <ul><li>Connects two network segments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze incoming frames and decide where to send </li>...
<ul><li>Disadvantage compared to repeaters and hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer to transmit data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F...
Bridges (cont’d.) <ul><li>New bridge installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge must learn network MAC addresses </li></ul>...
Switches
Switches <ul><li>Subdivide network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller logical pieces, segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operates ...
<ul><li>Multiport switch advantages over bridge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better bandwidth use, more cost-efficient </li></ul>...
Switches (cont’d.) <ul><li>Historically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switches replaced hubs, eased congestion, provided better se...
Installing a Switch <ul><li>Follow manufacturer’s guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>General steps (assume Cat 5 or better UTP) ...
Installing a Switch (cont’d.) Figure 6-17 Connecting a  workstation to a switch Figure 6-18 A switch on a small network
Switching Methods <ul><li>Difference in switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming frames interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Cut-Through Mode <ul><li>Switch reads frame’s header </li></ul><ul><li>Forwarding decision made before receiving entire pa...
Cut-Through Mode (cont’d.) <ul><li>Cannot detect corrupt packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May propagate flawed packets </li><...
Store-and-Forward Mode <ul><li>Switch reads entire data frame into memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks for accuracy before...
VLANs and Trunking <ul><li>VLANs (virtual local area networks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logically separate networks within ne...
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>From link Ch 6c </li></ul>Trunks
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>Advantage of VLANs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Port...
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>VLAN creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring switch software </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Figure 6-20 Result of the  show vlans  command on a Cisco switch
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>Potential VLAN issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting off group from rest of network </...
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>Advantage of VLAN trunking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economical interface usage </li></ul...
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) <ul><li>IEEE standard 802.1D </li></ul><ul><li>Operates in Data Link layer </li></ul><ul><li>...
STP (cont’d.) Figure 6-21 Enterprise-wide switched network
STP (cont’d.) Figure 6-22 STP-selected paths on a switched network
STP (cont’d.) <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original STP too sl...
Content and Multilayer Switches <ul><li>Layer 3 switch (routing switch) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets Layer 3 data </li...
Content and Multilayer Switches (cont’d.) <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No agreed upon standard </li></ul></...
Routers
Routers <ul><li>Multiport connectivity device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs data between network nodes </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Routers (cont’d.) <ul><li>Traditional stand-alone LAN routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being replaced by Layer 3 routing swit...
Router Characteristics and Functions <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks node location </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Modular router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding different interface car...
Router Characteristics and Functions (cont’d.) <ul><li>Router tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect dissimilar networks </li...
Router Characteristics and Functions (cont’d.) <ul><li>Directing network data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static routing </li></...
Router Characteristics and Functions (cont’d.) Figure 6-24 The placement of routers on a LAN
Routing Protocols <ul><li>Best path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most efficient route from one node to another </li></ul></ul><ul...
Routing Protocols (cont’d.) <ul><li>Routing protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Router communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Distance-Vector: RIP, RIPv2, BGP <ul><li>Distance-vector routing protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best route base...
Distance-Vector: RIP, RIPv2, BGP (cont’d.) <ul><li>RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ge...
Link-State: OSPF, IS-IS <ul><li>Link-state routing protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers share information </li></ul></ul...
Link-State: OSPF, IS-IS (cont’d.) <ul><li>IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Codifie...
Hybrid: EIGRP <ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link-state and distance-vector characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Gateways and Other Multifunction Devices
Gateways and Other Multifunction Devices <ul><li>Gateway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combinations of networking hardware and sof...
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  1. 1. Network+ Guide to Networks 5 th Edition Chapter 6 Network Hardware
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the functions of LAN connectivity hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Install, configure, and differentiate between network devices such as, NICs, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, and gateways </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the advanced features of a switch and understand popular switching techniques, including VLAN management </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purposes and properties of routing </li></ul><ul><li>Describe common IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols </li></ul>
  3. 3. NICs (Network Interface Cards)
  4. 4. NICs (Network Interface Cards) <ul><li>Connectivity devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable device transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transceiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits and receives data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical layer and Data Link layer functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue data signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble and disassemble data frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret physical addressing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine right to transmit data </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. NICs (cont’d.) <ul><li>Smart hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform prioritization (link Ch 6a) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic-filtering (link Ch 6b) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not analyze information at layers 3 through 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common to every networking device, network </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Types of NICs <ul><li>Before ordering or installing NIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know device interface type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of NICs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access method (Ethernet or Token Ring) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network transmission speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connector interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible motherboard or device type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Types of NICs (cont’d.) <ul><li>Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit, signaling pathway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard uses to transmit data to computer’s components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory, processor, hard disk, NIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differ according to capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined by data path width and clock speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data path size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel bits transmitting at any given time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proportional to attached device’s speed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Internal Bus Standards <ul><li>Expansion slots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple electrical contacts on motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows bus expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion card (expansion board) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit board for additional devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inserts into expansion slot, establishes electrical connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device connects to computer’s main circuit or bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer centrally controls device </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Internal Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>Multiple bus types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCI bus: most popular expansion board NIC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32- or 64-bit bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock speeds rated at 33-, 66- or 133-MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum data transfer rate: 1 Gbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced by Intel (1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest official version: 3.0 (2004) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original PC bus type (early 1980s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support for 8-bit and 16-bit data path, 4.77-MHz clock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PCI bus characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter connector length, faster data transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compared to previous bus types (ISA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCs and Macintosh compatible </li></ul></ul>Figure 6-1 PCI NIC
  11. 11. <ul><li>PCIe (PCI Express) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32- or 64-bit bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum 133-MHz clock speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>500 Mbps per data path (full-duplex transmission) </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 6-2 PCIe NIC
  12. 12. Internal Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>PCIe advantages over PCI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient data transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of service distinctions support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error reporting, handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current PCI software compatible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCIe slots differ from conventional PCI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary by lanes supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lane offers full-duplex throughput of 500 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support up to 16 lanes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>x16 slot : 8 Gbps throughput </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Determining bus type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look inside PC case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If more than one expansion slot type: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to NIC, PC manufacturers’ guidelines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose NIC matching most modern bus </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 6-3 A motherboard with multiple expansion slots
  14. 14. Peripheral Bus Standards <ul><li>Attach peripheral devices externally </li></ul><ul><li>External connection advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple installation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Computer Memory Card International Association or PCMCIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets standards for externally attached cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connect virtually any external device type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PC Card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First standard PCMCIA-standard adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16- bit interface running at 8 MHz </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>CardBus standard (1990s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit interface running at 33 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matches PCI expansion board standard </li></ul></ul>Figure 6-4 A CardBus NIC
  16. 16. Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>ExpressCard standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many different external devices connect to portable computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>26-pin interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transfer rates: 250 Mbps in each direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>500 Mbps total </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same data transfer standards as PCIe specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>34 mm, 54 mm wide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) Figure 6-5 ExpressCard modules
  18. 18. Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>USB (universal serial bus) port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two USB standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difference: speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB 1.1: transfer rate of 12 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB 2.0: transfer rate of 480 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB 3.0 (SuperSpeed USB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer rate: 4.8 Gbps </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Types of NICs (cont’d.) Figure 6-6 A USB NIC
  20. 20. Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>Firewire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Computer (1980s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 1394 standard (1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Firewire connection: 400 Mbps (max) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer version: 3 Gbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects most peripheral types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects small network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more computers using bus topology </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>FireWire-connected peripherals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to USB- and PCMCIA-connected peripherals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple installation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by most modern operating systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two connector varieties: 4-pin and 6-pin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6-pin connector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two pins supply power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnect computers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) Figure 6-7 FireWire connectors (4-pin and 6-pin)
  23. 23. Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) <ul><li>CompactFlash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed by CompactFlash Association (CFA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasmall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removable data and input/output device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest standard: 4.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data transfer rate: 133 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connects devices too small for PCMCIA slots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless connections </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Peripheral Bus Standards (cont’d.) Figure 6-8 A CompactFlash NIC
  25. 25. On-Board NICs <ul><li>Connect device directly to motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-board ports: mouse, keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New computers, laptops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use onboard NICs integrated into motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frees expansion slots </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Contain antennas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send, receive signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All bus types supported </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages over wire-bound NICs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth and security limitations </li></ul></ul>Wireless NICs Figure 6-9 Wireless NICs
  27. 27. Installing NICs <ul><li>Three general steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install NIC software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure firmware (if necessary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set of data, instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saved to NIC’s ROM (read-only memory) chip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use configuration utility program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply electrical charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROM data erased, changed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Installing and Configuring NIC Hardware <ul><li>Read manufacturer’s documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Install expansion card NIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify toolkit contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unplug computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open computer case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select slot, insert NIC, attach bracket, verify cables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace cover, turn on computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configure NIC software </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Figure 6-10 A properly inserted NIC
  30. 30. <ul><li>Physically install PCMCIA-standard NIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert card into PCMCIA slot </li></ul></ul>Installing and Configuring NIC Hardware (cont’d.) Figure 6-11 Installing a PCMCIA-standard NIC
  31. 31. Installing and Configuring NIC Hardware (cont’d.) <ul><li>Modern operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not require restart for PCMCIA-standard adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Servers, other high-powered computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install multiple NICs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat installation process for additional NIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose different slot </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Installing and Configuring NIC Software <ul><li>Device driver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enables attached device to communicate with operating system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchased computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers installed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add hardware to computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must install drivers </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Installing and Configuring NIC Software (cont’d.) <ul><li>Operating system built-in drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically recognize hardware, install drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer startup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Device drivers loaded into RAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer can communicate with devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers not available from operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install and configure NIC software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use operating system interface </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Figure 6-12 Windows Vista Update Driver Software dialog box
  35. 35. Interpreting LED Indicators <ul><li>After NIC is installed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test by transmitting data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess NIC LEDs for network communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary by manufacturer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read documentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACT, LNK, LED, TX, RX </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. IRQ (Interrupt Request) <ul><li>Message to computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop and pay attention to something else </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interrupt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit board wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Device issues voltage to signal request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IRQ number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniquely identifies component to main bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NICs use IRQ 9, 10, or 11 </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Table 6-1 IRQ assignments
  38. 38. IRQ (Interrupt Request) (cont’d.) <ul><li>Two devices using same interrupt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource conflicts, performance problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many symptoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must reassign IRQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through operating system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through adapter’s EEPROM configuration utility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through computer’s CMOS configuration utility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. IRQ (Interrupt Request) (cont’d.) <ul><li>CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microchip requiring very little energy to operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores settings pertaining to computer’s devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settings saved after computer turned off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information used by BIOS (basic input/output system) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BIOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple instruction set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enables computer to initially recognize hardware </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Memory Range <ul><li>Memory NIC, CPU use for exchanging, buffering data </li></ul><ul><li>Some are reserved for specific devices </li></ul><ul><li>NICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High memory area (A0000–FFFFF range) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturers prefer certain ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource conflicts less likely (than IRQ settings) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Base I/O Port <ul><li>Memory area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel for moving data between NIC and CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannot be used by other devices </li></ul><ul><li>NICs use two channel memory ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base I/O port settings identify beginning of each range </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Firmware Settings <ul><li>Contain NIC’s transmission characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EEPROM chip on NIC and data it holds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change firmware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change EEPROM chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires bootable CD-ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration, install utility shipped with NIC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Firmware Settings (cont’d.) <ul><li>Configuration utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View IRQ, I/O port, base memory, node address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform diagnostics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NIC’s physical components, connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Loopback plug (loopback adapter) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgoing signals redirected into computer for testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use with loopback test </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Choosing the Right NIC <ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility with existing system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network bus type, access method, connector types, transmission speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system, hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtle differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting network performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important for server </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Table 6-2 NIC characteristics
  46. 46. Repeaters and Hubs <ul><li>Repeater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest connectivity device regenerating signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates at Physical layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has no means to interpret data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One input port, one output port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receives and repeats single data stream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for bus topology networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend network inexpensively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely used on modern networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations; other devices decreasing costs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Repeaters and Hubs (cont’d.) <ul><li>Hub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeater with more than one output port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple data ports, uplink port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeats signal in broadcast fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates at Physical layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet network hub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Star or star-based hybrid central connection point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect workstations, print servers, switches, file servers, other devices </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Repeaters and Hubs (cont’d) <ul><li>Hub (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices share same bandwidth amount, collision domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More nodes leads to transmission errors, slow performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement in network varies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest: stand-alone workgroup hub </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different hub to each small workgroup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Placement must adhering to maximum segment and length limitations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Repeaters and Hubs (cont’d) Figure 6-13 Hubs in a network design
  50. 50. <ul><li>Hub (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubs vary according to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported media type, data transmission speeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive hubs, Intelligent hubs (managed hubs), Stand-alone hubs (workgroup hubs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by switches or routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merely repeat signals </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 6-14 A stand-alone hub
  51. 51. Bridges
  52. 52. Bridges <ul><li>Connects two network segments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze incoming frames and decide where to send </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on frame’s MAC address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operate at Data Link layer </li></ul><ul><li>Single input port and single output port </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret physical addressing information </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages over repeaters and hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add length beyond maximum segments limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve network performance </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Disadvantage compared to repeaters and hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer to transmit data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filtering database (forwarding table) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filter or forward </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 6-15 A bridge’s use of a filtering database
  54. 54. Bridges (cont’d.) <ul><li>New bridge installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge must learn network MAC addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fills its filtering database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destination node’s MAC address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All network nodes discovered over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today bridges nearly extinct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved router and switch speed, functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered router and switch cost </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Switches
  56. 56. Switches <ul><li>Subdivide network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller logical pieces, segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operates at Data Link layer (traditional) </li></ul><ul><li>Operate at layers 3 and 4 (advanced) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret MAC address information </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal processor, operating system, memory, several ports </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Multiport switch advantages over bridge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better bandwidth use, more cost-efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each port acts like a bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each device effectively receives own dedicated channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated channel represents collision domain </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 6-16 Switches
  58. 58. Switches (cont’d.) <ul><li>Historically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switches replaced hubs, eased congestion, provided better security, performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can become overwhelmed despite buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot prevent data loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UDP collisions mount: network traffic halts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Switches replaced workgroup hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased cost, easy installation, configuration, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate traffic according to port </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Installing a Switch <ul><li>Follow manufacturer’s guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>General steps (assume Cat 5 or better UTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify switch placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn on switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify lights, self power tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure (if necessary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect NIC to a switch port (repeat for all nodes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After all nodes connected, turn on nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect switch to larger network (optional) </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Installing a Switch (cont’d.) Figure 6-17 Connecting a workstation to a switch Figure 6-18 A switch on a small network
  61. 61. Switching Methods <ul><li>Difference in switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming frames interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame forwarding decisions making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four switching modes exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two basic methods discussed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cut-Through Mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Store-and-Forward Mode </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Cut-Through Mode <ul><li>Switch reads frame’s header </li></ul><ul><li>Forwarding decision made before receiving entire packet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses frame header: first 14 bytes contains destination MAC address </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannot verify data integrity using frame check sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Can detect runts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erroneously shortened packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Runt detected: wait for integrity check </li></ul>
  63. 63. Cut-Through Mode (cont’d.) <ul><li>Cannot detect corrupt packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May propagate flawed packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data buffering (switch flooded with traffic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small workgroups needing speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low number of devices </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Store-and-Forward Mode <ul><li>Switch reads entire data frame into memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks for accuracy before transmitting information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantage over cut-through mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit data more accurately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage over cut-through mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger LAN environments; mixed environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can transfer data between segments running different transmission speeds </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. VLANs and Trunking <ul><li>VLANs (virtual local area networks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logically separate networks within networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups ports into broadcast domain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadcast domain (subnet) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Port combination making a Layer 2 segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ports rely on layer 2 device to forward broadcast frames </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Collision domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, switches prevent collisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each device is on a separate collision domain </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>From link Ch 6c </li></ul>Trunks
  67. 67. VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>Advantage of VLANs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ports from multiple switches or segments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use any end node type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for using VLAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separating user groups who need special security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolating connections with heavy traffic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying priority device groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping legacy protocol devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  68. 68. VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>VLAN creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring switch software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manually through configuration utility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically using VLAN software tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate to which VLAN each port belongs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security parameters, filtering instructions, port performance requirements, network addressing and management options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain VLAN by switch software </li></ul>
  69. 69. Figure 6-20 Result of the show vlans command on a Cisco switch
  70. 70. VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>Potential VLAN issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting off group from rest of network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correct by using router </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trunking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch’s interface carries traffic of multiple VLANs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trunk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single physical connection between devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many logical VLANs transmit, receive data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>VLAN data separation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame contains VLAN identifier in header </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.) <ul><li>Advantage of VLAN trunking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economical interface usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switches make efficient use of processing capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VLAN configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires careful planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure users and devices can exchange data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure VLAN switch properly interacts with other devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  72. 72. STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) <ul><li>IEEE standard 802.1D </li></ul><ul><li>Operates in Data Link layer </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents traffic loops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculating paths avoiding potential loops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificially blocking links completing loop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select root bridge based on Bridge ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine possible paths between network bridge and root bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disables links not part of shortest path </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. STP (cont’d.) Figure 6-21 Enterprise-wide switched network
  74. 74. STP (cont’d.) Figure 6-22 STP-selected paths on a switched network
  75. 75. STP (cont’d.) <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original STP too slow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newer version </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE’s 802.1w standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cisco and Extreme Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary versions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No enabling or configuration needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included in switch operating software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May alter default priorities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Content and Multilayer Switches <ul><li>Layer 3 switch (routing switch) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets Layer 3 data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layer 4 switch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets Layer 4 data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content switch (application switch) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets Layer 4 through Layer 7 data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced filtering, statistics keeping, security functions </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Content and Multilayer Switches (cont’d.) <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No agreed upon standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Layer 3 and Layer 4 switch features vary widely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing between Layer 3 and Layer 4 switch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher-layer switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three times Layer 2 switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in backbone </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Routers
  79. 79. Routers <ul><li>Multiport connectivity device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs data between network nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates LANs and WANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different transmission speeds, protocols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operate at Network layer (Layer 3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs data from one segment or network to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slower than switches and bridges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to interpret Layers 3 and higher information </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Routers (cont’d.) <ul><li>Traditional stand-alone LAN routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being replaced by Layer 3 routing switches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New niche for routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linking large Internet nodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completing digitized telephone calls </li></ul></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Router Characteristics and Functions <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks node location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine shortest, fastest path between two nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects dissimilar network types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large LANs and WANs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers indispensible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Router components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal processor, operating system, memory, input and output jacks, management control interface </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><li>Modular router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding different interface cards, other devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home, small office use </li></ul></ul>Figure 6-23 Routers
  83. 83. Router Characteristics and Functions (cont’d.) <ul><li>Router tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect dissimilar networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret Layer 3 addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best data path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reroute traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optional functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter broadcast transmissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable custom segregation, security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide fault tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor network traffic, diagnose problems </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Router Characteristics and Functions (cont’d.) <ul><li>Directing network data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator programs specific paths between nodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Router automatically calculates best path between two nodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routing table </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple: small office, home LANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging: sizeable networks </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Router Characteristics and Functions (cont’d.) Figure 6-24 The placement of routers on a LAN
  86. 86. Routing Protocols <ul><li>Best path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most efficient route from one node to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of hops between nodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current network activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unavailable link </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network transmission speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined by routing protocol </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Routing Protocols (cont’d.) <ul><li>Routing protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Router communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collects current network status data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute to best path selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routing table creation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Router convergence time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time router takes to recognize best path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change or network outage event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguishing feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead; burden on network to support routing protocol </li></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Distance-Vector: RIP, RIPv2, BGP <ul><li>Distance-vector routing protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best route based on distance to destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hops, latency, network traffic conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RIP (Routing Information Protocol) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only factors in number of hops between nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limits 15 hops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior routing protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow and less secure </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Distance-Vector: RIP, RIPv2, BGP (cont’d.) <ul><li>RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates less broadcast traffic, more secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot exceed 15 hops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less commonly used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates using BGP-specific messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many factors determine best paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurable to follow policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most complex (choice for Internet traffic) </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Link-State: OSPF, IS-IS <ul><li>Link-state routing protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers share information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each router independently maps network, determines best path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior or border router use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No hop limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex algorithm for determining best paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each OSPF router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains database containing other routers’ links </li></ul></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Link-State: OSPF, IS-IS (cont’d.) <ul><li>IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Codified by ISO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior routers only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less common than OSPF </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Hybrid: EIGRP <ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link-state and distance-vector characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco network routers only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EIGRP benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast convergence time, low network overhead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to configure and less CPU-intensive than OSPF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports multiple protocols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodates very large, heterogeneous networks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Gateways and Other Multifunction Devices
  94. 94. Gateways and Other Multifunction Devices <ul><li>Gateway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combinations of networking hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting two dissimilar networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect two systems using different formatting, communications protocols, architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repackages information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reside on servers, microcomputers, connectivity devices, mainframes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Popular gateways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail gateway, Internet gateway, LAN gateway, Voice/data gateway, Firewall </li></ul></ul>
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