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  • 1) Physical Connection
  • 2) Logical Connection (Protocols = representation of communication forms)
  • Ping-Pong
  • 3) Application that interpret the data and display the information
  • Network Address  Network Mask Host Address
  • End User Devices Network Devices
  • كل ادارة تخاطب ما يناظرها
  • Physical  Bits Data Link  Frames Network  Packets Transport  Segments Session, Presentation, Application  Data  ( تلميحة على ضم ادارات مخرجاتها نفس المخرجات – TCP Model)
  • Insulators Conductors Semi
  • Cable Types : Coaxial Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
  • TX = Sender , RX = Receiver
  • External USB Wireless NIC
  • ديباجة Preamble =
  • Transcript

    • 1. Networking Basics For : Level 1 – Networks and Computer Science Diploma Deanship of Community Services and Continuous Education - Imam University Based on : Cisco Networking Academy – Exploration 1 Instructor : Mahmoud Rabie
    • 2. Grading
      • 15 for Attendance and Participation
      • 35 for the Take-Home Open-Book Exam
      • 50 for the Final Exam
    • 3. Topics
      • Introduction to Networking
      • Networking Fundamentals
      • Networking Media
      • Communicating over the Network
      • Application Layer Functionality and Protocols
      • Ethernet and Link Layer Addressing
    • 4. Introduction to Networking Objectives
    • 5. Requirements for Internet Connection
    • 6. Network Interface Card (NIC)
    • 7. TCP/IP Description and Configuration
    • 8. Testing Connectivity with Ping
    • 9. Web Browser and Plug-Ins
    • 10. Troubleshooting Internet Connections
    • 11. Network Math
      • ISA will be covered well, by Dr. Baha
    • 12. IP Addresses and Network Masks
    • 13. Networking Fundamentals Objectives
    • 14. Data Networks
    • 15. Networking Devices
    • 16. Network Topology
    • 17. Network Protocols
    • 18. Local-area Networks (LANs)
    • 19. Wide-area Networks (WANs)
    • 20. Storage - Area Networks (SANS)
    • 21. Virtual Private Networks (VPN s )
    • 22. Importance of Bandwidth
    • 23. Bandwidth Pipe Analogy
    • 24. Bandwidth Highway Analogy
    • 25. Bandwidth Measurements
    • 26. Bandwidth Limitations
    • 27. Using Layers to Analyze Problems
    • 28. Using Layers to Describe Data Communication
    • 29. OSI Model
    • 30. OSI Layers
    • 31. OSI Layers
      • Provides connectivity and path selection between two host
      • Provides Logical address
      • No error correction, best effort delivery.
    • 32. OSI Layers
    • 33. OSI Layers
    • 34. OSI Layers
    • 35. OSI Layers
    • 36. OSI Layers
    • 37. Peer-to-Peer Communication
    • 38. TCP/IP Model
    • 39. Networking Media Objectives
    • 40. Voltage
    • 41. Resistance and Impedance
    • 42. Current Flow
    • 43. Circuits
    • 44. Coaxial Cable
    • 45. Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STP)
    • 46. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
    • 47. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
    • 48. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
    • 49. Single Mode Fiber
    • 50. Multimode Fiber
    • 51. Optical Media
    • 52. Wireless LAN Standards
    • 53. Internal Wireless NIC
    • 54. Wireless USB Adapter
    • 55. Modulation
    • 56. Communicating over the Network
    • 57. Network Structure
      • Define the elements of communication
        • 3 common elements of communication
          • message source
          • the channel
          • message destination
      • Define a network
        • data or information networks capable of carrying many different types of communications
    • 58. Network Structure
      • Describe how messages are communicated
        • Data is sent across a network in small “ chunks ” called segments
      Multiplexing
    • 59. Network Structure
      • Define the components of a network
        • Network components
          • hardware
          • software
    • 60. Network Structure
      • End Devices and their Role in the Network
        • End devices form interface with human network & communications network
        • Role of end devices:
          • client
          • server
          • both client and server
    • 61. Network Structure
      • Identify the role of an intermediary device in a data network and be able to contrast that role with the role of an end device
        • Role of an intermediary device
          • provides connectivity and ensures data flows across network
    • 62. Network Structure
      • Define network media and criteria for making a network media choice
        • Network media
        • this is the channel over which a message travels
    • 63. Network Types
      • Define Local Area Networks (LANs)
        • - A network serving a home, building or campus is considered a Local Area Network (LAN)
    • 64. Network Types
      • Define Wide Area Networks (WANs)
        • LANs separated by geographic distance are connected by a network known as a Wide Area Network (WAN)
    • 65. Network Types
      • Define the Internet
        • The internet is defined as a
        • global mesh of interconnected networks
    • 66. Network Types
      • Describe network representation symbols
    • 67. Function of Protocol in Network Communication
      • The importance of protocols and how they are used to facilitate communication over data networks
        • A protocol is a set of predetermined or formal rules
    • 68. Function of Protocol in Network Communication
      • Explain network protocols
        • Network protocols are used
        • to allow devices to
        • communicate
        • successfully
    • 69. Function of Protocol in Network Communication
      • Define different protocols and how they interact
    • 70. Function of Protocol in Network Communication
      • Technology independent Protocols
        • -Many diverse types of devices can communicate using the same sets of protocols. This is because protocols specify network functionality, not the underlying technology to support this functionality.
    • 71. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model
      • Explain the benefits of using a layered model
        • Benefits include
          • assists in protocol design
          • fosters competition
          • changes in one layer do not affect other layers
          • provides a common language
    • 72. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model
      • Describe TCP/IP Model
    • 73. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model
      • Describe the Communication Process
    • 74. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model
      • Explain protocol data units (PDU) and encapsulation
    • 75. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model
      • Describe the process of sending and receiving messages
    • 76. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model
      • Explain protocol and reference models
        • A protocol model
        • provides a model that closely matches the structure of a particular protocol suite.
        • A reference model
        • provides a common reference for maintaining consistency within all types of network protocols and services.
    • 77. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model
      • Define OSI
    • 78. Layers with TCP/IP and OSI Model
      • Compare OSI and TCP/IP model
    • 79. Addressing and Naming Schemes
      • Explain how labels in encapsulation headers are used to manage communication in data networks
    • 80. Addressing and Naming Schemes
      • Describe examples of Ethernet MAC Addresses, IP Addresses, and TCP/UDP Port numbers
    • 81. Addressing and Naming Schemes
      • Explain how labels in encapsulation headers are used to manage communication in data networks
    • 82. Application Layer Functionality and Protocols
    • 83. Applications – The Interface Between Human and Data Networks
      • Explain the role of applications, services and protocols in converting communication to data that can be transferred across the data network
    • 84. Applications – The Interface Between Human and Data Networks
      • Define the separate roles applications, services and protocols play in transporting data through networks
    • 85.
      • Describe the role protocols play in networking and be able to identify several message properties that can be defined by a protocol
      Applications – The Interface Between Human and Data Networks
    • 86. The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication
      • Describe the roles of client and server processes in data networks
    • 87. The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication
      • List common Application Layers services and protocols
    • 88. The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication
      • Compare and contrast client server networking with peer-to-peer networking and peer-to-peer applications
    • 89. Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services
      • Describe the features of the DNS protocol and how this protocol supports DNS services
    • 90.
      • Describe the features of the HTTP protocol and how this protocol supports the delivery of web pages to the client
      Features, Operation, and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services
    • 91. Link Layer Addressing
    • 92. MAC Addresses and ARP
      • 32-bit IP address:
        • network-layer address
        • used to get datagram to destination IP subnet
      • MAC (or LAN or physical or Ethernet) address:
        • used to get datagram from one interface to another physically-connected interface (same network)
        • 48 bit MAC address (for most LANs) burned in the adapter
    • 93. LAN Addresses and ARP Each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address Broadcast address = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF = adapter
      • MAC address allocation administered by IEEE
      • Manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space (to assure uniqueness)
      1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD 58-23-D7-FA-20-B0 0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98 71-65-F7-2B-08-53 LAN (wired or wireless)
    • 94. ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
      • Each IP node (Host, Router) on LAN has ARP table
      • ARP Table: IP/MAC address mappings for some LAN nodes
      • < IP address; MAC address; TTL>
        • TTL (Time To Live): time after which address mapping will be forgotten (typically 20 min)
      1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD 58-23-D7-FA-20-B0 0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98 LAN 237.196.7.23 237.196.7.78 237.196.7.14 237.196.7.88 Question: how to determine MAC address of B knowing B’s IP address?
    • 95. ARP protocol: Same LAN
      • A wants to send datagram to B, and B’s MAC address not in A’s ARP table.
      • A broadcasts ARP query packet, containing B's IP address
        • Dest. MAC address = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
        • all machines on LAN receive ARP query
      • B receives ARP packet, replies to A with its (B's) MAC address
        • frame sent to A’s MAC address (unicast)
      • A caches (saves) IP-to-MAC address pair in its ARP table until information becomes old (times out)
        • soft state: information that times out (goes away) unless refreshed
      • ARP is “plug-and-play”:
        • nodes create their ARP tables without intervention from net administrator
    • 96. Star topology
      • Nowadays, star topology prevails ( يسود )
      • Connection choices: hub or switch
      hub or switch
    • 97. Ethernet Frame Structure
      • Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame
      • Preamble:
      • 7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by one byte with pattern 10101011
      • used to synchronize receiver, sender clock rates
    • 98. Ethernet Frame Structure – Cont.
      • Addresses: 6 bytes
        • If adapter receives frame with matching destination address, or with broadcast address (eg ARP packet), it passes data in frame to net-layer protocol
        • Otherwise, adapter discards frame
      • Type: indicates the higher layer protocol (mostly IP)
      • CRC: checked at receiver, if error is detected, the frame is simply dropped
    • 99. Hubs
      • Hubs are essentially physical-layer repeaters:
        • bits coming from one link go out all other links
        • at the same rate
        • no frame buffering
        • Adapters not Hub detect collisions
      hub
    • 100. Interconnecting with hubs
      • Backbone hub interconnects LAN segments
      • Extends max distance between nodes
      • But individual segment collision domains become one large collision domain
      hub hub hub Backbone hub
    • 101. Switch
      • Link layer device
        • stores and forwards Ethernet frames
        • examines frame header and selectively forwards frame based on MAC destination address
        • when frame is to be forwarded on segment, uses CSMA/CD to access segment
      • Transparent
        • hosts are unaware of presence of switches
      • Plug-and-play, self-learning
        • switches do not need to be configured
    • 102. Forwarding
      • How do determine onto which LAN segment to forward frame?
      • Looks like a routing problem...
      1 2 3 hub hub hub switch
    • 103. Self Learning
      • A switch has a switch table
      • Entry in switch table:
        • (MAC Address, Interface, Time Stamp)
        • stale entries in table dropped (TTL can be 60 min)
      • Switch learns which hosts can be reached through which interfaces
        • when frame received, switch “learns” location of sender: incoming LAN segment
        • records sender/location pair in switch table
    • 104. Filtering/Forwarding
      • When switch receives a frame:
      • index switch table using MAC dest address
      • if entry found for destination then{
      • if dest on segment from which frame arrived then drop the frame
      • else forward the frame on interface indicated
      • }
      • else flood
      forward on all but the interface on which the frame arrived
    • 105. Switch Example
      • Suppose C sends frame to D
      • Switch receives frame from from C
        • notes in bridge table that C is on interface 1
        • because D is not in table, switch forwards frame into interfaces 2 and 3
      • Frame received by D
      address interface A B E G C 1 1 2 3 1 hub hub hub switch A B C D E F G H I 1 2 3
    • 106. Switch Example
      • Suppose D replies back with frame to C.
      • Switch receives frame from from D
        • notes in bridge table that D is on interface 2
        • because C is in table, switch forwards frame only to interface 1
      • Frame received by C
      address interface A B E G C D 1 1 2 3 1 2 hub hub hub switch A B C D E F G H I
    • 107. Switch: Traffic Isolation
      • Switch installation breaks subnet into LAN segments
      • Switch filters packets:
        • same-LAN-segment frames not usually forwarded onto other LAN segments
        • segments become separate collision domains
      collision domain collision domain collision domain hub hub hub switch
    • 108. Switches: Dedicated Access
      • Switch with many interfaces
      • Hosts have direct connection to switch
      • No collisions; full duplex
      • Switching: A-to-A’ and B-to-B’ simultaneously, no collisions
      switch A A’ B B’ C C’
    • 109. Switches vs. Routers
      • Both store-and-forward devices
        • routers: network layer devices (examine network layer headers)
        • switches are link layer devices
      • Routers maintain routing tables, implement routing algorithms
      • Switches maintain switch tables, implement filtering, learning algorithms
      Switch
    • 110. Summary Comparison