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Networking and Security <ul><li>Connecting Computers and Protecting Them from Intruders </li></ul>
Networking Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul></ul><ul...
What is a Network? <ul><li>Computer network: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more computers connected together </li></ul></ul...
Network Architecture <ul><li>Network designs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locally controlled: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pee...
Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>Nodes communicate with each other: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Share ...
Client/Server Networks <ul><li>Client computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server computers: </l...
Servers <ul><li>Depending on the network size and work load servers can perform a single or multiple roles </li></ul>
Dedicated Server Types <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>File </li></ul><ul><li>Datab...
Classifications of Client/Server Networks <ul><li>LAN: local area network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers linked together ...
Network Topology <ul><li>Physical layout of networks components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring ...
Bus Topology <ul><li>All nodes are connected in sequence on a single cable </li></ul><ul><li>Used most often on peer-to-pe...
Ring Topology <ul><li>Nodes are laid out in a ring </li></ul><ul><li>Token (data packet) flows in one direction from devic...
Star Topology <ul><li>Nodes connect to a central communications device (hub/switch) </li></ul><ul><li>A node sends a signa...
Network Operating Systems (NOS) <ul><li>Provide the protocol that controls the communication between devices on the networ...
Network Adapters <ul><li>Devices connected to or installed in nodes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface cards (NIC) <...
Wireless Adapters <ul><li>Uses radio waves to connect nodes (2.4GHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Each node requires a wireless netwo...
Transmission Media <ul><li>Provides communications channel between nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of media: </li></ul><ul><...
Choosing a Cable <ul><li>Maximum run length </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth  </li></ul><ul><li>Bend radius </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Twisted Pair Cable <ul><li>Copper wire twisted around each other to reduce interference </li></ul><ul><li>STP- Shielded </...
Coaxial Cable <ul><li>Four components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonconductive insulati...
Fiber-Optic Cable <ul><li>Components include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass or plastic fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cla...
Network Navigation Devices <ul><li>Devices that help make data flow possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeaters </li></ul></u...
Ethernet Repeater and Hubs <ul><li>Repeaters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplifies the signal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hubs </li><...
Ethernet Switches and Routers <ul><li>Switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send data to specific nodes on the network </li></ul>...
Data Transmission and Protocols <ul><li>Computer protocols are rules for electronic information exchange </li></ul><ul><li...
Circuit Switching <ul><li>Dedicated connection between two points </li></ul><ul><li>Remains active until the transmission ...
Packet Switching <ul><li>Data is broken into small units called packets </li></ul><ul><li>Packets are sent over various ro...
Ports <ul><li>Source Ports - is assigned to the client and is used to keep track of user sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Desti...
Headers <ul><li>Encapsulation- layering of instructions onto the data </li></ul><ul><li>Headers are like mailing addresses...
TCP, IP, UDP <ul><li>TCP- Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will...
MAC Address <ul><li>Media Access Control address: hardware address that uniquely identifies each node of a network. </li><...
IP Addresses <ul><li>Unique number that identifies NOS/devices connected to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Example: 134.68...
Anatomy of a Data Packet
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model
 
Questions?
Network Security <ul><li>Why attack a network rather than the computers on the network? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower risk o...
Networking Attack Methods <ul><li>Sniffing </li></ul><ul><li>Spoofing </li></ul><ul><li>DoS – Denial of Service </li></ul>...
Ethereal- Packet Sniffer
Netstumbler - Wireless Network Scanner
NetScan- Port Scanner
Wireless Security or Lack Thereof <ul><li>Lack of user awareness </li></ul><ul><li>No authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Per...
150ft = 6 Houses, 1 street
450ft = 40 houses, 4 streets
WWWD 2004 Stats <ul><li>228537 APs found </li></ul><ul><li>140890 No WEP (60+%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired Equivalent Pri...
Wireless Math <ul><li>Open wireless + Netstumbler = </li></ul><ul><li>War Driving + GPS + Internet = </li></ul><ul><li>htt...
Wireless Security Best Practices  <ul><li>Change default settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin password </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Wireless Security Paradoxs and Myths <ul><li>MAC filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Disable SSID Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Disa...
Network Security <ul><li>Firewalls: Block unused ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects against port scanning </li></ul></ul...
Links <ul><li>http://netstats.indiana.edu/wanmap/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://reviews.cnet.com/Bandwidth_meter/7004...
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  1. 1. Networking and Security <ul><li>Connecting Computers and Protecting Them from Intruders </li></ul>
  2. 2. Networking Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More communication options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable the sharing of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate Internet connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Network? <ul><li>Computer network: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more computers connected together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nodes: Any device connected to a network </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Network Architecture <ul><li>Network designs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locally controlled: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer (P2P) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrally controlled: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server </li></ul></ul></ul>Peer-to-peer Client/server
  5. 5. Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>Nodes communicate with each other: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Share peripheral devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home and small office networks </li></ul>
  6. 6. Client/Server Networks <ul><li>Client computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide resources to clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central control unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data flows efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Servers respond to requests from clients </li></ul><ul><li>Scalable network </li></ul>
  7. 7. Servers <ul><li>Depending on the network size and work load servers can perform a single or multiple roles </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dedicated Server Types <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>File </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classifications of Client/Server Networks <ul><li>LAN: local area network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers linked together over a small geographic region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAN: wide area network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers linked together over large diverse geographic locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAN: metropolitan area network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers linked together within a city or county </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PAN: personal area network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless devices connected in close proximity to each other </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Network Topology <ul><li>Physical layout of networks components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Bus Topology <ul><li>All nodes are connected in sequence on a single cable </li></ul><ul><li>Used most often on peer-to-peer networks </li></ul><ul><li>Networked computers communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>One computer transmits data at a time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access methods avoid data collisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is transmitted in “packets” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Ring Topology <ul><li>Nodes are laid out in a ring </li></ul><ul><li>Token (data packet) flows in one direction from device to device </li></ul>
  13. 13. Star Topology <ul><li>Nodes connect to a central communications device (hub/switch) </li></ul><ul><li>A node sends a signal to the hub which retransmits it to the other nodes </li></ul><ul><li>A node accepts the signal addressed to it </li></ul>
  14. 14. Network Operating Systems (NOS) <ul><li>Provide the protocol that controls the communication between devices on the network </li></ul><ul><li>Major network operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Network Adapters <ul><li>Devices connected to or installed in nodes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface cards (NIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External network adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enable communication between nodes </li></ul>External adapter NIC
  16. 16. Wireless Adapters <ul><li>Uses radio waves to connect nodes (2.4GHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Each node requires a wireless network adapter </li></ul>
  17. 17. Transmission Media <ul><li>Provides communications channel between nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone wire: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted pair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio waves: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transfer rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughput </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in megabits per second (Mbps) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Choosing a Cable <ul><li>Maximum run length </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Bend radius </li></ul><ul><li>Cable cost </li></ul><ul><li>Installation costs </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptibility to interference </li></ul><ul><li>Signal transmission methods </li></ul>
  19. 19. Twisted Pair Cable <ul><li>Copper wire twisted around each other to reduce interference </li></ul><ul><li>STP- Shielded </li></ul><ul><li>UTP- Unshielded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat 6 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Coaxial Cable <ul><li>Four components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonconductive insulating material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Braided metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic cover </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Fiber-Optic Cable <ul><li>Components include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass or plastic fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cladding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer jacket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses light impulses to transmit data </li></ul><ul><li>Immune to interference </li></ul>
  22. 22. Network Navigation Devices <ul><li>Devices that help make data flow possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Ethernet Repeater and Hubs <ul><li>Repeaters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplifies the signal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplifies the signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous broadcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts like a cable splitter </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Ethernet Switches and Routers <ul><li>Switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send data to specific nodes on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates data between different networks </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Data Transmission and Protocols <ul><li>Computer protocols are rules for electronic information exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Open system protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any computer can communicate with other computers using the same protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circuit switching </li></ul><ul><li>Packet switching </li></ul>
  26. 26. Circuit Switching <ul><li>Dedicated connection between two points </li></ul><ul><li>Remains active until the transmission is terminated </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone communications </li></ul>
  27. 27. Packet Switching <ul><li>Data is broken into small units called packets </li></ul><ul><li>Packets are sent over various routes to their destination </li></ul><ul><li>Packets are reassembled by the receiving computer </li></ul><ul><li>Packets contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destination/source addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassembling instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Ports <ul><li>Source Ports - is assigned to the client and is used to keep track of user sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Destination Ports - are used to route packets to the appropriate application. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Ports - software that responds to a port number is said to be &quot;listening&quot; for its packets. </li></ul><ul><li>65,535 ports </li></ul><ul><li>Well known ports are 0-1023. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Port 80 HTTP </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Headers <ul><li>Encapsulation- layering of instructions onto the data </li></ul><ul><li>Headers are like mailing addresses and handling instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Contains information for the handling of the data block </li></ul>
  30. 30. TCP, IP, UDP <ul><li>TCP- Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will resend lost packets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Error checking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send in an orderly fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UDP - User Datagram Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol - specifies the format of packets </li></ul>
  31. 31. MAC Address <ul><li>Media Access Control address: hardware address that uniquely identifies each node of a network. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: 07-a1-34-ff-b5-df </li></ul>
  32. 32. IP Addresses <ul><li>Unique number that identifies NOS/devices connected to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Example: 134.68.76.100 </li></ul><ul><li>Static address: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address never changes: Enter it manually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic address: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary address: Automatically assigned </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Anatomy of a Data Packet
  34. 34. OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model
  35. 36. Questions?
  36. 37. Network Security <ul><li>Why attack a network rather than the computers on the network? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower risk of getting caught </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous methods </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Networking Attack Methods <ul><li>Sniffing </li></ul><ul><li>Spoofing </li></ul><ul><li>DoS – Denial of Service </li></ul><ul><li>Port Scanning </li></ul>
  38. 39. Ethereal- Packet Sniffer
  39. 40. Netstumbler - Wireless Network Scanner
  40. 41. NetScan- Port Scanner
  41. 42. Wireless Security or Lack Thereof <ul><li>Lack of user awareness </li></ul><ul><li>No authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Tools are easily available </li></ul><ul><li>Poor security design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled defaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admin PW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broncast on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SSID </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 43. 150ft = 6 Houses, 1 street
  43. 44. 450ft = 40 houses, 4 streets
  44. 45. WWWD 2004 Stats <ul><li>228537 APs found </li></ul><ul><li>140890 No WEP (60+%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired Equivalent Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>71850 Default SSID (30+%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Set IDentifier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>62859 Default SSID and No WEP (27+%) </li></ul>
  45. 46. Wireless Math <ul><li>Open wireless + Netstumbler = </li></ul><ul><li>War Driving + GPS + Internet = </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wifimaps.com/ </li></ul>
  46. 47. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Change default settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSID – Service Set identifier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rename </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose wisely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Turn on WEP encryption </li></ul><ul><li>Disable SSID Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Create a VPN and use encryption </li></ul>
  47. 48. Wireless Security Paradoxs and Myths <ul><li>MAC filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Disable SSID Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Disable DHCP </li></ul><ul><li>Antenna placement </li></ul><ul><li>WEP Enabled </li></ul>
  48. 49. Network Security <ul><li>Firewalls: Block unused ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects against port scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User ID and password used to access the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access privileges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close access to unused network systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use encryption and VPNs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor your network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fake APs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan detectors </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Links <ul><li>http://netstats.indiana.edu/wanmap/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://reviews.cnet.com/Bandwidth_meter/7004-7254_7-0.html </li></ul>
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