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MAY 01-09 FINAL REPORT.doc

  1. 1. Computer Hardware and Software for Primary School Students Final Project Report May01-09 Dec01-02 April 16, 2001 Clients: State of Iowa, State of Maine; Dr. Seymour Papert and Iowa Department of Education, Faculty Advisors: Dr. John Lamont, Dr. Ralph Patterson and Dr. Arun Somani Team Members: Adrian Hill, Jennifer Hird, Levin Jauhari, Cioewandhi Koesriny, Ryan Lange, Yen-Chi Lin, Irina Makmur, Ed Tubbs, Nicholas Wilwert
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary.................................................................................................................5 Project Background ...............................................................................................................5 The Actual Project..................................................................................................................5 The Results.............................................................................................................................5 Introduction..............................................................................................................................5 General background...............................................................................................................5 Technical Problem:................................................................................................................6 Operating Environment:.........................................................................................................7 Intended Users and Uses:.......................................................................................................7 Assumptions:..........................................................................................................................7 Limitations:............................................................................................................................8 Design Requirements...............................................................................................................8 Design Objectives..................................................................................................................8 Functional Requirements........................................................................................................9 Design Constraints...............................................................................................................10 Measurable Milestones.........................................................................................................11 End-Product Description.......................................................................................................11 Approach and Design.............................................................................................................12 Technical Approach.............................................................................................................12 Technical Design..................................................................................................................12 Testing Description..............................................................................................................14 Risks and Risk Management................................................................................................14 Financial Budget.....................................................................................................................15 Personnel Effort Budget........................................................................................................15 Project Schedule.....................................................................................................................16 Evaluation of Project Success...............................................................................................18 Project Status..........................................................................................................................18 Phase I - Problem Definition................................................................................................18 Phase II - Surveys.................................................................................................................19 Phase III - Research..............................................................................................................19 Phase IV - Conclusions........................................................................................................20 Department of Education Survey Results............................................................................21 Research..................................................................................................................................22 Stationary Solution...............................................................................................................22 Portable Solution..................................................................................................................26 Laptops.................................................................................................................................26 Handheld PCs.......................................................................................................................29 Client-Server Solution..........................................................................................................30 Network................................................................................................................................38 Recommendations of Additional Work................................................................................46 Lessons Learned.....................................................................................................................46 Project Team Information.....................................................................................................47 Summary.................................................................................................................................49 References...............................................................................................................................50 Appendix A: Determinants....................................................................................................51 Appendix B: Surveys..............................................................................................................55 Appendix C: Bibliography....................................................................................................75 2 of 75
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  4. 4. List of Figures Project Schedule……………………………………………………………………...………15 List of Tables List of Tables............................................................................................................................4 Table 1: Financial Allocation Table.....................................................................................15 Table 2: Personnel Effort Allocation Table........................................................................15 Table 3: Cost for video cards and processors......................................................................25 Table 4: rough estimate for transactions/min required......................................................33 Table 5: rough number of servers required supporting the operation.............................33 Table 6: rough estimate of total server cost.........................................................................37 Table 7: Dial-Up ISDN cost..................................................................................................38 Table 8: Dedicated ISDN cost ..............................................................................................38 Table 9: Metered T1 Pricing.................................................................................................40 Table 10: Dedicated T1 Access Pricing................................................................................41 Table 11: Tiered T3 Pricing Structure.................................................................................42 Table 12: Server Information..............................................................................................43 4 of 75
  5. 5. Executive Summary Project Background There is a definite lack of integration of technology in education. Due to the rapid rate of change in technology, it is difficult to provide a solution for educational purposes that will endure time. It is important for schools to integrate technology into their curriculum, which will enhance new learning methods. The use of computer in educational system can create a new learning environment and improve the learning process. The appropriate computer system needs to be implemented and meet all the requirements for educational purposes. This system will be upgradeable as needed in the future to improve its performance, as technology advances from time to time. The Actual Project The general problem area addressed by this project is the lack of computer systems specifically designed to meet educational needs of primary and secondary school students. The goal of this project is to design a complete computer solution for use in the primary and secondary schools and possibly the homes of students in Iowa and Maine. This project’s major result will provide a set of recommendations, which meet the requirements desired for the educational purposes of grades K-12. The recommendations will consider all the necessary tools for easy integration into the schools’ curriculums. Capabilities and features such as portability, networking support and Internet access, will also be considered as part of the requirements for the system. Due to the ever-changing world, it is vital to the progress of society that technology be efficiently integrated into the education system. The Results The end product of this project is a report that contains an outline or list of recommendations for educational computer systems. It will include the appropriate educational software, system capabilities and features. These recommendations would then be applied as the solution for an education system to provide students with technology to assist of their learning process. The report will also include the evaluation of the determinants in Appendix A as well as the total cost of implementation. Introduction General background As technology advances at an exponential rate, so does education’s need to develop new learning methods and tools. A computer can be a means for the education system to enhance the learning experience without compromising the curriculum. Computers should be considered as tools of education, not replacement for today’s teachers. They cannot replace teachers due to the students’ needs. Some students require additional help or special attention that only a teacher can comprehend and provide. The problem is difficult in nature because of the users’ limited ability, the rapid 5 of 75
  6. 6. technological changes, the need for adaptability with future teaching developments, and the lack of clarity for intended and unintended uses. Providing an educational computer system has many complicated factors. First, the operating system must be strong enough to withstand use from uneducated and over- educated users. This problem includes protecting the system configuration from possible attacks from savvy users and accidental disruption from beginners. Currently there is no operating system on the market that specifically targets education. A proprietary operating system may not be needed, but the operating system must be suitable for different levels of knowledge. For example, a first grade student may need a special Graphical User Interface to use a Unix operating system and a high school student may choose to use a more complicated interface. Another problem is the rate at which technology changes. To accommodate future advances in technology, the solution would have to consist of non-proprietary off-the- shelf components. A proprietary educational system would be expensive to upgrade, support, and maintain. Therefore, it is critical to develop a flexible non-proprietary system that creates a level of abstraction from the rapid advances in technology. The envisioned product might be portable, stationary, or a combination of both. A portable system product could range from a palm-pilot to a laptop. A desktop system could range from a client-server solution to a fully functional desktop. The last possible solution includes a portable system that would dock with a stationary system. For the product to be an effective teaching and learning aid, training will be provided to teachers and educators. Students will then acquire necessary computer skills from the teachers and educators. Technical Problem: The main task associated with this project is to define the requirements for the computer system. More specifically, detailed hardware and software requirements must be determined, as well as how the computer system will be used in the classroom environment. The end product must satisfy functional and budget constraints for education. Knowledge of educational environments is necessary in effectively defining the system requirements. State Department of Education employees, school administrators, teachers, and students must be surveyed to collect this information. Researching current computer aided learning projects will assist defining the requirements. 6 of 75
  7. 7. Operating Environment: Under the assumption that the child will be responsible for the end product, it will be exposed to classroom and home conditions. It is also possible for the product to be exposed to weather and temperature conditions outside normal operating condition. It may experience extreme physical impact that will cause damage to the system. So the operating environment could be severe. Intended Users and Uses: The intended users for the system include the students and faculty of the Iowa and Maine public school systems. The students shall be able to use the system to do the following: • Access the Internet • Access to e-mail • Access to word processing • Access to assisted learning tools (math, science, music, and other programs) Students at different grade levels will have different uses of the system. Lower grade students (K-2nd) may not have the need of some general applications, such as word processing, Internet access and e-mail, but they will need special applications to assist the learning of basic skills, such as reading, writing, and rudimentary mathematics. Students in upper grade levels (3rd-12th) should be able to access the Internet, e-mail, and word processing to help them develop their reading, writing, typing and information gathering skills. The faculty, including teachers and school administrators, should have advanced knowledge of the system. They should be able to make proper use of the applications in terms of assisting the education process. In order to meet this requirement, training should be provided for faculty prior to teaching activities. Faculty should then be able to integrate their learning environment with technology for subjects such as writing, reading, mathematics and sciences. Assumptions: • Computer experience is important for students • Students need access to computers • Computer Aided Education (CAE) will improve current teaching methods • Students’ computer experience will vary • Teachers will accept CAE • Utilize off the shelf software • Must be adaptable to future technology advancements in education 7 of 75
  8. 8. Limitations: • Knowledge level and ability of students • Knowledge level and ability of teachers • Educational budgets • Cost of technical support • Possible lack of a wide area communications network • Solution must be cost effective and scalable for different sized schools Design Requirements Design Objectives The first and foremost goal of this project is to change the way computers are viewed in education, and to provide the guidelines to map the appropriate changes. This project will involve showing how computers and the Internet can positively affect the curriculum aside from simply teaching classes about the topics. A list of hardware and software requirements will be constructed based on research. There will also be recommendations made for how the hardware and software could be used to enhance current curriculums. Currently keyboarding, programming classes, and word processing are the extent of most computer usage at the K-12 school levels. Educational applications need to be developed with platform independency. This will allow a student to work on a PC in class and continue schoolwork at home even though there may only be a Macintosh available. Requiring middle and high school students to have a laptop may seem like a radical step, but flexibility is key to changing the way computers are viewed and used in the classroom. Computer labs are insufficient in that teachers and students have a pre-planned amount of time in which to use the facility. An appropriate computer system must be accessible whenever the students or the teachers need it. Training and support is necessary to provide a seamless solution. Teachers will need access to training for computer usage and the educational software. Support should be available to both students and teachers. The Internet can be used to access platform independent software via browsers. The Internet also allows for students to join and participate in learning communities. These communities can overcome great obstacles such as working with a foreign school on a collaborative project. This method of learning drives students’ motivation and enhances their communication skills at the very least. More importantly these types of projects can provide insight and understanding of abstract and advanced concepts. For example allowing an elementary student to rotate three-dimensional objects. Or visualization of how 2 objects in three-dimensional space will intersect. The following list contains an outline of the design objectives. 8 of 75
  9. 9. 1. Computer Access a. Provide each student with a portable computer • Off-the-shelf hardware and software • Creation of a simple GUI interface for a variety of applications • Use of existing operating systems such as Windows or Linux • Network Accessible b. Provide each student with a stationary personal computer or c. Provide schools with a stationary computer lab • Manufactured PC’s and bundled software • Use commercial software to construct a system • Write a GUI on top of an OS • Use of existing operating systems such as Windows or Linux • Network Accessible d. A terminal/server solution • Windows or UNIX based server to provide terminal capabilities • Low-end computer to connect to network via the server • Applications run off of server 2. Communications/Networking a. Ethernet connection for Local Area Network b. Wireless communication devices 3. Training and Support a. Computer Usage training for teachers b. Software training for teachers c. Upkeep of system hardware and software d. Flexibility for upgrades and changes 4. Educational Software Applications a. Commercial Products Functional Requirements 1. Word processing a. Write lesson plans b. Type up handouts for students c. Write tests d. Type papers 2. Internet access (a browser such as Netscape) a. Research papers b. Study current events 3. E-mail access (a client such as Eudora) a. Submit homework electronically b. Contact instructor outside normal classroom hours 9 of 75
  10. 10. 4. Educational software a. Allow teacher to be in several places at once b. Give new avenue for learning 5. Power Point a. Give presentations by either students or teachers Design Constraints The list below illustrates our current ideas of what our final design recommendations will be. Both portable and stationary solutions are being considered at the present time, although we will only recommend one of the two. Both solutions will require the network component. 1. Portable Solution a. Secure, safe enough for a primary school child to carry around b. Tamper proof i. Cannot be opened c. Kid proof i. Could be dropped, thrown, etc… ii. Controlled access to system settings and OS 2. Stationary Solution a. Easy to setup b. Fairly small unit (small monitor, small case mini-tower perhaps, keyboard, and a mouse) c. Tamper proof and secure i. Cannot be opened without a key of some kind d. Kid proof i. Controlled access to system settings and OS 3. Network Component a. Print server b. File server c. File / data storage d. Internet gateway server e. Remote access server f. E-mail server g. Routers to direct network traffic h. Firewall to prevent external attacks i. Other communication devices 10 of 75
  11. 11. Measurable Milestones The surveys for the Department of Education, administrators, teachers, parents, students, and vendors are in various stages of the survey life cycle. There are four steps in this process, of which the group is responsible for three of them. First, the questionnaires must be produced, which entails several drafts and revisions. In addition, survey questions sometimes might be cross-referenced between different groups to get several opinions on the same subject. Faculty advisers and outside sources are responsible for finding the list of addresses to target these surveys to. For example, the team may decide that 3 administrator surveys each should be targeted to small, medium, and large-sized districts, but it is not our responsibility to find the address and do the mailings. When the surveys are returned, they must be tabulated and then the results must be interpreted. The statistics are as important as their analysis. Only one survey has completed the entire survey “life-cycle:” the Department of Education survey. All of the other surveys are either awaiting return, are very close to being sent out, and the vendors’ questionnaire hasn’t even been started yet. Non-survey research is the other area in which current measurable milestones exist. Five areas are being targeted right now: networking, hardware, portable hardware, software, and training/support. Three steps exist: completing the research, identifying possible solutions based on research, and evaluation of those possible solutions. For example, hardware research might consist of price shopping and comparing capabilities of possible systems. There are no research areas where completion has been achieved. End-Product Description A report will be compiled based on research done throughout the life of the project and it will identify possible solutions for all hardware, software, networking and support. The report will include a detailed evaluation of each component described above based on determinates in appendix A. It will encompass results from surveys that are distributed and apply them to the recommendations. All the possible solutions will be tailored to suit the need of educational system. The information compiled will be used to form a list of recommendations for educational computer system. These recommendations will each be evaluated to come up with a set of solution. The report will be the end product of this project. 11 of 75
  12. 12. Approach and Design Technical Approach The primary goal is to provide a document that outlines the system requirements that have been defined during the life of this project. The approach is to develop a tool (or set of tools) that will help in the evaluation of specific components as they pertain to the goals of the educational system. It is envisioned to create a tool in the form of a set of criteria (determinates), which evaluates candidate components. The criteria can be divided into three main categories, which are: hardware, software, and support. Each type of component is rated by a set of determinates (for a complete list of the determinates, please refer to Appendix A). Components that best fit the goals of the project can then be easily identified by the ratings produced when the component is evaluated according to its determinates. The Internet provides vast resources that can supply information vital to the definition of the system. There are numerous websites available that offer in-depth reviews of hardware, software, and complete systems. In addition, forecasts for future computing needs and applications are abundant. The Internet can be used to provide information regarding what type of support may be necessary for such a system. In order to expand the knowledge of the problem, current operational educational computer systems and plans should be evaluated. Insight from reports, online articles, documents, and plans for educational computer systems that other parties have composed should also be sought out. An example of such a publication is The Power of the Internet for Learning: Moving from Promise to Practice. This call to action was assembled for the President, Congress, and nation to implement change at the national level for education. For a list of web and document resources please refer to Appendix C. In addition to the research, expert opinions in educational computer systems will be sought. Surveys will be sent to vendors, teachers, school administrator, students, parents, and the Department of Education in the target regions. Appendix B shows surveys constructed for teacher, school administrator, students, parents, and the Department of Education. Consulting child psychologists and educators will also provide additional assistance. This combination of expert opinion, research, and component evaluation will provide a set of recommendations of a particular system or type of system to the client(s). Technical Design The design phase of the project has not yet begun. Defining and refining loose requirements supplied at the conception of the project is a major sub-section of this endeavor. The list below summarized our intended design process. Surveys for teachers, parents, students, school administrators, and the Department of Education were completed. The results from the Department of Education surveys 12 of 75
  13. 13. were also collected and compiled. The teacher, student, and parent surveys should be completed and returned by the end of the semester. These surveys will solidify many of the requirements for this project (such as cost per unit, intended usage, portability, etc). Researching current computational technology is in progress. This research is providing insight into the types of system components that are currently available for use in this project, as well as how these technologies can be used in a classroom environment. This research is to provide better understanding of the current and projected costs for each system component. The following represents the plan of design process (not in chronological order): 1. Defining Requirements a. Communicate with the clients and get key questions answered b. Survey vendors, teachers, parents, students, school administration, and the Department of Education c. Define software functionality to determine hardware needs d. Keep the clients informed at all times to receive immediate feedback e. Investigate existing research and their findings f. Interview child psychologists with technology backgrounds g. Determine the maximum cost restraint per machine or per student h. Determine the tradeoffs in cost and functionality 2. Determine the best fit solutions a. Evaluating the possible solutions i. Will this solution meet the functional requirements? ii. Will this solution be upgradeable in terms of hardware and software? iii. Will the software be simple enough for young students? iv. Will the hardware be durable enough for young students? v. Will the software and hardware be advanced enough for older students? vi. Will this solution fall within cost constraints? vii. Which vendors are willing to provide the support (financial or discounted purchases) for this solution? viii. Will this solution fit the survey results? ix. Will this solution be capable of using commercial software? b. Determine which solution provides the most value at the lowest cost with sufficient support from the vendors i. Use the surveys to define the computer usage in education ii. For a given quantity, estimate the cost per unit for each solution iii. Graph each solution with the cost of each function to determine which solution provides the most value at a cost effective price c. Determine the support requirements for the solution 13 of 75
  14. 14. i. Determine the hardware maintenance and support required by the solution ii. Determine the software support requirements for the solution iii. Determine the training support requirements for the solution iv. Is the total support required by the solution affordable and reasonable? 3. Generate several possible solutions for the clients to evaluate a. Use the requirements determine possible solutions b. Use the results from the surveys and interviews to determine solutions that will fit the environment of education Testing Description The testing of this project will be integral to the process of defining the project requirements. Throughout the work-in-progress of collecting information through surveys and interviews, discussing ideas, and evaluating solutions, the constant feedback of advisors and client(s) shall comprise the testing phase of this project. Risks and Risk Management One of the main risks of the project is not having an accepted list of requirements by March 2001 for the clients. In order to manage this risk, it is important to keep in continuous communication with the client to validate the direction of the project. It is also important to stay on schedule for completing critical items. Although client communication has been minimal, the items critical to the completion of the project have been fulfilled. Therefore, given the completion of the research from the surveys and determinates, compiling the list of requirements for the clients is no longer a risk. As stated previously, the client availability for communication has been a significant risk for the project. There are a few methods, which would help manage this risk of client communication. The first is to determine the best methods of communication (phone, e-mail, fax, etc…) The second is to have a schedule of when the clients will be available. This allows the groups meetings to be scheduled around the availability of the client, enabling them to take an active part in the project. Having open lines of communication is necessary to determine the turn around time on the part of the client. Another possible risk, one that was encountered during the course of this project, is the loss of a team member. In order to manage this risk, it is necessary to divide the work evenly among the team members. In the event of a team member leaving, each remaining member shall accept a larger portion of the workload. 14 of 75
  15. 15. Financial Budget The total estimated cost for the project is $50.00. The only expense will be for the printing and mounting of the project poster. The department is currently paying for postage and printing expenses for surveys. Table 1: Financial Allocation Table Item Original Estimated Revised Actual Final Cost Estimated Cost Cost Poster $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 Total $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 Personnel Effort Budget This project is very open ended in nature and will be continued until it is determined complete or to have no further interest. Team members have made their estimated commitment to the project, which will be the goal for each team member. It is understood that not every team member will spend the same amount of time working on the project; therefore some members will work more to accomplish the project goals. Table 2 illustrates the effort estimation for each team member. Table 2: Personnel Effort Allocation Table Item Original Revised Effort as of April Estimated Effort Estimated Effort 14, 2001 Adrian Hill 275 hours 275 hours 110 hours Jennifer Hird 140 hours 70 hours 22 hours Levin Jauhari 150 hours 130 hours 45 hours Cioewandhi 160 hours 150 hours 50 hours Koesriny Ryan Lange 275 hours 300 hours 210 hours Yen-chi Lin 150 hours 160 hours 65 hours Irina Makmur 150 hours 125 hours 50 hours Edward Tubbs 275 hours 300 hours 150 hours Nicholas Wilwert 160 hours 160 hours 50 hours Total 1735 hours 15 of 75
  16. 16. Project Schedule 16 of 75
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  18. 18. Evaluation of Project Success There are several ways to judge whether or not this project has been a success; one of them is too look at where the group was nine months ago, and where we are today in terms of work accomplished. The majority of the work done so far has been in the areas of problem definition and research. Developing a computer system for K-6 students was the original plan; that has been expanded to cover the entire secondary school system. Most of the year, however, has been spent on figuring out who to ask and what to ask them, sending out those surveys and tabulating results. It may take a month to get a survey into a condition worthy of mailing out and another month to the results back and tabulated, so it can be very time-consuming. Other areas for research have lagged behind because of the need to ask more people more questions, so there is no hardware or software prototype, and research has barely started in those areas. This project is guilty of not living up to its original expected timeline, but it is too early to tell whether or not it will be a success. It is rapidly moving towards ongoing project status, which means all the necessary data will be collected and hardware and software research can continue. However, much progress has been made in a very subtle, but maybe more important area: abstraction. The problem statement at the beginning of the year was rather vague, as we didn’t even know to whom we were targeting our project. Now we have some ideas of the types of software that are required, what hardware options exist, and we are considering other areas that may not have been considered by the person who suggested this project. An example of that would be training and support. Computers will only work in the classroom if the instructors teaching the class know how to run the machines. Looking at that type of progress, there is no doubt that the project this year has been a success. Project Status Research and analysis encapsulates the basis for this project. All factors involved in providing a computer for educational purposes must be determined carefully. These factors include facilities such as support, power outlet requirements and a communications network. They also encompass all of the participants of such a project and their roles. With the understanding of these factors and the dependants between them research can be conducted appropriately. This research will then be guided in a general direction with an understanding of the end solution. All of the background research constructs a foundation to furnish the client(s) with accurate recommendations. Phase I - Problem Definition Defining the problem is difficult for abstract projects. The initial end product of this project was very vague. It was determined that the client(s) may not know exactly what the desired product should be. The project was then defined to provide recommendations to the client(s). The recommendations will reflect research on different possible solutions and surveys conducted. 18 of 75
  19. 19. Phase II - Surveys Surveys provide the insight to each party involved and their perspective. The Department of Education was the first group surveyed. Then the school administrator, teacher, parent and student surveys were constructed. These surveys are complete and ready for distribution. The computer vendors are the last group to be surveyed. Phase III - Research Research is to be conducted on determinates defined in appendix A. Each determinate should be considered for all the possible solutions. One approach is to evaluate hardware based on reviews by reputable sources such as www.tomshardware.com. Experienced computer builders can aid the hardware evaluation. Another approach is to obtain data from Iowa State departments. This may include cost of support, networking, maintenance and software licensing. Software research will be conducted for both the operating environment and educational software. The educational should be portable to different platforms to provide access to Macintosh, personal computer, and Unix users without difficulty. The most efficient way to furnish such a solution would be to access educational software via an Internet browser. This allows several options for software development such as Java, PHP, and CGI. Providing network access is another area of research. Networking includes both the Local Area Network for the school and access to the rest of the world via an Internet Service Provider. The networking section of the project can be as costly as furnishing the computers, so it is an important factor of implementation. Computer aided education research will also be necessary. Utilizing technology to assist the education process for basic through advanced concepts has proven to be both effective and efficient. Current integration of technology programs will provide a basis for the necessity of this project. Sources of some example projects can be found in Appendix C. This research will also provide insight to expected changes to the curriculum for successful implementation. Other factors that will be of interest are the social affects on students and the ability to work with a team. How training and support is provided for such programs will also shed light on gray areas. The most important aspect of this research is how results of computer aided education should be recorded and quantified. Physical classroom requirements such as layout, space, network access, and power will need to be acknowledged and discussed briefly for each recommendation. For example, power access will be necessary if the solution is stationary. If the solution is portable, charging stations maybe sufficient. The last area to be discussed in the recommendations is funding. There are many different programs possible (i.e. prisoners rebuild computers, install networks, provide support lines, etc.). Support and training could be shared across an entire school district. Funding is possible at the federal, state, and local levels of government. Other funding sources include computer vendors, donations, parents, as well as technology and educational grants. 19 of 75
  20. 20. Phase IV - Conclusions Once all of the surveys and research have been gathered and analyzed, a report will be constructed based on the findings. Each solution will have pros and cons that will need to be elaborated on. The report should include recommendations from the project team to the clients, however, the clients shall be able to make their own judgement based on all of the information provided within the report. 20 of 75
  21. 21. Department of Education Survey Results The answers to the initial questions on the Department of Education survey were a near consensus, which could be expected. Most responded that computers are very important in education, and that computer experience is very important in the workplace. Most thought just as highly about how important computer resources are to have at home and at school. They said interactive learning was very likely in the near future, and it can be used in all areas of education, with the curriculum changing as needed. DOED personnel thought that about 40% of parents would work with students at home on the computer, and software should be capable of running on that home machine. When asked about the goal to be achieved by having computers in the classroom, the response was less than a consensus. All agreed that computers should be used to create this interactive learning environment and that they should be used as an additional tools for activities like e-mail and word processing. Only half thought that the current educational curriculum would be restructured as a result of having computers in the classroom and only a quarter thought students would have to be taught about computers. The following numerical information about how much time students in different grade levels would spend on the computer at school and away from home. For in-class time, it’s expected that high school students will spend twice as much time on the computer as the lower grade school students. The average expected time per class grows from 13 to 28 minutes, with the maximum probable time growing from 24 to 47 minutes. The number of expected in-class hours per week follows a similar trend, increasing from 7 to 12 hours from kindergarten through high school, with the maximum estimated time increasing from 11 to 17 hours. Outside of class the total time per week increases from 4 to 16 hours throughout schooling, but the time parents are anticipated to work with students on the computer per week actually goes down from 2 to 1 hour per week. This final section considers the cost involved. The total system cost for any machines we recommend will be about $1450, divided up between $875 of computer costs and $575 of other costs. Other costs are items like Internet access, network, maintenance, support, and training. DOED personnel suggest dividing up the total cost approximately 43% to the state and 36% to school districts. Parents should expect to pay 21% of the computer costs and 25% of the other costs. Looking at the big picture, the biggest burden of paying for the computer systems will fall at the state level. The Federal Government, School Districts, and Vendors will have about the same load, followed by the parents. 21 of 75
  22. 22. Research Stationary Solution Platform (CPU) AMD vs Intel - AMD produces the Thunderbird and Duron Chips with on-die level 2 cache which saves space, money, and increases performance. AMD 1 GHz Athlon 266 FSB $149 AMD 750 MHz Athlon tbird Slot A $76 AMD Duron 750 MHz $42 Motherboard chipsets for AMD: AMD760 (not yet available) and Apollo KT133A. The AMD760 chipset will include DDR capabilities and add performance to the end system. For our purposes the Apollo KT133A chipset will provide enough performance at a reasonable cost. Shuttle AK12 v3.0: $100 AMD Athlon CPU with 100-133MHz DDR FSB AMD Duron CPU with 100MHz DDR FSB 1 x AGP, support AGP 2.0 compliant device (1X,2X,4X AGP Mode) 5 x PCI 1 x AMR2 Serial Ports 1 Parallel Port (SPP, EPP, ECP) 1 PS/2 Keyboard Port 1 PS/2 Mouse Port 2 USB Ports 1x Game / MIDI Port 1x Line in, 1x Line out, 1x Mic Gigabyte GA-7ZM: $100 1 x AMR (Audio Modem Riser) slot (Inversely AMR card) 1 x AGP slot supports 4X mode & AGP 2.0 compliant 3 x PCI slots support 33MHz & PCI 2.2 compliant 2 x Ultra DMA 33/66 bus master IDE ports on board 1 x FDD 2 x COM 1 x LPT PS/2 keyboard PS/2 Mouse on board 1 x Joystick 1 x Line-in 1 x Line-out 1 x MIC on board 2 x USB ports on board 2 x USB ports by cable (optional accessary) IrDA TX / RX header ready 22 of 75
  23. 23. Biostar M7VKL with Duron 700 MHz, video, sound, 10/100 LAN $115 Case/PS $40 Keyboard/Mouse $15 CD-ROM $30 Floppy Drive $10 PC133 128 MB $42 17” Monitor $130 20 GB Hard Drive $85 Total: $467 Biostar MVLB with Celeron 533 MHz, video, and sound $105 Case/PS $40 Keyboard/Mouse $15 CD-ROM $30 Floppy Drive $10 PC133 128 MB $42 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Card $12 17” Monitor $130 20 GB Hard Drive $85 Total: $469 Local Storage (both removable and fixed) • IBM EIDE 20.3GB 5400RPM, 9.5ms seek time, UDMA $77 • IBM EIDE 40.0GB 5400RPM, ATA 100, UDMA $98 • Fujitsu EIDE 20.3GB 5400rpm, 9.5ms seek time, U/ATA 100 $75 Memory Type PC133 SDRAM • PC133 128MB $42 • PC133 256MB $57 (DDR) Double Data Rate • PC1600 DDR 128MB $63 • PC1600 DDR 256MB $126 • PC2100 DDR 128MB $77 • PC2100 DDR 256MB $148 DDR doesn’t provide much of a performance increase. Benchmarks have shown an increase of 10% for some applications. Latency causes DDR to be not as affective as once envisioned. Memory Quantity • Driven by other requirements Networkability • DLINK DFE-530+ PCI 10/100 Ethernet Adapter $12 • SMC 1211-TX, PCI 32bit Bus Master Network Adapter, 10/100 $14 23 of 75
  24. 24. Graphics Adapter Different types of adapters to consider: • Inexpensive that will handle general 3D graphics • Multi-purpose card to handle things like video editing • High end to handle 3D intensive programs like AutoCAD or other 3D design or animation software tools • A card that will output to a TV for flexibility Manufacturers worth consideration: • ATI • Diamond Multimedia • Elsa • Creative Labs ATI Cards: • XPERT 98 AGP (2X) 8MB SDRAM MPEG2/DVD $25 • XPERT 2000 RAGE agp Video Card 32mb $42 • XPERT@PLAY 98 8MB SDRAM AGP W/TV OUT $44 • Rage Fury Pro 32MB AGP w/ TV Out, TV IN and CRT connection $85 • Rage Fury MAXX 64MB AGP Dual Rage 128GL PRO $107 Diamond Multimedia Cards: • Viper V770 TNT2 32MB 4X AGP $65 • Viper V770 w/TV TNT2 32MB 4X AGP $84 Elsa Cards: • Erazor III LT M64 TNT2 32MB 4x AGP $53 • Gladiac GeForce2 MX 32MB SDRAM - AGP 4x $78 Creative Labs Cards: • 3D Blaster RIVA 32MB AGP RIVA TNT2-128BIT $59 • 3D Blaster RIVA TNT2 32MB w/ TV AGP $65 • 3D Blaster Annihilator Geforce256 w/32MB SDR dvi and tv-out $97 Display Types of displays to consider: • 15" CRT • 17" CRT Manufacturers worth considering: • KDS • Future Power The manufactures where limited due to the performance/price evaluation. These manufacturers produce quality products backed by 3-5 year warranties. Other well-known manufactures such as Sony, Princeton Graphic Systems, and Viewsonic produce very high quality monitors, but it comes at a price of as much as twice the cost of a KDS or Future Power. 24 of 75
  25. 25. KDS Monitors: • VS-555 15inch .28MM 1(13.8 Viewable) 024X768 $113 • VS-7I 17inch .27 (16.0 Viewable) 1280x1024 $127 Future Power Monitors: • 15inch .28 mm (13.6 Viewable) $111 • 17inch .27mm (16.1 Viewable) 1280X1024 $132 System Cost The following is a table of a basic system with the following components. • Motherboard at a cost of $100 • 128MB PC133 SDRAM • CPU Listed • Video Card Listed • 10/100 Fast Ethernet Card • 17” Monitor • 20GB Hard Drive • DVD Drive • Floppy Drive • Case and Power Supply • Keyboard/Mouse • No software costs are accounted for Table 3: Cost for video cards and processors Video Cards Athlon 1GHz Athlon 750 MHz Duron 750 MHz Celeron 766 MHz PIII 866 MHz XPERT 98 650 575 543 588 654 XPERT 2000 667 592 560 605 671 XPERT@PLAY 98 669 594 562 607 673 Rage Fury Pro 710 635 603 648 714 Rage Fury MAXX 732 657 625 670 736 Viper V770 690 615 583 628 694 Viper V770 w/TV 709 634 602 647 713 Erazor III LT 678 603 571 616 682 Gladiac GeForce2 703 628 596 641 707 3D Blaster 684 609 577 622 688 3D Blaster w/TV 690 615 583 628 694 Annihilator Geforce256 722 647 615 660 726 Summary A stationary solution has many options to look into. AMD’s processors are out performing Intel’s and at a lower cost. The integrated solution is by far the least expensive. If there is not a need for strong 3D computation or video ports than they provide the best solution. This reduces the cost by at least $75 per system. With a loaded operating system, each low-end system will cost about $550. A better system with a good 3D graphics engine will cost about $650. And a high-end system with TV-Out will cost around $800. Further investigation will be made once the software requirements are determined. 25 of 75
  26. 26. Portable Solution The technical approach of this project is to develop a tool (or set of tools) that will help in the evaluation of specific components as they pertain to the goals of the educational system. One of the goals of the system is to provide a portable computer that student can work on in school and at home. Two possible implementations would achieve this goal. The first is to provide a laptop computer for each student and the second is to provide a smaller, handheld notebook computer for each student. Both of these solutions have their advantages and disadvantages. The following is an evaluation of commercially available products based on a set of determinates developed earlier on in the project. In this evaluation, the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches will be weighted and thus determining the best possible solution. Laptops Since laptops first became commercially available, a plethora of technology has been developed in the field of mobile computing. In order to simply the efforts of this evaluation, it is necessary to narrow down the field of technology by making some assumptions about the requirements of an educational system. The first assumption is that the system must be able to access a network, or more specifically, the Internet. Therefore, the solution must support some kind of network interface such as Ethernet (10, or 100 Base-T). Students will also need to have access to word-processing and other productivity related applications. Therefore, the solution must provide the necessary software (Microsoft Word, etc…) and the appropriate resources to run that software (sufficient processor speed, memory, etc…). These assumptions narrow the field down to current low-end and mid-range machines that are available today. For the purposes of this evaluation, a cost cap of $2,000 is in place. Most companies that manufacture computers today have developed laptop technology in some form. For the purposes of this report, the following laptops will be evaluated: 1. Dell Inspiron 8000 2. HP Pavilion N5270 3. Compaq Presario 1700 4. Acer TravelMate 351TEV 5. Toshiba Satellite 2800-S202 These laptops range in price from $1,500 to $2,000, and have a varying range of capabilities. All of these systems run on an Intel® Mobile Pentium® III architecture, and support Microsoft’s Windows operating systems. These systems also have the same system characteristics that support the platform specifications. These characteristics are an on-die 256 KB cache, 32 KB of Internal Cache (L1), and a 100 MHz Pentium® III external BUS frequency. 26 of 75
  27. 27. The Dell Inspiron 8000 and the Compaq Presario 1700 are equipped with processors at either 700, 850 or 900MHz or 1GHz. The Acer TravelMate 351TEV, the HP Pavilion N5270, and the Toshiba Satellite are equipped with 700 MHz processors. The Dell Inspiron 8000 model at 700 MHz is available directly from Dell for $1,908.95. The Inspiron 8000 has the following specifications: • 128MB,SDRAM, 2 DIMMs • 5 GB Ultra ATA Hard Drive • Modular 24X Max CD-ROM • Tahoe Blue, 12.1" Dual Pointing Keyboard • Xircom® 10/100 Ethernet II, PC Card • Internal Modem • Removable Modular Floppy Drive • Microsoft® Windows 98® Second Edition The HP Pavilion is available directly from HP for $1,899.00. The Pavilion N5270 has the following specifications: • 128MB SDRAM • 20.0GB hard drive • 8x max. Speed DVD-ROM • 15.1" 1024 x 768 XGA TFT display • Built in mini PCI 56Kbps, V90 • S3 Savage 1x 128-bit AGP2x graphics with 3D hardware acceleration; 8MB video memory • Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition The Compaq Presario 1700 model at 750 MHz is available from Compaq at $1,950.00. The Presario 1700 Series has the following specifications: • 128 MB SDRAM, 2 DIMMs • 20.0G UDMA Hard Drive • 24X CD-ROM for FutureBay™ • 14.1" XGA TFT Active Matrix • CD56K PCI Modem and 10/100 NIC Card • ATI Mobility hardware accelerated 3D Graphics with 8MB Video Memory • Microsoft Windows - Millennium Edition The Acer TravelMate 351TEV is available from Outpost.com at $1,899.00. The TravelMate 351TEV has the following specifications: • 128MB PC-100 • 10GB • 8X DVD • 13.3" TFT XGA • 56Kbps and 10/100 Ethernet • Microsoft® Windows® Millennium Edition 27 of 75
  28. 28. The Toshiba Satellite 2800-S202 is available directly from Toshiba at $1,699.00 The Satellite 2800-S202 has the following specifications: • 128MB SDRAM • 10 Gigabyte • 8x max. Speed DVD-ROM • 14.1" Active Matrix • Integrated V.90/56K modem • Integrated 10/100 Ethernet • S3 Savage/IX M7 graphics controller w/8MB SGRAM • Microsoft® Windows 98® Second Edition All of these laptops have similar specifications, which narrows down the complexity of evaluating which one would best suit the purpose of this project. By operating under this assumption, it was determined that the Toshiba Satellite is the best commercially available laptop, out of the ones in this evaluation, for use as an educational system. Toshiba also has also implemented the Notebooks for Schools (NFS) program which provides specially configured portable personal computers to students and teachers to augment the delivery of education curricula in American K-12 public and private schools. Toshiba’s program is a part of a joint effort with Microsoft’s 'Anytime, Anywhere Learning'. More information about this program can be found at Toshiba’s website (see Appendix C). The current NFS package includes a Toshiba Satellite 2800-S202, with additional software such as Microsoft Office 2000 Professional. Also included is a backpack to allow students to easily carry it around and a peripheral mouse. By using a similar implementation to the NFS package, the Toshiba Satellite 2800- S202 can be incorporated into an exceptional laptop-based solution to provide a complete computer system for educational purposes. 28 of 75
  29. 29. Handheld PCs Within the last decade, a new contender has entered the mobile computing market. Since they first became available, the handheld PCs have made a significant impact on the world of computing. Terms like Pocket PC, palmtop, and sub notebook, have become synonymous with the technology that enables the user to have access to a computer where every they go. For providing a computer for educational purposes, handheld PC’s add a completely new dimension to this effort. The assumptions of the requirements for a laptop for education purposes can also be carried over to the handheld PC. Students should still be able to access the Internet and run applications that will assist in their learning with these portable computers. Although this class of computer may not have the computing power of their bigger brothers, they provide the user with the ability to use a computer anywhere without being encumbered by a heavier technology. These handheld PCs come in all shapes and sizes. Some can fit in the palm of your hand, while others with built-in keyboards require a larger surface to work effectively. The larger variety offers many advantages over the smaller palm-sized varieties. The larger variety, which will be referred to as handheld PCs for the duration of this report, often provide full-color LCD or TFT displays, greater computing power, memory and capacity. Since handheld PCs offer greater capabilities, they will be the primary focus of this evaluation. As with laptops, most computer manufactures today have released some form of this lightweight, portable technology. For the purposes of this project, the following handheld PCs will be evaluated: 1. Hewlett-Packard Jornada 2. Intermec Technologies Corporation 6651 3. NEC Computers Inc. MobilePro 4. Sharp Mobilon A complete evaluation of these alternatives will not be included in this report, however it is noted here to provide a contrasting, mobile alternative to the standard laptop implementation. 29 of 75
  30. 30. Client-Server Solution Analysis on the possibility of client-server solution in a K-12 school Client-Server solution is based on an assumption that every student should have his/her designated client to access the resource on the server. The resource is stored on the server and is shared amount clients. This kind of system implies the following conditions: 1. Server performance must be high to efficiently provide necessary access for all the clients. 2. Client does not need to have all the resource to perform specific tasks. 3. Network requirements vary with the ability of client-server pair. The operating environment is assumed to be K-12 schools of sizes varies from 300 to more than 1500 students. The range is further divided into three categories, namely small (300 ~ 500 students), medium (500 ~ 1500 students), and large (over 1500 students), and the requirements for each category are different. Certain assumptions are made to narrow down the possibilities into a reasonable number. The assumptions are the following: 1. Every student (client) will have the need of an Internet e-mail account. 2. Course materials are mostly web-based. 3. Internet connectivity is provided to each client while at school. 4. Students are encouraged to store their work on servers. For the school to provide these services, certain types of servers are necessary. Mail, Web, File (storage), DHCP, and gateway/firewall servers are the common members for most configurations. The purpose of each server is as follows: Mail: Provide students with e-mail accounts Web: Provide space for teachers to store course materials and for students to store/share the results of their work. File: Store all the data on Mail and Web server. DHCP: Dynamically assign address to clients as they join the network Gateway: Separate the traffic between LAN (within the school) and WAN (the internet) The client is assumed a portable computer with wireless access ability. This assumption is based on the ideal condition in which cabling for network and power in the classroom remains minimum. Two possibility of Client-Server family of products are considered, one is iBook and G4 combination offered by Apple Computers, Inc., and the other is PC compatible notebook and server running Microsoft® software. The Apple solution is offered at a fixed price, with possible reduction with larger volume purchase; however, the company does not offer a complete line of server products to accommodate the specific task required. For PC with Microsoft® software, the choice is much wider. 30 of 75
  31. 31. The current educational offer by Apple Computer is combinations of iBooks and G4 server, with different speeds and memory. iBooks are offered in quantities of 15, capable of wireless communicating with the server. The price for the time being is $30,000 for 15 iBooks, 1 special iBook for Teacher and a printer. Additional iBooks are also available at a price around $1700. However, this set of equipment is only for one classroom. Servers required to build a fully networked environment are not provided. Spec of Apple’s offer: 1 Special Edition Graphite iBook - preloaded with 128 MB memory and an AirPort card, 15 Indigo iBooks - each preloaded with 128MB memory and an AirPort card, 1 Epson 980 Network Printer, Apple Network Assistant Software, 1 AirPort Base Station, 1 Bretford Cart, a powerstrip, 1 Asante 5 Port Switch 4 Belkin ethernet cables. The specification of indigo iBook 366Mhz PPC G3 12.1 inch TFT 64MB RAM 10GB Hard Drive 8MB Video RAM CD-ROM 10/100 BASE-T Ethernet 56kbps internal modem Composite video output USB port Firewire (iLink) Mac OS 9 Special edition Graphite iBook 466Mhz PPC G3 12.1 inch TFT 64MB RAM 10GB Hard Drive 8MB Video RAM DVD-ROM 10/100 BASE-T Ethernet 56kbps internal modem USB port Firewire (iLink) 31 of 75
  32. 32. The portable PC compatible computers, notebooks, with reasonable resources on them, as well as wireless network card, are offered at a price range from $1,600 to $2,000 by different vendors such as Gateway, Compaq, Dell, HP and Toshiba. Each vendor offers monthly rental ranging from $70 ~ $90 per month in a two year period. The wireless access points for the classrooms are not included, which will be an additional $700. The printer, which costs around $1,500, is not included, either. The total price for the same configuration will cost the same. However, other servers on campus through network can fulfill the absence of server in class. For more information on the specification of notebook clients, please refer to the section for portable client solutions. Common spec for PC notebook 600+ Mhz CPU (Celeron) 128MB RAM 10GB HD CDROM Wireless network card For servers, the solution provided by Apple is their Macintosh Server G4 with OS X Server, which offers a wide range of application in different areas of networking. Servers running Microsoft® operating system and software are available from many vendors, offering all kinds of servers that can fulfill many specific needs. Spec for Macintosh Server G4 with OS X Server: 500Mhz PPC G4 with 1MB L2 cache 256MB SDRAM ATI RAGE 128Pro + 16MB Video RAM 18GB Ultra2 LVD 10000rpm hard drive DVD-ROM 4 port 10/100 BASE-T Ethernet controller Mac OS X Server 1.2 Cost $4,200 32 of 75
  33. 33. The performance of the server is measured in transactions per minute. For a mail server, transaction can be accepting mail, sending mail, and delivering mail. For web server, a transaction is a read or a write. For file server, a transaction is an open file. Transaction for DHCP server is the process of assigning address to the client as it joins the network. For Gateway/Firewall server, a transaction is a packet goes through the firewall. The following table is a rough estimate of the maximum transaction per minute that is likely to happen in each environment. Table 4: rough estimate for transactions/min required Transactions Small (300~500) Medium (500~1500) Large (1500+) Mail 300 750 1500+ Web 1000 2500 4500+ File 1500 4000 10000+ DHCP 300 500 500+ Gateway/ 1500 7500 15000+ Firewall In order to achieve the required transaction/min requirement in the worst case, the estimated number of servers required is listed in the following table. The table reflects the performance of an average PC server running Windows 2000. Other operating systems and architectures are not considered. Table 5: rough number of servers required supporting the operation Servers Small (300~500) Medium (500~1500) Large (1500+) Mail 1 3~5 10+ Web On same machine 3 ~ 5 or share with 10+ as mail server Mail server File 1 3~5 10+ DHCP 1 1~2 5+ Gateway/ On same server as 3~5 5+ Firewall DHCP 33 of 75
  34. 34. The specification of each server is listed, and the price ranges are taken from the current price on many vendors with configuration similar to the specification. Small School: 300 ~ 500 students Mail Server: 2CPU + 512MB RAM + necessary hard drive space Web Server: same machine as mail server File Server: 100GB redundant space, can be integrated with Mail/Web Server Firewall: 1CPU + 512M RAM + necessary hard drive space DHCP Server: same machine as Firewall Sample specification of a Mail, Web, and File Server: Dual Pentium III 933Mhz 512MB PC133 SDRAM 18GB 10k rpm Ultra160 SCSI Hard Drive (System) 4 x 36 GB 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive in RAID configuration Single channel Ultra 160 RAID Controller Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet controller Price: $9,000 Sample specification of a DHCP/Firewall Server: Single Pentium III 933Mhz 512MB PC133 SDRAM 9GB 1inch 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive (System) Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet Controller Price: $2,500 34 of 75
  35. 35. Medium School: 500 ~ 1500 students Mail Server: 2CPU + 1GB RAM + necessary Hard drive space Web Server: same machine as mail server, or similar configuration File Server: 200GB redundant space with high performance interconnect Firewall: 1CPU + 512M RAM + necessary HD Space DHCP Server: same or similar configuration as firewall server Sample specification of a Mail and Web Server: Dual Pentium III 933Mhz 1024MB PC133 SDRAM 18GB 10k rpm Ultra160 SCSI Hard Drive (System) Single channel Ultra 160 RAID Controller Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet controller Price: $6,000 Sample specification of a File Server Single Pentium III 933Mhz 512MB PC133 SDRAM 9GB 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive (System) Single Channel Ultra160 RAID Controller Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet Controller 6 x 36GB 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive in external cabinet Price: $6,500 Sample specification of a DHCP/Firewall Server: Single Pentium III 933Mhz 512MB PC133 SDRAM 9GB 1inch 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive (System) Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet Controller Price: $2,500 35 of 75
  36. 36. Large School: more than 1500 students Mail Server: 2CPU + 2GB RAM + necessary hard drive space and high speed network connection Web Server: 2CPU + 2GB RAM + redundant network interface File Server: 400GB redundant space with high performance interconnect with Mail and Web server Firewall: 2CPU + 1GB RAM + necessary hard drive space + high speed network connection DHCP Server: 1CPU + 1GB RAM + necessary hard drive space Sample Configuration for Mail Server Dual Pentium III 933Mhz 2GB PC133 SDRAM 18GB 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive (System) 2 x 36GB 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive (cache) Dual 100 BASE-T Ethernet controllers Price: $8,000 Sample Configuration for Web Server Dual Pentium III 933Mhz 2GB PC133 SDRAM 2 x 18GB 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive (System + Cache) Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet controller Price: $7,500 Sample Configuration for File Server Single Pentium III 933Mhz 1GB PC133 SDRAM Dual channel Ultra 160 RAID Controller 12 x 36GB 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive in cabinet Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet controller Price: $15,000 Sample Configuration for Firewall Server Dual Pentium III 933Mhz 2GB PC133 SDRAM 18GB 10k rpm Ultra 160 SCSI Hard Drive (System) Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet controller (primary) 4port 100BASE-T Ethernet controller Price: $5,500 Sample Configuration for DHCP Server Single Pentium III 933Mhz 1GB PC133 SDRAM 18GB 10k rpm Ultra160 SCSI Hard drive (System) Dual 100BASE-T Ethernet controller Price: $4,000 36 of 75
  37. 37. In order to make the servers work efficiently without consuming all the network resource offered by the primary backbone of the school, a secondary network consists only servers is suggested. The spare network interface card on each Mail, Web and File servers is used to connect this secondary network to efficiently exchange files between the servers. Other high performance connections (ex: Myrinet, gigabit cLAN) can also be considered to interconnect the servers to provide fast and reliable data sharing among them. Table 6: rough estimate of total server cost Total Cost Small (300~500) Medium (500~1500) Large (1500+) Mail $6,000 ~ $10,000 $12,000 ~ $25,000 $30,000+ Web $0 $0 ~ $25,000 $50,000+ File $0 ~ $4,500 $6,000 ~ $18,000 $65,000+ DHCP $3,000 ~ $5,000 $3,000 ~ $12,000 $25,000+ Gateway/ $0 $3,500 ~ $8,000 $25,000+ Firewall Total $9,000 ~ $20,000 $25,000 ~ $100,000 $200,000+ The cost listed above covers only the hardware part. Software and other infrastructure cost are not included. For referencing purpose, the license of Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional edition is $40 for one license in a 20pack license pack. The license of Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server with clustering is $3999 per CPU. The suggested configuration for medium and large school is based on Microsoft® Windows 2000 Advance Server with clustering, use large number of servers to provide access to more clients. However, this option will require dedicated network connection between servers to provide efficient performance without hanging the primary network backbone. The other possibility is to use fewer but more powerful PC Servers (8 way Intel Pentium III Xeon Server), and use Microsoft® Windows 2000 Data Center Server to cluster the machines, thus reduce the network backbone load. 37 of 75
  38. 38. Network The cost for VSAT, runs about $ 500 for each facility. The cost include the IDU, ODU, and antenna. The cost for VSAT service from DirecPC ranging from $120 to $240 per month. Here is the table of pricing : Office Surfer 5 Unlimited with ISP Broadband Internet services for up to 5 users. Includes 5 e-mail accounts: $119.99 a month Office Surfer 10 Unlimited with ISP Broadband Internet services for up to 10 users. Includes 10 e-mail accounts: $179.99 a month Office Surfer 20 Unlimited with ISP Broadband Internet services for up to 20 users. Includes 20 e-mail accounts: $239.99 a month The cost for ISDN hardware is about $300 for each ISDN modem, and about $650 for each ISDN router. The service ranging from $20 - $ 175 with a setup fee of $200. This is the table of pricing from one of the provider: Table 7: Dial-Up ISDN cost DIAL-UP ISDN Activation (one time) Monthly Hours Allowed 64 K $50.00 $19.95 200 128 K $50.00 $49.95 200 Per Channel All accounts come with 1 E-mail box. A single static IP is included, you should run NAT for any additional Table 8: Dedicated ISDN cost DEDICATED ISDN Activation (one time) Monthly Hours Allowed Static IP's 64 K $100.00 $125.00 7x24 As Needed 1st Channel 24x7 64/128 K Burst $200.00 $140.00 As Needed 2nd Channel 80 Hours 128 K $200.00 $175.00 7x24 As Needed The cost for Internet Leased Lines vary greatly with speed chosen. For a 56k leased-line, Net Access installation charges are $1,250 for a Direct connection and $500 for a Frame-Relay connection. This covers the purchase of the shared router and CSU/DSU at Net Access’ end of the connection plus approximately 4 hours of setup time. The monthly charges for 56K leased-line is $300. 38 of 75
  39. 39. 39 of 75
  40. 40. For a T1 leased line, Net Access installation charges are $2,250 for a Direct connection and $1,000 for a frame relay connection. This covers the purchase of the shared router and CSU/DSU at Net Access’ end of the connection plus approximately 4 hours of setup time. The monthly charges for T1 leased-line is $800. This is another table from a different company : Table 9: Metered T1 Pricing One-Time Setup $1500 Transfer Charges Speed Monthly Minimum Monthly Maximum per Megabit 64 Kbps $99 $0.01 $375 128 Kbps $99 $0.01 $500 256 Kbps $99 $0.01 $625 384 Kbps $99 $0.01 $750 512 Kbps $99 $0.01 $875 640 Kbps $99 $0.01 $900 768 Kbps $99 $0.01 $1125 896 Kbps $99 $0.01 $1250 1024 Kbps $99 $0.01 $1375 1152 Kbps $99 $0.01 $1500 1280 Kbps $99 $0.01 $1625 1408 Kbps $99 $0.01 $1750 1544 Kbps $99 $0.01 $1900 40 of 75
  41. 41. Table 10: Dedicated T1 Access Pricing One-Time Setup $1500 Port Speed Monthly Charges 64 Kbps $300 128 Kbps $400 256 Kbps $500 384 Kbps $600 512 Kbps $700 640 Kbps $800 768 Kbps $900 896 Kbps $1000 1024 Kbps $1100 1152 Kbps $1200 1280 Kbps $1300 1408 Kbps $1400 1544 Kbps $1500 41 of 75
  42. 42. T3 top speed is 45 MBps or about 28 T1, and the complete hardware with installation from egghead.com cost $28000. Here is T3 pricing : Table 11: Tiered T3 Pricing Structure Speed Monthly Price *Setup Fee 3Mbps $5000.00 $4500.00 6Mbps $7000.00 $4500.00 9Mbps $9000.00 $4500.00 12Mbps $10000.00 $4500.00 15Mbps $12000.00 $4500.00 18Mbps $15000.00 $4500.00 21Mbps $17000.00 $4500.00 24Mbps $22000.00 $4500.00 27Mbps $24000.00 $4500.00 30Mbps $26000.00 $4500.00 33Mbps $29000.00 $4500.00 36Mbps $34000.00 $4500.00 39Mbps $40000.00 $4500.00 42Mbps $46000.00 $4500.00 45Mbps $51000.00 $4500.00 42 of 75
  43. 43. a) Server  1 Dell PowerEdge 6400 server at approximately $ 9,000 according to the latest pricing from Dell Online store. The server is with this specification: Table 12: Server Information Processor mfr. Intel Processor Pentium III Xeon Processor speed 700 MHz Additional processors installed 0 Total processors supported 4 Memory Amt. of RAM 256MB Max. RAM 8GB RAM type SDRAM Secondary cache 256K Hard Disk Number of hard disks included 3 Total capacity of hard disk(s) 54GB Max. internal hard disk storage up to 8 hard disks Interface of hard disk(s) SCSI RAID support? Yes Expansion/Architecture Number of I/O slots 7 Total number of serial ports 2 Number of parallel ports 1 Other port(s) PS/2 Floppy drive included? Yes Graphics Hardware Monitor included? No CD-ROM Drive CD-ROM drive included? Yes Speed of CD-ROM drive 40X Networking Network interface? Yes Number of network interface cards 2 included Network connector type Intel Pro 1000 Gigabit NICs Software Installed operating system Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Chassis and Power Supply Case type Cabinet Warranty Type 3 Contract - NextBusiness Day Parts & LaborOn-Site Base warranty Response 2YR Extended 43 of 75
  44. 44. b) Monitoring devices  3 (Three) 19-inch monitors (approximately $400 each) and 2 CPUs (approximately $1,000 each). These equipments will function as monitoring devices for the network and information security system. Different types of services with the hardware needed to support the network system: 1. Dedicated ISDN. a. Speed : 128 Kbps. b. Activation ( One time setup fee ) : $ 250 c. Monthly service fee : $ 395 d. Hardware : i. ISDN IP router : $ 500 ii. Firewall protection : $ 1,500 2. T1 connection. a. Speed : 1.5 Mbps. b. One time setup fee : $ 1,500 c. Monthly service fee : $ 1,500 d. Hardware : i. IP router : $ 1,500 ii. T1 CSU/DSU : $ 1,000 iii. Firewall protection : $ 2,500 3. T3 connection. a. Speed : 3 Mbps. b. One time setup fee : $ 4,500 c. Monthly service fee : $ 5,000 d. Hardware : i. IP router : $ 4,300 ii. T3 CSU/DSU : $ 2,000 iii. Firewall protection : $ 2,500 According to the information listed below, it is now possible to generate the setup cost and the annual cost for running the decentralized architecture and centralized architecture. 44 of 75
  45. 45. 1. Decentralized architecture. o Initial cost :  3 facilities  3 x (Server) + 3 x (Monitoring devices)  3 x $ 9,000 + 3 x $ 3,200  $ 36,600 • For Dedicated ISDN  $ (250 + 500 + 1,500) = $ 2,250 • For T1  $ ( 1,500 + 1,500 + 1,000 + 2,500 ) = $ 6,500 • For T3  $ ( 4,500 + 4,300 + 2,000 + 2,500 ) = $ 13,300 o Annual cost :  For Dedicated ISDN : 1. Monthly fee :12 x $ 395 = $ 4,740 2. Three network operators = 3 x $50,000 = $ 150,000 3. Overhead cost = 35% x $ 154,740 = $ 54,159  For T1 : 1. Monthly fee : 12 x $ 1,500 = $ 18,000 2. Three network operators = $ 150,000 3. Overhead cost = 35% x 168,000 = $ 58,800  For T3 : 1. Monthly fee : 12 x $ 5,000 = 60,000 2. Three network operators = $ 150,000 3. Overhead cost = 35% x $ 210,000 = $ 73,500 2. Centralized architecture. a. Initial cost : • 1 facility  (Server) + (Monitoring devices)  $ 9,000 + $ 3,200  $ 12,200 • For Dedicated ISDN  $ (250 + 500 + 1,500) = $ 2,250 • For T1  $ ( 1,500 + 1,500 + 1,000 + 2,500 ) = $ 6,500 • For T3  $ ( 4,500 + 4,300 + 2,000 + 2,500 ) = $ 13,300 b. Annual cost : •For Dedicated ISDN : 1. Monthly fee :12 x $ 395 = $ 4,740 2. One network operator = $ 50,000 3. Overhead cost = 20% x $ 54,740 = $10,948 • For T1 : 1. Monthly fee : 12 x $ 1,500 = $ 18,000 2. One network operator = $ 50,000 3. Overhead cost = 20% x $ 68,000 = $ 13,600 • For T3 : 1. Monthly fee : 12 x $ 5,000 = 60,000 2. One network operator = $ 50,000 3. Overhead cost = 20% x 110,000 = $ 22,000 45 of 75
  46. 46. Recommendations of Additional Work After submitting the recommendations, work will be continued with the clients to refine the requirements based on their responses to the conclusions reached by the project. Another future goal is to produce hardware and software prototypes based on the recommendations arrived at by the research done for the project. By using feedback from the surveys and adjustments to the requirements from the clients, the recommendations will provide building block for future prototypes of an educational computer system. After a prototype system is developed, the next step will be to install the system in a school for evaluation. By having students evaluate the effectiveness of the system, the project can change it to better meet the needs of the students. Students can also help to determine what does and doesn’t work, as well as the overall effectiveness it has on improving their learning. Lessons Learned The main item learned this semester was to be flexible as the problem definitions were defined. At the start, there were going to be two groups, one for hardware requirements, and one for the software. It was estimated that after the first month or so all the necessary surveys would be completed, so the splitting of groups could begin. Right at that point however, the second-semester students had to focus much more on their presentation, and the first-semester students had to focus more on completing the poster. In addition, the surveys that had not been considered, such one for the parents, students, and vendors were discussed and questionnaires needed to be drawn up for those applications. So at the end of the semester there are still more surveys being completed, and current groups are concerned with surveys and research. There are nine members to the team, with all of the different subgroups it can be hard to coordinate schedules to keep on task. To manage a large number of people, responsibilities must be delegated into subgroups, and a certain trust must develop that the other members are doing what they need to do. In addition, communication and finding a time to meet is key to any progress, though it may be hard to find a way to reach everybody. Not everyone checks e-mail every other minute, and everyone has other classes and activities to worry about, but meetings are essential to productivity. A smaller group of people meeting is better than no work being accomplished. 46 of 75
  47. 47. Project Team Information Clients: Dr. Seymour Papert http://www.papert.com/ Department of Education, State of Maine 23 State House Station Augusta, ME 04333 Faculty Advisors: Dr. John Lamont Dr. Ralph Patterson 324 Town Hall 326 Town Hall Iowa State University Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50014 Ames, Iowa 50014 (515) 294-3600 (515) 294-2428 lamont@ee.iastate.edu repiii@iastate.edu Dr. Arun Somani 3108 Cover Hall Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50014 (515) 294-0442 arun@iastate.edu 47 of 75
  48. 48. Team Members: Adrian Hill, CprE Jennifer Hird, EE 4411 Wilson Hall Johnson 510 Forest Glen Ames, Iowa 50014 Ames, Iowa 50014 (515) 572-3117 (515) 460-1679 syrekron@iastate.edu jenhird@iastate.edu Levin Jauhari, CprE Cioewandhi Koesriny, CprE 246 N. Hyland Ave. #110 246 N.Hyland Ave #106 Ames, Iowa 50014 Ames, Iowa 50014 (515) 292-1253 (515) 292-4194 levinj@iastate.edu cioe@iastate.edu Ryan Lange, CprE Yen-Chi Lin, CprE 229 Washington Ave. #4 2762 Buchanan Hall Ames, Iowa 50010 Ames, Iowa 50013 (515) 232-8396 (515) 572-6156 rdlange@iastate.edu yclin@iastate.edu Irina Makmur, EE Ed Tubbs, CprE 644 Squaw Creek Dr. #7 6216 Hawthorn Ct Ames, IA 50010 Ames, Iowa 50010 (515) 232-2831 (515) 572-7642 imakmur@iastate.edu etubbs@iastate.edu Nicholas Wilwert, CprE 6133 Hawthorn Court Ames, IA 50010 (515) 572-7790 nickyg@iastate.edu 48 of 75
  49. 49. Summary There is a definite lack of integration of technology in education. This can be attributed to the fact that technology changes at such a rapid rate; school systems find it difficult to choose the appropriate technology to suit their students’ needs. It is important that schools develop new methods in an attempt to integrate technology into their curriculums. It is for this purpose that the system design will need to be able to meet all the needs of its users, primarily students, in an attempt to integrate computers into their classrooms. The report will outline recommendations for a system that provides students with the opportunity to use technology in the assistance of their learning process. The report will include the evaluation of the determinates in Appendix A as well as the total cost of implementation. 49 of 75
  50. 50. References Dr. John W. Lamont Professor, Iowa State University Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ralph E. Patterson Assistant Professor, Iowa State University Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Dr. Arun K. Somani Nicholas Professor, Iowa State University Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering 50 of 75
  51. 51. Appendix A: Determinants HARDWARE Platform (CPU) • Performance • Price • Existing software compatibility • Operating environment • Portability • Long-term availability • Feature set • Power consumption • Life span Local Storage (both removable and fixed) • Capacity • Price • Physical size • Portability • Reliability • Interface • Speed • Life span Memory Type • Price • Capacity • Physical size • Life span Memory Quantity • Driven by other requirements Networkability • Cost • Performance • Reliability • Implementation costs • Scalability • Availability Sound • Price 51 of 75
  52. 52. Graphics Adapter • Features • Cost • Performance • Availability • Interface Power Supply • Price • Size • Portability • Output • Efficiency • Maintainability • Reparability • Failure rate • Surge protection Display • Features • Cost • Availability • Interface • Physical size Enclosure • Cost • Portability • Operating environment • Appearance • Rack mountable SOFTWARE Operating System • Compatibility • Complexity / User friendly • Price • Reliability • Networkability • Maintainable • Security • Hardware requirements • Performance • Features • Support 52 of 75
  53. 53. Word Processor • Price • Reliability • User friendly • Portability • Complexity • Support • Network ability • Hardware requirements • Storage requirements E-mail Client • Security • Support • Server requirements • Price • Reliability • Complexity • User friendly • Hardware requirements Web browser • Content filters • Front end capable • Price • Reliability • Complexity • User friendly • Hardware requirements • Support GUI • Price • Reliability • Complexity • User friendly • Hardware requirements • Support 53 of 75
  54. 54. Additional Educational Software • Price • Hardware requirements • Educational value • Intended user • Educational subject • Entertainment value • Interactive capabilities • Support • Networkability • Upgradeable • Record keeping • Scoring • Availability SUPPORT • Server requirements • Network installation • Internet access • Tech support • Training • Physical/environmental 54 of 75

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