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  • IEEE 802.1X provides so called Port based network access control capability because, for example, an AP blocks all its ports until client can authenticate itself.
  • This is a way that a network administrator can use to improve security. This uses internet security protocols as SSL and others encrypting the message from the client. This is not part of the protocol.
  • in order for an AP to be operating in 802.11b compliant mode it is typically set to "Broadcast-SSID mode“ first generation WLAN networks resort to nothing more secure than using secret SSIDs as a means to deny access to unauthorized users.
  • WEP is the core for the first generation WLAN security. Is call Wired Equivalent Privacy because this scheme attempts just to achieve a security level comparable with those in a wired network as Ethernet.
  • Symmetric because the same process to encrypt and decrypt. The missing of the process for key distribution or negotiation was the root of the problem because now, each vendor implements its own method.
  • Both the client and the AP must be set-up to the same authentication scheme (open or shared) for this phase to perform properly . Because the authentication process must begin from the AP, the authentication request serves to AP begins the process.
  • Key reuse is a big deal, because two messages encrypted with same IV and key, reveal info of both, also these two ciphertexts XORed between them produce the plain text XORed.
  • This is a summary of the 802.11 weaknesses in a practical point of view. This serves to design what a solution must address. Physical and Impersonation weaknesses are related with the pre-programmed static WEP keys. If just hardware is identified by means of MAC address, includes the same problems that static keys. Integrity is related to the possibility of data modification. RC4 recovery can be done if encrypted packets are known, (as TCP or Ack’s).
  • Disclosure refers to an unintended exposure of data. Dictionary attack is to use a list of words to guess a password. Disassociation attack enables session hijacking.
  • Dynamic key refers to the creation of one key for each user at each session. Mutual authentication is that client authenticates itself with the AP, but also AP must authenticate itself with the client.
  • EAP is not a authentication technique, but is a flexible link layer security framework where encapsulates common authentication standards in. In the EAP frame there’s a field called TYPE, where is specified the type of authentication procedure used.
  • APIs refers to Application Program Interface NDIS = Network Driver Interface Specific. 802.3=Ethernet Protocol. 802.5=Token Ring Protocol.
  • The derivation of per-user session key depends on the authentication method used in the implementation (TLS=Windows, Cisco – Username, Password; IKE=Certicom-Lucent – Digital Certificate). The client and AP have the WEP key, is not necessary the transmission over the air; with this, the client can decrypt the multicast key which will be used to encrypt all the communication during the session. Easy to administer because is not needed anymore to store this keys.
  • The attacks can be defeated with mutual authentication because the rogue AP can’t authenticate as an real AP with the client, in the past it didn’t need authenticate with the client; for MiM the hacker can’t authenticate as a valid AP to the client neither as a valid client with the AP.
  • PKI public key infrastructure is a system of digital certificates , Certificate Authorities , and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in an Internet transaction
  • Lecture_9(WLAN_security_issues)

    1. 1. Security & Authentication in WLAN <ul><li>State of the Art and Evolution </li></ul>
    2. 2. Organizations and Groups <ul><li>WECA The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance certifies compliance with the IEEE 802.11 standards. Awards the WiFi ( Wireless Fidelity ). </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.1X defines changes to the MAC Bridge in order to provide Port based network access control capability. </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11i defining MAC enhancements to provide enhanced security for 802.11. This is a work in progress, and 802.1X is an important part of this. (end of 2002) </li></ul>
    3. 3. First Generation WLAN Security <ul><li>Virtual Private Network-VPN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures privacy through encryption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs transparently over a WLAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a VPN is independent of any native WLAN security scheme, thus is not mentioned here. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. First Generation WLAN Security <ul><li>Service Set Identifier-SSID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous to a common network name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves to logically segment users and APs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I s a piece of information advertised or preconfigured at the station. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSID may be requested when joining a WLAN. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSID is not secure, because an AP advertises its SSID in its beacons. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. First Generation WLAN Security <ul><li>Wired Equivalent Privacy-WEP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional implementation for IEEE 802.11b. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A WECA requirement of at least 40 bit encryption for WiFi certification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deny access to users that do not possess the appropriate WEP key. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the decoding of traffic that is WEP encrypted without the possession of the WEP key. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. First Generation WLAN Security <ul><li>Wired Equivalent Privacy-WEP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WEP is a symmetric encryption mechanism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11b has chosen 40-bit keys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some vendors use 128-bit WEP encryption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key distribution or negotiation is not mentioned in the standard. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. First Generation Process <ul><li>Authentication: Is the process of verifying the credentials of a client desiring to join a WLAN. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open System Authentication: Process in clear text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Key Authentication: Uses a key to encrypt a challenge text. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Association: Is the process of associating a client with a given AP in the WLAN. </li></ul>
    8. 8. First Generation Process Probe Phase <ul><ul><li>1.- When initialization, the client sends a probe request packet out on all the channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.- The APs that hear this packet send a probe response packet back to the station. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This probe response packet contains some information such as SSID, which is used to determine which AP associate. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. First Generation Process Authentication Phase Shared key mode. The WEP key is already configured in the client.
    10. 10. First Generation Process Association Phase After being authenticated, the client sends an association request to the AP.
    11. 11. IEEE 802.11WEP Key Management <ul><li>Key distribution or negotiation is not mentioned in the standard. </li></ul><ul><li>The standard provides two mechanisms to select a key to encrypt a frame. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four default keys shared by all clients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secure communication between users with default keys. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once keys become widely distributed, they are more compromised. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Key mapping” relationship with another station. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More secure operation since fewer stations have the keys. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of such unicast keys is problematic as group increases. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. WEP Deficiencies <ul><li>WEP uses RC4 ; using a shared secret key, generates an arbitrarily long sequence of bytes from a pseudorandom number. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This stream is XORed with the plaintext to produce the encrypted ciphertext. It works well in SSL. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>802.11b uses 40-bit keys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hackers can crack them in hours, but takes so much to crack 104-bit keys. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But… Easy to break RC4 encryption with keystream reuse. </li></ul>
    13. 13. 802.11 Security Weaknesses <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware loss, without user identification, Authentication, Accounting and Auditing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impersonation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not identify users, just hardware. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No mutual authentication, enables Rogue AP’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WEP supports per packet encryption but not authentication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility to recover the RC4 stream. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 802.11 Security Weaknesses <ul><li>Disclosure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be obtained both MAC address, time of association/disassociation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with static global keys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secret by more than two is not a secret </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enables rogue AP attacks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permits that anyone into the network to decrypt other conversations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionary attacks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Denial of Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disassociation attacks. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. IEEE 802.1X <ul><li>Security in 802.11 can be broken in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication algorithm/protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is a standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized Framework for Authentication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deploys a variety of authentication protocols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still in development. </li></ul></ul>IEEE 802.1X
    16. 16. How 802.1X Addresses 802.11 Security Issues <ul><li>Extensible Authentication Protocol-EAP framework. </li></ul><ul><li>User ID and strong authentication. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic key derivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual authentication. </li></ul><ul><li>Per-packet authentication. </li></ul>
    17. 17. EAP Framework <ul><li>EAP provides a flexible link layer security framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple encapsulation protocol for IETF authentication standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport Level Security–TLS (Windows). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Key Exchange–IKE (Certicom-Lucent). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSS_API (Kerberos). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other mutual authentications schemes (Cisco LEAP). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run over lossy or lossless media and any link layer (PPP,802.3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not assume physical secure link. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. EAP Architecture
    19. 19. Identification & Authentication <ul><li>Users identified by usernames, not MAC addresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports extended authentication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non password based authentication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public key certificates and smartcards. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IKE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biometrics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Token cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One-time passwords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any GSS_API (Kerberos) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Per-User Per-Session Keys <ul><li>802.1X enables secure derivation of per-user session key. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides ability to securely change global keys. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WEP keys are dynamically derived at the client when log-on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global key, such as broadcast WEP key, is sent from AP to client, encrypted using the unicast session key. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Makes per-user WEP keys easy to administer. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Mutual Authentication <ul><li>802.1X needs EAP methods supporting mutual authentication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantees right key transfers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents Man-in-the-middle, Rogue Server attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mutual Authentication EAP methods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TLS: Supply certificate, prove possession of private key. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IKE: Server demonstrates possession of pre-shared key or private key. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GSS_API (Kerberos):server must demonstrate knowledge of the session key. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Per-Packet Authentication <ul><li>EAP supports per packet authentication & integrity. But not to all messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TLS, IKE derive session key, with this the negotiations are authenticated and integrity protected. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using WEP, session key can be used to encrypt, authenticate and integrity protect some messages as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success & Failure. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. WLAN Security Topics Coming <ul><li>Temporal Key Integrity Protocol – TKIP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially referred as WEP2. Solve the key reuse in WEP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>128-bit shared temporal key. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal key </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client’s MAC address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds 16-octet initialization vector. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To produce a key to encrypt the data. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal key change every 10,000 packets. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. WLAN Security Topics Coming <ul><li>Advanced Encryption Standard – AES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AES offers much stronger encryption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaces the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES) in NIST. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solves the problem of stronger encryption needed by 802.11. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AES requires a coprocessor (additional hardware). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies need to replace existing access points and client NICs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11i standard will likely include AES. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Cisco Implementation <ul><li>EAP describes an extensible packet exchange to allow the passing of authentication information between the client and the PPP server. </li></ul><ul><li>WLAN is not a PPP. 802.1X EAP over LAN (EAPOL) defines how encapsulate EAP in Ethernet or token ring packets. </li></ul><ul><li>EAPOW – EAP over Wireless LAN, is EAPOL but when used in wireless networks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is also used EAP over Radius to encapsulate within RADIUS packets. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Protocols used to encapsulate EAP
    27. 27. Cisco Implementation - LEAP <ul><li>Cisco-Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aironet client adapters that supports EAP-LEAP authentication (FW 4.10). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco Aironet Series APs supporting 802.1x EAP authenticator (Ver 11.0). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure Access Control Server used for AAA and EAP RADIUS services (Ver 2.6 running in Win NT/2000 server). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lightweight because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal support from client CPU while mutual authentication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports embedded systems (printers). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs on OS without support for native EAP authentication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support popular OS (Windows, Linux, MacOS). </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Cisco Implementation <ul><li>The entire authentication and key distribution process is accomplished in three phases: Start, Authenticate, and Finish </li></ul>
    29. 29. Start Phase
    30. 30. <ul><li>The authenticate sequence varies based on the mutual authentication method chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>If we were using Transport Level Security (TLS) to transfer certificates in a PKI implementation, then EAP-TLS messages would be used. </li></ul>Authenticate Phase
    31. 31. Authenticate Phase AP is in the middle acting solely as a transport vehicle
    32. 32. Finish Phase
    33. 33. Finish Phase <ul><li>Both derive the session key from the user's password. </li></ul><ul><li>AP sends an EAPOW-KEY message to the client supplying the key length. </li></ul><ul><li>The key value (or actual WEP key) is not sent since the client has already derived it on its own. </li></ul><ul><li>AP encrypts with the session key (unicast) a full-length derived multicast key and sends to client. </li></ul><ul><li>The client and AP activate WEP and use this session multicast WEP key for all communications. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Tentative Applications <ul><li>Handoff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client is assumed authenticated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just update multicast key on the adjacent AP. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ad Hoc Mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.1x can be used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User credentials are stored in each station. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New EAP method for this purpose must be designed. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. References <ul><li>Mishra A, Arbaugh W .; “An Initial Security Analysis of the IEEE 802.1X Standard” . This article shows some weaknesses of the 802.1X protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>William A. Arbaugh, Narendar Shankar, and Y.C. Justin Wan, &quot;Your 802.11 Wireless Network Has No Clothes“ ; one of the first articles that shows the 802.11b security problems </li></ul><ul><li>Nikita Borisov, Ian Goldberg, and David Wagner, &quot;Intercepting Mobile Communications: The Insecurity of 802.11“ </li></ul><ul><li>D.Simon, B. Aboba, T. Moore; IEEE 802.11 Security and 802.1X . This presentation explains the security problems on 802.11 and how 802.1X helps to fix them. </li></ul><ul><li>Steinke Steve; “Security and 802.11 Wireless Networks” ; this article explains WEP deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Security for Next Generation Wireless LANs ; A Cisco paper that describes the first generation WLAN security. </li></ul>
    36. 36. References <ul><li>Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin and Adi Shamir; Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 , this paper presents several weaknesses in the key scheduling algorithm of RC4 and describes their cryptanalytic significance. </li></ul><ul><li>AirSnort one of the best-known WEP cracking tools, which employs the RC4 weaknesses to attack WLAN networks. AirSnort recovers encryption keys, operates by passively monitoring transmissions, computing the encryption key when enough packets have been gathered. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless LAN at Risk : An article that tells how easy can be to access a WLAN if even the minimal wireless security basics and precautions are not taken into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Sean Whalen , Analysis of WEP and RC4 Algorithms ; This paper explains briefly the WEP encryption mechanism and some ways to crack it. </li></ul>
    37. 37. End of Ninth Lecture