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7 Chapter   Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology <ul...
LEARNING OBJECTIVES (cont’d) Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Techn...
<ul><li>Problem:  Overcoming poor location and steep competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions:  Deploy IP network, wireles...
Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>Networking and communication trends </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>Most basic computer network:  Two or more interconnect...
Components of a Simple Computer Network Figure 7-1 Illustrated here is a very simple computer network, consisting of compu...
Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>Networks in large companies may include </li></ul><ul>...
Corporate Network Infrastructure Figure 7-2 Today’s corporate network infrastructure is a collection of many different net...
Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>Key digital networking technologies </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Packet-Switched Networks and  Packet Communications Figure 7-3 Data are grouped into small packets, which are transmitted ...
Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>TCP/IP:  Suite of protocols developed for U.S. Dept. o...
The TCP/IP Reference Model Figure 7-4 This figure illustrates the four layers of the TCP/IP reference model for communicat...
Communications Networks <ul><li>Signals: digital vs. analog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog:  Represented by continuous wavef...
Functions of the Modem Figure 7-5 A modem is a device that translates digital signals from a computer into analog form so ...
Communications Networks <ul><li>Ethernet:  Dominant LAN standard at physical network level </li></ul><ul><li>Types of netw...
Network Topologies Figure 7-6 The three basic network topologies are the bus, star, and ring. Communications Networks Mana...
Communications Networks <ul><li>Physical transmission media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Communications Networks <ul><li>Physical transmission media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber optics and optical networks </li><...
Communications Networks <ul><li>Wireless transmission media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
BP Amoco’s Satellite Transmission System Figure 7-7 Satellites help BP Amoco transfer seismic data between oil exploration...
Communications Networks <ul><li>Transmission speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bits per second (bps):  Used to measure total amo...
Communications Networks <ul><li>Broadband network services and technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame relay ( 56 Kbps to...
Communications Networks <ul><li>Broadband network services and technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital subscriber line ...
The Internet <ul><li>What is the Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s most extensive public communication system, rival...
The Internet <ul><li>Internet addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned to each ...
The Internet <ul><li>Domain Name System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts IP addresses to domain names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Domain...
The Internet <ul><li>Internet architecture  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk lines : High-speed backbone networks owned by long...
The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Internet N...
The Internet <ul><li>Internet governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet policies established by several professional organ...
The Internet <ul><li>IPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv4  (32 bit addresses) provides 4.5 billion addresses </li></ul></ul><ul...
The Internet <ul><li>Internet services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clien...
The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Client/Ser...
<ul><li>World Wide Web:  Most popular Internet service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages:  Formatted using  Hypertext Markup...
<ul><li>Web servers:  Software for locating and managing stored Web pages, typically run on dedicated computers </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Search engines :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google: Utilized new page ranking system and indexed combinations of words...
The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Major Web ...
The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology How Google...
<ul><li>Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-generation interactive Internet-based services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mas...
<ul><li>Intranets:  Private networks using Internet standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected from public visits by firewa...
<ul><li>Read the Interactive Session: Management, and then discuss the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should m...
<ul><li>Internet telephony:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone voice transmission over Internet or private networks </li></u...
The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology How IP Tel...
<ul><li>Virtual private networks </li></ul><ul><li>Secure, encrypted, private network configured within public network, li...
The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology A Virtual ...
<ul><li>Wireless devices: Have become portable computing platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Cellular standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global system for mobile communication (GSM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Mobile wireless standards for Web access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Mobile wireless standards for Web access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I-mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan’s DoCoM...
WAP Versus I-Mode Figure 7-15 WAP and i-mode use alternative standards for accessing information from the wireless Web. Ma...
<ul><li>Wireless computer networks and Internet access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engin...
<ul><li>Bluetooth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for personal area networks (PANs) <...
A Bluetooth Network (PAN) Figure 7-16 Bluetooth enables a variety of devices, including cell phones, PDAs, wireless keyboa...
<ul><li>Wi-Fi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11 standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11a : 54 Mbps, 5 GHz, </li></...
An 802.11 Wireless LAN Figure 7-17 Mobile laptop computers equipped with wireless NICs link to the wired LAN by communicat...
<ul><li>Wi-Fi and wireless Internet access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11 standard provides wireless Internet access </...
<ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi drawbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak security (especially when not secured!) </li></ul></ul></u...
<ul><li>WiMax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.16...
<ul><li>Broadband cellular wireless and emerging wireless services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5G and 3G networks configured t...
<ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use tiny tags (transponders) with embedded mic...
How RFID Works Figure 7-18 RFID uses low-powered radio transmitters to read data stored in a tag at distances ranging from...
<ul><li>Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks of interconnected devices embedded in physical envi...
<ul><li>Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May use tiered architecture: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
A Wireless Sensor Network for a Security System Figure 7-19 Each level of this wireless sensor network handles different t...
<ul><li>Read the Interactive Session: Organizations, and then discuss the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How i...
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  1. 1. 7 Chapter Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology <ul><li>Describe the features of telecommunications networks and identify key networking technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate alternative transmission media, types of networks, and network services. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate how the Internet and Internet technology work and how they support communication and e-business. </li></ul>
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES (cont’d) Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology <ul><li>Identify and describe the principal technologies and standards for wireless networking, communication, and Internet access. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the business value of wireless technology and important wireless applications in business. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Problem: Overcoming poor location and steep competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: Deploy IP network, wireless LAN, and wireless clients with links to customer database to increase service and revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless mobile access to customer systems and wireless data and voice services enable employees to work more efficiently and focus on customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates IT’s role in providing superior customer service and redesigning processes and job functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates digital technology’s ability to overcome business weaknesses by creating new strengths. </li></ul>Hyatt Regency Osaka Uses Wireless Networking for High-Touch Service Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  5. 5. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>Networking and communication trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence of telephone and computer networks into single digital network using Internet standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications providers offering multiple services: Data, cable, Internet, voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both voice and data networks have become more powerful, more portable, and less expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband connections of 1Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of wireless broadband platforms, wireless Internet access </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  6. 6. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>Most basic computer network: Two or more interconnected computers </li></ul><ul><li>Major hardware, software, transmission components used in simple network: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated server computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network interfaces (NICs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network operating system (NOS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hub or switch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device used to communicate with other networks </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  7. 7. Components of a Simple Computer Network Figure 7-1 Illustrated here is a very simple computer network, consisting of computers, a network operating system residing on a dedicated server computer, cable (wiring) connecting the devices, network interface cards (NIC), switches, and a router. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  8. 8. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>Networks in large companies may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of local area networks (LANs) linked to firmwide corporate networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple powerful servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Web site, corporate intranet, extranet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-end systems for sales, financial, purchasing transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone network, videoconferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile WiFi network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key issue: Integration of disparate systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alleviated as networks digitize, use Internet standards </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  9. 9. Corporate Network Infrastructure Figure 7-2 Today’s corporate network infrastructure is a collection of many different networks from the public switched telephone network; to the Internet; to corporate local area networks linking workgroups, departments, or office floors. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  10. 10. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>Key digital networking technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clients linked through network controlled by server computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of slicing digital messages into packets, sending packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling packets once they arrive at their destinations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP and connectivity standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol: Set of rules and procedures governing transmission of information between two points in network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP: Suite of protocols </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  11. 11. Packet-Switched Networks and Packet Communications Figure 7-3 Data are grouped into small packets, which are transmitted independently over various communications channels and reassembled at their final destination. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  12. 12. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World <ul><li>TCP/IP: Suite of protocols developed for U.S. Dept. of Defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): Handles movement of data between computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP): Handles assembly, delivery, disassembly of packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP allows two computers of different hardware and software platforms to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Four-layer TCP/IP reference model </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface layer </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  13. 13. The TCP/IP Reference Model Figure 7-4 This figure illustrates the four layers of the TCP/IP reference model for communications. Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  14. 14. Communications Networks <ul><li>Signals: digital vs. analog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog: Represented by continuous waveform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital: Discrete, binary waveform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data as strings of two states: one bit, zero bits / on-off electrical pulses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem needed to translate between analog and digital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of networks (geographic scope) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local area network (LAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campus area network (CAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metropolitan area network (MAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide area network (WAN) </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  15. 15. Functions of the Modem Figure 7-5 A modem is a device that translates digital signals from a computer into analog form so that they can be transmitted over analog telephone lines. The modem also translates analog signals back into digital form for the receiving computer. Communications Networks Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  16. 16. Communications Networks <ul><li>Ethernet: Dominant LAN standard at physical network level </li></ul><ul><li>Types of networks (network architecture) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer or client/server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of networks (topology) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Star: All network components connect to single hub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus: Signals travel in both directions along single transmission segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common Ethernet topology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring: Connects network components in closed loop </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  17. 17. Network Topologies Figure 7-6 The three basic network topologies are the bus, star, and ring. Communications Networks Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  18. 18. Communications Networks <ul><li>Physical transmission media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pairs of twisted copper wire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older type of transmission medium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common LAN cabling: Cat5 cable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single, thickly insulated copper wire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for longer runs </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  19. 19. Communications Networks <ul><li>Physical transmission media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber optics and optical networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strands of clear glass fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for Internet backbone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optical networks can boost capacity by using multiplexing (DWDM) - using different wave lengths to carry separate streams of data over same strand </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  20. 20. Communications Networks <ul><li>Wireless transmission media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-frequency radio signals that follow straight line and require transmission stations or satellites to act as relay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular telephones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio towers placed in adjacent geographic areas (cells) </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  21. 21. BP Amoco’s Satellite Transmission System Figure 7-7 Satellites help BP Amoco transfer seismic data between oil exploration ships and research centers in the United States. Communications Networks Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  22. 22. Communications Networks <ul><li>Transmission speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bits per second (bps): Used to measure total amount of data that can be transmitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hertz (cycles per second) : Frequency of medium, affects transmission capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth : Difference between highest and lowest frequencies that can be accommodated on channel </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  23. 23. Communications Networks <ul><li>Broadband network services and technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame relay ( 56 Kbps to 40+ Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packages data into frames for high-speed transmission over reliable circuits that require less error checking than packet switching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) (1.5 Mbps to 9+Gbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parcels data into 53-byte cells for high-speed transmission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can transmit data, video, and audio over same network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) (128 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up network access standard that can integrate voice, data, and video services </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  24. 24. Communications Networks <ul><li>Broadband network services and technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital subscriber line (DSL) (1 Mbps – 9 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated telephone network broadband Internet access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Internet connections (Up to 10 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated cable network broadband access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T lines (1.5 Mbps to 45 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated lines for high-speed data transmission and Internet connection </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  25. 25. The Internet <ul><li>What is the Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s most extensive public communication system, rivaling global telephone system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s largest implementation of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internetworking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet service provider: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial organization with permanent connection to Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sells temporary connections to retail subscribers </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  26. 26. The Internet <ul><li>Internet addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned to each computer on Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit number: four strings of numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. 207.46.250.119 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages decomposed into packets, each carrying destination IP address </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  27. 27. The Internet <ul><li>Domain Name System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts IP addresses to domain names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS servers maintain database of domain names mapped to IP addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domains: E.g. sales.google.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Root domain (“.”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-level domain (.gov, .com, .edu, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second-level domain (e.g. “google”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third-level domains/hosts (“computer1.sales.google.com”) </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  28. 28. The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Domain Name System Figure 7-8 The Domain Name System is a hierarchical system with a root domain, top-level domains, second-level domains, and host computers at the third level.
  29. 29. The Internet <ul><li>Internet architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk lines : High-speed backbone networks owned by long-distance telephone companies (network service providers) or national governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional networks lease access to ISPs, private companies, government institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional telephone, cable companies lease access to retail users and businesses </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  30. 30. The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Internet Network Architecture Figure 7-9 The Internet backbone connects to regional networks, which in turn provide access to Internet service providers, large firms, and government institutions. Network access points (NAPs) and metropolitan area exchanges (MAEs) are hubs where the backbone intersects regional and local networks and where backbone owners connect with one another. MAEs are also referred to as Internet Exchange Points.
  31. 31. The Internet <ul><li>Internet governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet policies established by several professional organizations and government bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IAB : Defines overall structure of Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICANN : Assigns IP addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W3C : Sets programming standards, HTML standards for Web </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These organizations influence government agencies, network owners, ISPs, and software developers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet must conform to local national law and technical infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet paid for by connection services and fees </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  32. 32. The Internet <ul><li>IPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv4 (32 bit addresses) provides 4.5 billion addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less than one address for each of Earth’s 6.5 billion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 (128 bit addresses) will provide 3.4 X 10 38 addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of addresses for each person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet2 and Next-Generation Internet (NGI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consortia of universities, businesses, government agencies addressing current shortcomings of Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better performance, more bandwidth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More effective routing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced applications for distributed computing, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  33. 33. The Internet <ul><li>Internet services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software (e.g. Web browsers) on personal computers or information appliances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Servers : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Store data (e-mails, Web pages) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer data to clients </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Run services , implemented by one or more software programs, that clients can access </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Telnet, FTP, World Wide Web, newsgroups, chat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
  34. 34. The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Client/Server Computing on the Internet Figure 7-10 Client computers running Web browser and other software can access an array of services on servers over the Internet. These services may all run on a single server or on multiple specialized servers.
  35. 35. <ul><li>World Wide Web: Most popular Internet service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages: Formatted using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) with embedded links that connect documents to one another and that also link pages to other objects, such as sound, video, or animation files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): Communications standard used to transfer pages on Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform resource locator (URL): Full address of web page, including protocol, domain name, directory path, and file name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: http://www.megacorp.com/content/features/082602.html </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Internet
  36. 36. <ul><li>Web servers: Software for locating and managing stored Web pages, typically run on dedicated computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Apache HTTP Server, Microsoft IIS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web site : Collection of Web pages linked to home page </li></ul><ul><li>Webmaster : Person in charge of organization’s Web site </li></ul><ul><li>Search engines : Allow finding information on Web of 50 billion+ pages nearly instantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as major portals to Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early search engines : Simple keyword indexes of visited pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo !: Originally organized favorite Web sites into directory lists </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Internet
  37. 37. <ul><li>Search engines : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google: Utilized new page ranking system and indexed combinations of words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search engine marketplace very competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search engines have become major shopping tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search engine marketing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search engine includes paid, sponsored links and advertisements in search results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest growing form of Internet advertising </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Shopping bots : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use intelligent agent software for searching Internet for shopping information </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Internet
  38. 38. The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Major Web Search Engines Figure 7-11 Google is the most popular search engine on the Web, handling nearly 50 percent of all Web searches.
  39. 39. The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology How Google Works Figure 7-12 The Google search engine is continuously crawling the Web, indexing the content of each page, calculating its popularity, and storing the pages so that it can respond quickly to user requests to see a page. The entire process takes about one-half second.
  40. 40. <ul><li>Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-generation interactive Internet-based services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mashups: Software services that mix and match content or software components to create something entirely new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blog : informal chronological Web site where subscribing individuals can publish stories, opinions, and links to other Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS (Rich Site Summary or Really Simple Syndication): Syndicates Web site content so it can be pulled from Web sites and fed automatically to subscribed users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis : Collaborative Web sites where visitors can add, delete, or modify content on site, including work of previous authors </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Internet
  41. 41. <ul><li>Intranets: Private networks using Internet standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected from public visits by firewalls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extranets: Limited area of intranet designed for access by authorized vendors and customers </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies and tools for communication and e-business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat, instant messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic conferencing </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Internet
  42. 42. <ul><li>Read the Interactive Session: Management, and then discuss the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should managers monitor employee e-mail and Internet usage? Why or why not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe an effective e-mail and Web use policy for a company. </li></ul></ul>Monitoring Employees on Networks: Unethical or Good Business? Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Internet
  43. 43. <ul><li>Internet telephony: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone voice transmission over Internet or private networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice over IP (VoIP): Uses Internet Protocol (IP) to deliver voice information using packet switching, avoiding tolls charged by local and long-distance telephone networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest-growing form of telephone service in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reduce communication and network management costs by 20 to 30 percent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible technology: Phones can be added or moved to different offices without rewiring or reconfiguring network </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Internet
  44. 44. The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology How IP Telephony Works Figure 7-13 An IP phone call digitizes and breaks up a voice message into data packets that may travel along different routes before being reassembled at the final destination. A processor nearest the call’s destination, called a gateway, arranges the packets in the proper order and directs them to the telephone number of the receiver or the IP address of the receiving computer.
  45. 45. <ul><li>Virtual private networks </li></ul><ul><li>Secure, encrypted, private network configured within public network, like Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Provide network infrastructure for combining voice and data networks </li></ul><ul><li>Can be established with different, competing protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tunneling : Packets of data are encrypted and wrapped inside IP packets </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Internet
  46. 46. The Internet Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology A Virtual Private Network Using the Internet Figure 7-14 This VPN is a private network of computers linked using a secure “tunnel” connection over the Internet. It protects data transmitted over the public Internet by encoding the data and “wrapping” them within the Internet Protocol (IP). By adding a wrapper around a network message to hide its content, organizations can create a private connection that travels through the public Internet.
  47. 47. <ul><li>Wireless devices: Have become portable computing platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handhelds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistants (PDAs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail handhelds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones enable millions to communicate and access Internet in countries where conventional phone or Internet service is expensive or unavailable. More mobile phones than PCs (3 billion vs 1 billion) </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  48. 48. <ul><li>Cellular standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global system for mobile communication (GSM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europe, most of world, and some U.S. systems (AT&T) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A widely used standard in U.S. (Verizon) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular Generations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>384 Kbps, good for e-mail, and OK at downloading Web pages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G (third generation) networks: 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps, acceptable for broadband access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5G networks: Interim solution; 30 - 144 Kbps. iPhone uses AT&T EDGE 2.G network maximum speed 236; actual about 80 Kbps </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  49. 49. <ul><li>Mobile wireless standards for Web access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System of protocols, technologies enabling cell phones and other devices with tiny display screens, low bandwidth, and minimal memory to access Web-based information and services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless markup language (WML) based on XML </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbrowsers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAP gateway to translate Web content into WML for mobile devices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Google Mobile and Yahoo! Mobile pages </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  50. 50. <ul><li>Mobile wireless standards for Web access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I-mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan’s DoCoMo mobile phone network’s wireless service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses compact HTML to deliver content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier for business to convert Web sites for mobile access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited geographic adoption to Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  51. 51. WAP Versus I-Mode Figure 7-15 WAP and i-mode use alternative standards for accessing information from the wireless Web. Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  52. 52. <ul><li>Wireless computer networks and Internet access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standards for wireless networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15: PANs, Bluetooth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11: LANs, Wi-Fi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.16: MANs, WiMax </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  53. 53. <ul><li>Bluetooth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for personal area networks (PANs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links up to eight devices within 10-meter area using low-power, radio-based communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits up to 722 Kbps in 2.4-GHz band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for wireless keyboards, mice, cell phones, PDAs, printers </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  54. 54. A Bluetooth Network (PAN) Figure 7-16 Bluetooth enables a variety of devices, including cell phones, PDAs, wireless keyboards and mice, PCs, and printers, to interact wirelessly with each other within a small 30-foot (10-meter) area. In addition to the links shown, Bluetooth can be used to network similar devices to send data from one PC to another, for example. Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  55. 55. <ul><li>Wi-Fi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11 standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11a : 54 Mbps, 5 GHz, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b : 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11g : 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz, compatible with 802.11b </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n : emerging standard, greater than 200 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modes : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure mode : Wireless devices communicate with wired LAN using access points (device with radio receiver/transmitter) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad hoc mode : Wireless devices communicate directly to each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless communication requires client to have wireless NICs or embedded chips to receive Wi-Fi signals </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  56. 56. An 802.11 Wireless LAN Figure 7-17 Mobile laptop computers equipped with wireless NICs link to the wired LAN by communicating with the access point. The access point uses radio waves to transmit network signals from the wired network to the client adapters, which convert them into data that the mobile device can understand. The client adapter then transmits the data from the mobile device back to the access point, which forwards the data to the wired network. Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  57. 57. <ul><li>Wi-Fi and wireless Internet access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11 standard provides wireless Internet access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access point plugs into Internet connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi hotspots : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One or more access points in public space to provide maximum wireless coverage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some are free, others require registration/fees </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  58. 58. <ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi drawbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak security (especially when not secured!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No roaming from hotspot to hotspot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptibility to interference from nearby systems operating in same spectrum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless phones, microwave ovens, other wireless LANs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  59. 59. <ul><li>WiMax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.16 standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access range up to 31 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transfer up to 75 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMax antennas are powerful enough to beam high-speed Internet connections to rooftop antennas of homes and businesses that are miles away </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  60. 60. <ul><li>Broadband cellular wireless and emerging wireless services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5G and 3G networks configured to provide anytime broadband access for PCs and handhelds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EV-DO (Evolution Data Optimized): Technology providing cellular wireless Internet access at 200-400 Kbps maximum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for Verizon’s and Sprint’s wireless services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many cell phones and mobile devices can switch from one type of network to another, are Bluetooth-capable, etc. </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  61. 61. <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use tiny tags (transponders) with embedded microchips that transmit radio signals over short distance to RFID readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in various unlicensed frequency bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low frequency systems have short reading ranges (up to few feet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires special middleware to filter, aggregate RFID data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually requires companies to upgrade hardware and software to handle massive amounts of data produced by RFID systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to track movement of goods through supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RFID systems can track each pallet, lot, or even unit item in shipment </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  62. 62. How RFID Works Figure 7-18 RFID uses low-powered radio transmitters to read data stored in a tag at distances ranging from 1 inch to 100 feet. The reader captures the data from the tag and sends them over a network to a host computer for processing. Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  63. 63. <ul><li>Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks of interconnected devices embedded in physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide measurement of many points over large spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices have built-in processing, storage, radio-frequency sensors and antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range from hundreds to thousands of nodes </li></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  64. 64. <ul><li>Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May use tiered architecture: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progressing from low-level sensors to high-level data aggregation, analysis, and storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring environmental changes, e.g. tire pressure in your car </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring traffic or military activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating machinery and vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing security perimeters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring supply chain management </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  65. 65. A Wireless Sensor Network for a Security System Figure 7-19 Each level of this wireless sensor network handles different types of sensing. Lower-level sensors for monitoring events, such as doors opening and closing, motion, and breakage of windows and doors, are complemented by a small group of more advanced sensors placed in key locations, such as cameras and acoustic and chemical detectors. Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
  66. 66. <ul><li>Read the Interactive Session: Organizations, and then discuss the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is RFID technology related to Wal-Mart’s business model? How does it benefit suppliers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What management, organization, and technology factors explain why Wal-Mart suppliers had trouble implementing RFID systems? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What conditions would make adopting RFID more favorable for suppliers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should Wal-Mart require all its suppliers to use RFID? Why or why not? Explain your answer. </li></ul></ul>Wal-Mart Grapples with RFID Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology The Wireless Revolution
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