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  1. 1. PC Cards <ul><li>Provide expandability to notebook/laptop computers </li></ul><ul><li>Credit card-size expansion boards that fits into a small slot on notebook/laptop computers </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by the PCMCIA consortium of >300 manufacturers (IBM, Toshiba, Apple…) </li></ul>
  2. 2. PC Cards <ul><li>Originally designed only for memory cards </li></ul><ul><li>Available PC Cards today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory expansion cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny hard disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface adapters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless modems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG decoders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM controllers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. etc. etc. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. PC Cards
  4. 4. Constraints on PC Cards: <ul><li>Robustness </li></ul><ul><li>Low Power operation </li></ul><ul><li>Power Dissipation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Mating Cycles (10000) </li></ul><ul><li>Add-in functions rather than Add-On functions! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means PC Cards may be needed for basic computer operation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Card Types <ul><li>Small form factor: 85.6mm x 54.0mm </li></ul><ul><li>68-pin connector </li></ul><ul><li>Three card thicknesses supported </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly correspond to different PC Card Specifications and Card functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cards only differ in terms of thickness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinner cards can be used in a thicker slot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thicker card cannot be used in a thinner slot </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Card Types
  7. 7. PC Cards: Card Types <ul><li>Type I: up to 3.3mm thick - Memory Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRAM, Flash, OTP but NOT DRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type II: up 5mm thick - I/O devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data/fax modems, LAN adapters, mass storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most of the available cards today are 5mm cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type III: up 10.5mm thick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disks (latest hard disks are type II) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extended cards also available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antennas for wireless applications </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. PC Card Architecture <ul><li>PC Card Standard al s o defines a software architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Plug and Play capability </li></ul><ul><li>Software consists of Socket Services and Card Services </li></ul><ul><li>Card and Socket Services allow interoperability of PC Cards </li></ul>
  9. 9. PC Card Evolution <ul><li>PC Card Release 1.0 Memory only </li></ul><ul><li>PC Card Release 2.X Memory and I/O </li></ul><ul><li>CardBus 32-bit high bandwidth interface (133MB/s) </li></ul>
  10. 10. PC Card Standard Release 1.0 <ul><li>Interface for Memory Cards only </li></ul><ul><li>Defines Metaformat or Card Information Structure (CIS) </li></ul>
  11. 11. PC Card Release 2.0/2.01/2.1 <ul><li>I/O interface </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Voltage (3.3V & 5V) </li></ul><ul><li>Socket Services Specification </li></ul><ul><li>eXecute In Place (XIP) </li></ul><ul><li>PC Card ATA </li></ul><ul><li>Card Services Specification (2.01) </li></ul>
  12. 12. PC Card CardBus Standard (1) <ul><li>CardBus adds PCI-like performance </li></ul><ul><li>32-bit bus </li></ul><ul><li>BusMastering interface </li></ul><ul><li>Low Voltage (3.3V) </li></ul><ul><li>Power Management (APM) </li></ul><ul><li>Support for DMA if required </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-function cards </li></ul>
  13. 13. PC Card CardBus Standard (2) <ul><li>Custom Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Zoomed Video (ZV) </li></ul><ul><li>Extensions for ISDN, Security and Instrumentation Cards </li></ul>
  14. 14. PC Card Properties <ul><li>Card Information Structure (CIS) - describes the characteristics of the card so the host can configure it </li></ul><ul><li>DMA can be supported if the host allows it </li></ul><ul><li>eXecute In Place - allows OS and Application software to run directly from the card </li></ul><ul><li>LV Operation - physical keying prevents 3.3V cards from being damaged in 5V slot </li></ul>
  15. 15. PC Card Properties (2) <ul><li>Plug and Play: PC Cards can be removed or inserted while power is on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and GND contacts pins are the longest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make contact before signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Management - interface to APM through Card Services </li></ul>
  16. 16. PC Card Properties (3) <ul><li>Zoomed Video (ZV) - connection between PC Card and host system that allows card to write data directly to VGA Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be transferred over the ZV bus, not the host bus </li></ul>
  17. 17. PC Card Software Layers <ul><li>Two software layers that provide the interface between the PC Card adapter and the applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socket Services Socket Services layer isolates the proprietary aspects of the adapter from the software operating above it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Card Services Communicates with Socket Services and is responsible for assigning hardware resources to PC Cards </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. PC Card Layers
  19. 19. CardBus Performance <ul><li>PC Card-16 : 8-/16-bit interface at ISA bus speeds (8MHz) using ISA-like protocol </li></ul><ul><li>CardBus - 32-bit multiplexed address/data </li></ul><ul><li>Operates at PCI local-bus speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 33 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Peak bandwidth of 132MB/sec </li></ul><ul><li>CardBus uses the synchronous burst-transfer methods of PCI, and a very similar bus protocol to PCI </li></ul>
  20. 20. CardBus Enhancements <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Hot-plug capability </li></ul><ul><li>Low-power operation </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical form-factor </li></ul>
  21. 21. CardBus Bus Mastering <ul><li>PC Card-16 cards can only work as Slaves to System resident masters </li></ul><ul><li>CardBus devices can act as system-bus masters </li></ul><ul><li>They can take control of the system bus (or buses) to carry out data transfers </li></ul>
  22. 22. PC Card Configuration <ul><li>In the CardBus standard dynamic system reconfiguration is a primary functional requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware like modem cards can be shared by simply porting them from one system to another </li></ul><ul><li>Supports configuration at boot time and/or dynamically during run-time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug and Play support using CIS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Re)Allocation of system resources when cards are added or removed </li></ul>
  23. 23. CardBus Power Reduction <ul><li>Operation at low voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Software control of the clock </li></ul><ul><li>From a CardBus adapter to an attached CardBus card </li></ul><ul><li>Provides PCI-like power-management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplifies operation in PCI environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CardBus allows for two lower voltage operating modes for the future </li></ul>
  24. 24. CardBus Clock Management <ul><li>CardBus includes a &quot;CCLKRUN#&quot; signal </li></ul><ul><li>It has an associated protocol for controlling clocking to a card </li></ul><ul><li>Allows a PCI-to-CardBus bridge to gate the clock, which the bridge supplies to the PC Card </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the card to indicate when it is prepared for clocking to stop </li></ul>
  25. 25. CardBus Mechanical Enhancements <ul><li>CardBus cards share PC Card-16's small, thin mechanical card design, as well as a similar 68-pin connector </li></ul><ul><li>CardBus connector design encloses the standard 68-pin PC Card connector in a ground shield </li></ul><ul><li>If used with controlled edge-rate buffers, the shield ensures that ground-bounce does not corrupt signals, even at 33 MHz </li></ul>
  26. 26. PCI – CardBus Connectivity
  27. 27. Zoomed Video <ul><li>Connects a video-data stream from a PC Card source directly to a host computer's video adapter </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated data path from a system's PC Card socket to the video adapter </li></ul><ul><li>Side-band path bypasses the CardBus bridge in going from the card socket to the video controller </li></ul><ul><li>Through-the-controller path - card video data goes through the CardBus bridge on its way to the video controller </li></ul><ul><li>In systems that implement ZV, CardBus provides a high-speed general-purpose interface, while ZV serves as a low-cost video input path </li></ul>
  28. 28. PCI-CardBus Bridge (1) <ul><li>PCI-to-CardBus &quot;bridge&quot; IC - point of attachment of the PC Card to the system's PCI bus </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a way of managing the attachment and detachment of Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e., bus-isolation buffers and card/socket &quot;status-change&quot; notification circuitry) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maps several address windows from the card into the host system's memory and/or I/O spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the host system to access configuration registers on the card </li></ul>
  29. 29. PCI-CardBus Bridge (2) <ul><li>CardBus Bridge is a PCI bus agent – so it can become Bus Master </li></ul><ul><li>This allows CardBus Bridge to transfer data to system memory without CPU intervention </li></ul><ul><li>CardBus supports PCI's PnP auto-configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupt levels and DMA channels can be controlled on a system-wide basis </li></ul>
  30. 30. PC Cards in a PC <ul><li>For the PC, the PC Card just looks like extra memory or I/O </li></ul><ul><li>PC Card Specification allows PC Cards to have 64Mbyte of Common Memory and 64Mbyte of Attribute memory – 128Mbyte altogether </li></ul>
  31. 31. Using PC Cards in a PC <ul><li>Define an address area in the memory or I/O address space of the host system – usually called a window </li></ul><ul><li>Map a memory or I/O segment of the PC Card into the window you have defined </li></ul><ul><li>Access to memory or I/O addresses in the window of the host’s address space is redirected to the PC Card rather than the host’s own memory or I/O </li></ul>