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    • Wireless Protocols You Just Have to Know About! Todd Lammle (FCC RF Licensed) Certified Wireless Administrator (CWA) instructor, Sybex author www.wirelesstechnologygroup.org www.globalnettraining.com www.routersim.com
    • About Todd Lammle
      • President, GlobalNet Training, inc
      • CEO, RouterSim, LLC
      • Sybex author
    • Objectives
      • To understand the term “WLAN”
      • To understand the current IEEE wireless standards
      • To understand the future IEEE wireless standards
      • To gather information that will allow you to make informed decisions
    • Why do we care?
    • Can I just use it till I need glasses? Wireless Is Addicting Once You Use It You Can’t Live without It
    • What’s a typical “LAN”?
    • What’s a typical WLAN? It’s a “hub” without wires
    • Wireless LANS (WLANs) use “Cells”
    • Channel Overlap to cover distance
    • Audio AM Broadcast Short-Wave Radio FM Broadcast Television Infrared Wireless LAN Cellular (840MHz) NPCS (1.9GHz) Extremely Low Very Low Low Medium High Very High Ultra High Super High Infrared Visible Light Ultra- violet X-Rays ISM Unlicensed Frequency Bands 902–928 MHz 26 MHz 5 GHz (IEEE 802.11) HyperLAN HyperLAN2 2.4–2.4835 GHz 83.5 MHz (IEEE 802.11)
    • What is the Wireless LAN Hardware?
      • Access Points
      • Client Adapters
      • Bridge
      • Antennas
    • Devices In a Wireless Network
      • Access Point: An AP operates within a specific frequency spectrum and uses an 802.11 standard specified modulation technique.
      • It also informs the wireless clients of its availability and authenticates and associates wireless clients to the wireless network.
      • An AP also coordinates the wireless clients' use of wired resources.
    • Wireless Access Points
          • Serves as a connection point for wireless users to connect to the wired LAN
          • Contention-based, half-duplex device
          • Not necessary in Ad Hoc networks
          • Physical/Data Link Layer device
          • Has Layer-2 filtering capabilities
          • 1, 2, 5.5, or 11 Mbps connectivity depending on standard implemented
      Think of this device as a 10BaseT hub
    • Access Point Example
    • Wireless Components
      • Network interface card (NIC)/client adapter: A PC or workstation uses a wireless NIC to connect to the wireless network.
      • The NIC scans the available frequency spectrum for connectivity and associates it to an access point or another wireless client.
      • The NIC is coupled to the PC/workstation operating system using a software driver.
    • Wireless Components
      • Bridge: Wireless bridges are used to connect multiple LANs (both wired and wireless) at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer level.
      • Used in building-to-building wireless connections, wireless bridges can cover longer distances than AP’s (IEEE 802.11 standard specifies 1 mile as the maximum coverage range for an AP).
    • Wireless Bridged Network
    • Wireless Workgroup Bridge
          • Users are connected via wired Ethernet to the bridge, which is then connected via wireless Ethernet to the Access Point, which then connects to the wired backbone
          • Used to connect a small group of users (8 or less) to the wireless network
          • Users are a "collective client" on the wireless network
    • Wireless Components
      • Antenna: An antenna radiates the modulated signal through the air so that wireless clients can receive it.
      • Characteristics of an antenna are defined by propagation pattern (directional versus omnidirectional), gain, transmit power, and so on.
      • Antennas are needed on both the AP/bridge and the clients.
    • Campus Antenna Example
    • IEEE 802.11 WLAN Physical MAC layer IEEE 802.11 LLC layer IEEE 802.2 SNAP Infrared Light Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Packet Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP)
    • WLAN Road Map 802.11g 2.4 GHz – OFDM* >20Mbps Proprietary
      • IEEE 802.11a/b Ratified
      802.11a Standard 5 GHz – OFDM* 54 Mbps 802.11b Standard 2.4 GHz – DSSS 11Mbps 1999 2000 2001 2002 Network Radio Speed 2003 * *Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) 802.11b uses complementary Code Keying (CCK) as its modulation scheme Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
    • IEEE 802.11 who?
      • Original recipe 802.11: Ratified June, 1997, 1 or 2Mbps at 2.4Ghz.
      • The big event- 802.11b (Wi-Fi): 1, 2, 5.5 and 11Mbps, 2.4 GHz, ratified in 1999. Didn’t take off until late 2000. Backward compatible to 802.11
      • First in line, last to produce products- 802.11a: Up to 54Mbps, 5 GHz, ratified in 1999. Not compatible with 802.11 and 802.11b
    • 802.11a is 5Ghz
      • Range of 5Ghz is about 30% less then 2.4Ghz
      • Overall investment of infrastructure is much higher with 5Ghz (for now)
      • Typical 2.4 Ghz range is 150 feet
      • Typical 5Ghz range is 50 feet
      • Not compatible with 802.11a and 802.11b
      • The data rates specified by IEEE 802.11a are 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps, with support for 6, 12, and 24 Mbps
    • IEEE 802.11-tag-along’s
      • 802.11c: Management Group
      • 802.11d: Committee trying to add 802.11 into other countries that can’t use 2.4Ghz. Only Spain now…
      • 802.11e: Quality of Service (QoS), multimedia and security as well as error correction. Uses TDMA like Cisco’s up and coming 802.11a products.
      • 802.11f: Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP), Mobile IP
      • 802.11g: 54Mbps in 2.4Ghz range
      • 802.11h: Group trying to take 802.11a into Europe with 802.11e specs.
      • 802.11i: Wireless Authentication and Security
      • 802.11j: So new, there is still no members! Group will focus on 802.11a and HiperLAN2 coexistence
    • 11 and 54Mbs WLAN’s 802.11g
      • Provides higher date rates at 2.4 Ghz
      • Similar to 802.11b
      • Backward compatible to
        • 80211
        • 802.11b
    • Other Committees
      • Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA): Drafted the Wi-Fi System Interoperability testing document
      • Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi): Agilent Technologies in San Jose performs the independent WLAN products testing. After testing, the WECA board awards the Wi-Fi seal
    • Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA)
      • Mission statement—WECA’s mission is to certify interoperability of Wi-Fi ™ (IEEE 802.11b) products and to promote Wi-Fi as the global wireless LAN standard across all market segments
      • Goal —Provide users with a comfort level for interoperability
      • Presently over 100 different product certified and growing
      • Supports ONLY 802.11b 11MB DS products
    • Other Wireless Technologies
      • BlueTooth
      • HomeRF
      • ZigBee
      • HiperLAN
      • Homeplug
    • BlueTooth
      • Bluetooth is a personal-area network (PAN) specified by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group for providing low-power and short-range wireless connectivity using frequency-hopping spread spectrum in the 2.4-GHz frequency environment.
    • HomeRF
      • In 1988, The HomeRF SWAP Group published the Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) standard for wireless digital communication between PCs and consumer electronic devices within the home.
      • SWAP supports voice and data over a common wireless interface at 1 and 2-Mbps data rates using frequency-hopping and spread-spectrum techniques in the 2.4-GHz band.
    • SigBee
      • Was known as “HomeRF Light”
      • Less then $2 per module for manufacturer
      • Runs off of cheap AA batteries
      • Up to 115kbps
      • From 10 meters to 75 meters
      • All-in-one product (power, tx, rx, ant.)
    • HiperLAN
      • HiperLAN is a European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standard ratified in 1996. HiperLAN/1 standard operates in the 5-GHz radio band up to 24 Mbps.
      • ETSI has recently approved HiperLAN/2, which operates in the 5-GHz band at up to 54 Mbps using a connection-oriented protocol for sharing access among end-user devices.
    • HomePlug Powerline Alliance
      • Not-for-profit corporation formed to provide a forum for the creation of open specifications for high speed home powerline networking products and services.
      • Supposedly works at 14Mbps
      • Don’t turn on a blow dryer…
      • Newly released spec’s fix power spikes
    • WLAN is not all you need to know…
      • Third Generation Cell service will provide…..???
    • Reality: WLAN will deliver mobile high-speed ahead of 3G 802.11b/WiFi 50 500 1 000 10 000 50 000 100 000 Transmission rate (kbit/s) Terminal device location HomeRF Bluetooth Fixed LAN Blackberry (US) HomeRF Bluetooth 802.11a and HiperLAN2 UMTS GPRS GSM
    • Wireless Security Methods
    • No Security by default….
    • Radius Authentication
    • WLAN Security
    • Summary
      • Don’t Delay- Get “UN”-Hooked with Wireless…
      • Hands-on Demonstrations
      • Give Away Time!
      This cable has GOT to go!