Suppose we set up a transmitter that emits radio waves of a selected frequency.
An aerial and receiver can be designed to electrically resonate with the same frequency and so pick up that frequency.
Radio Transmission Site A Site B Transmitter Receiver Radio Waves
Microwaves are transmitted and received using parabolic dishes (the special shape focuses the microwave beam).
The receiver and transmitter dishes must be in line of sight with each other. Microwaves can pass through walls, trees and clouds but not through the ground. However, ‘passing through’ anything subjects the signal to some kind of loss of energy.
Microwaves Transmitter Dish Receiver Dish
WLANs have gained strong popularity in a number of vertical markets, including the health-care, retail, manufacturing, warehousing, and academic arenas. These industries have profited from the productivity gains of using hand-held terminals and notebook computers to transmit real-time information to centralized hosts for processing.
WLANs are becoming more widely recognized as a general-purpose connectivity alternative for a broad range of business customers .
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a flexible data communication system implemented as an extension to, or as an alternative for, a wired LAN within a building or campus. Using electromagnetic waves, WLANs transmit and receive data over the air, minimizing the need for wired connections. Thus, WLANs combine data connectivity with user mobility, and, through simplified configuration, enable movable LANs.
Types of Wireless Network
In wireless networking, a peer-to-peer (or point-to-point ) wireless network means that each computer can communicate directly with every other computer on the network.
Some wireless networks are client/server. They have an access point , which is a wired controller that receives and transmits data to the wireless adapters installed in each computer
There are many types of wireless networks, ranging from slow and inexpensive to fast and expensive: For example:-
Bluetooth technology is a wireless personal area networking (WPAN) technology that has gained significant industry support and will coexist with most wireless LAN solutions.
The Bluetooth specification is for a 1 Mbps, small form-factor, low-cost radio solution that can provide links between mobile phones, mobile computers and other portable handheld devices and connectivity to the internet. This technology, embedded in a wide range of devices to enable simple, spontaneous wireless connectivity is a complement to wireless LANs — which are designed to provide continuous connectivity via standard wired LAN features and functionality.
IrDA (Infrared Data Association) is a standard for devices to communicate using infrared light pulses. This is how remote controls operate, and the fact that all remotes use this standard allows a remote from one manufacturer to control a device from another manufacturer.
Since IrDA devices use infrared light, they depend on being in direct line of sight with each other. Although you can purchase and install an IrDA-based network capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 4 megabits per second (Mbps), the requirement for line of sight means that you would need an access point in each room, limiting the usefulness of an IrDA network in a typical home layout.
I nfrared Technology
Infrared (IR) systems use very high frequencies, just below visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum, to carry data. Like light, IR cannot penetrate opaque objects;
it is either directed (line-of-sight) or diffuse technology. Inexpensive directed systems provide very limited range (3 ft) and typically are used for PANs but occasionally are used in specific WLAN applications.
High performance directed IR is impractical for mobile users and is therefore used only to implement fixed subnetworks.
Diffuse (or reflective) IR WLAN systems do not require line-of-sight, but cells are limited to individual rooms.
This standard is currentlythe market leader. 802.11b operates in the 2.4GHz unlicensed frequency band (same as the one used by 2.4GHz cordless phones and microwave ovens), and uses DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) and FHSS modulation. It has a maximum raw data rate of 11Mbps, with fallback rates of 5.5, 2, and 1Mbps.
Widely used in businesses, 802.11b has been adopted for many home networks due to its relatively high speed, wide availability, and falling prices (although we've probably gotten pretty close to the bottom of the price curve at this point). It's also the standard that's used for wireless public access in places like airports, malls, etc., and for enterprising individuals, companies, and community groups who are trying to grow their own wireless broadband networks.
Negatives include the fact that 2.4GHz cordless phones and microwave ovens operating in its vicinity affect throughput and range. 802.11b's
The original WEP network security protocol was disastrous. However, the effect that WEP's weaknesses will have on the average small wireless network user has been much exaggerated. WEP has been replaced by WPA security.
Wi-Fi offers Ethernet speeds without the wires.
There are Wi-Fi compatible PC cards that operate in peer-to-peer mode, but Wi-Fi usually requires access points.
Most access points have an integrated Ethernet controller to connect to an existing wired-Ethernet network.
They also typically have an omni-directional antenna to receive the data transmitted by the wireless transceivers.
As an example, Apple sells an inexpensive and easy-to-configure access point called Airport. Airport has to be connected to an Apple computer (iMac, PowerMac, iBook), but it will accept signals from any 802.11b-compatible wireless-network card, whether it's PC or Mac-based.
How WLANs Work
Wireless LANs use electromagnetic radiation (radio and infrared) to communicate information from one point to another without relying on any physical connection. Radio waves are often referred to as radio carriers because they simply perform the function of delivering energy to a remote receiver.
The data being transmitted is superimposed on the radio carrier so that it can be accurately extracted at the receiving end. This procedure is called modulation of the carrier by the information being transmitted. Once data is superimposed (modulated) onto the radio carrier, the radio signal occupies more than a single frequency, since the frequency or bit rate of the modulating information adds to the carrier.
Multiple radio carriers can exist in the same space at the same time without interfering with each other if the radio waves are transmitted on different radio frequencies. To extract data, a radio receiver tunes in (or selects) one radio frequency while rejecting all other radio signals on different frequencies.
Wireless LANS Working
I n a typical WLAN configuration, a transmitter/receiver (transceiver) device, called an access point, connects to the wired network from a fixed location using standard Ethernet cable. At a minimum, the access point receives, buffers, and transmits data between the WLAN and the wired network infrastructure.
A single access point can support a small group of users and can function within a range of less than one hundred to several hundred feet. The access point (or the antenna attached to the access point) is usually mounted high but may be mounted essentially anywhere that is practical as long as the desired radio coverage is obtained.
End users access the WLAN through wireless LAN adapters, which are implemented as PC cards in notebook computers, or use ISA or PCI adapters in desktop computers, or fully integrated devices within hand-held computers. WLAN adapters provide an interface between the client network operating system (NOS) and the transmission medium (via an antenna). The nature of the wireless connection is transparent to the NOS.
Wireless LANS Configurations
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (or peer-to-peer) WLAN that connects a set of PCs with wireless adapters. Any time two or more wireless adapters are within range of each other, they can set up an independent network (Figure 3). These on-demand networks typically require no administration or preconfiguration.
I ndependent WLAN
Wireless LAN Configurations
Access points can extend the range of independent WLANs by acting as a repeater (see below) effectively doubling the distance between wireless PCs.
Extended-Range Independent WLAN Using Access Point as Repeater
I n infrastructure WLANs, multiple access points link the WLAN to the wired network and allow users to efficiently share network resources. The access points not only provide communication with the wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic in the immediate neighborhood. Multiple access points can provide wireless coverage for an entire building or campus
Microcells and Roaming
Wireless communication is limited by how far signals carry for given power output. WLANs use cells, called microcells, similar to the cellular telephone system to extend the range of wireless connectivity. At any point in time, a mobile PC equipped with a WLAN adapter is associated with a single access point and its microcell, or area of coverage.
Individual microcells overlap to allow continuous communication within wired network. They handle low-power signals and hand off; users as they roam through a given geographic area.
The distance over which RF waves can communicate is a function of product design (including transmitted power and receiver design) and the propagation path, especially in indoor environments.
Interactions with typical building objects, including walls, metal, and even people, can affect how energy propagates, and thus what range and coverage a particular system achieves.
Most wireless LAN systems use RF because radio waves can penetrate many indoor walls and surfaces.
The range (or radius of coverage) for typical WLAN systems varies from under 100 feet to more than 1000 feet.
Coverage can be extended, and true freedom of mobility via roaming, provided through microcells.
As with wired LAN systems, actual throughput in wireless LANs is dependent upon the product and how it is configured.
Factors that affect throughput include :
Transmission medium congestion (number of users), propagation factors such as range and multipath,
The type of WLAN system used,
The latency and bottlenecks on the wired portions of the WLAN.
Typical data rates range from 1 to 55 Mbps. For IEEE 802.11 Standards
Mult i path Effects
As below shows, a radio signal can take multiple paths from a transmitter to a receiver, an attribute called multipath. Reflections of the signals can cause them to become stronger or weaker, which can affect data throughput. Affects of multipath depend on the number of reflective surfaces in the environment, the distance from the transmitter to the receiver, the product design and the radio technology.
Radio Signals Traveling over Multiple Paths
Wireless data technologies have been proven through more than fifty years of wireless application in both commercial and military systems.
While radio interference can cause degradation in throughput, such interference is rare in the workplace.
Robust designs of proven WLAN technology and the limited distance over which signals travel result in connections that are far more robust than cellular phone connections and provide data integrity performance equal to or better than wired networking.
Interference and Coexistence
The unlicensed nature of radio-based wireless LANs means that other products that transmit energy in the same frequency spectrum can potentially provide some measure of interference to a WLAN system.
Micro-wave ovens are a potential concern, but most WLAN manufacturers design their products to account for microwave interference.
Another concern is the co-location of multiple WLAN systems. While co-located WLANs from different vendors may interfere with each other, others coexist without interference. This issue is best addressed directly with the appropriate vendors.
WiMax and WiFi
The IEEE Standard 892.11 and its derivatives, 802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g and 802.11e, have seen wide deployment in commercial governmental and residential LAN settings.
There has also been some application in Public Service Networks: primarily localised ‘HotSpots’ where coverage is provided within a picocell.
IEEE 802.16 has become known as WiMax and is supported by the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access group
WiMax and WiFi: Standards Compared
The 802.16 standard requires two separate physical layer standards because the propagation characteristics of radio waves are so different in the lower and upper microwave regions.
These two categories have advantages and disadvantages and, as is often the case in data-communications, there is a trade-off in cost-benefit
The two categories are compared in the following slides:
Lower-frequency signals can penetrate walls and can travel considerable distances: more than 30 miles with highly directional (accurate) antennas
Low-frequency 802.16 ranges also lend themselves to complex modulation techniques such as OFDM and Wideband Code-Division-Multiple-Access (CDMA). In practice these translate to high levels of robustness and higher spectral efficiencies: i.e. more users per given allocation of bandwidth
Higher-frequency transmissions must meet strict line-of-sight requirements (i.e. no obstacles between the Tx. and Rx.), and are usually restricted to distances of a few kilometres.
The singular advantage enjoyed by users of Higher-frequency bands is abundance of bandwidth. Most spectral assignments above 20GHz provide for several hundred megahertz minimally, and the 57GHz to 64GHz unlicenced band available in the united-states, can support several gigabits per second at one bit-per-hertz for fiberlike speeds.
Limitations of 802.11
IEEE 802.11 was intended to serve the needs of Ethernet LAN users and is very limited in terms of range and the number of users that can be accommodated simultaneously. In practice transmission speed and signal integrity drop off precipitately at distances beyond about 500 feet from an access point.
This begs the question: “Why has it become so popular?”
Limitations of IEEE 802.11
802.11 gear has become a commodity. Access points and interface cards are very cheap. An IEE 802.11 network can be constructed for a fraction of the cost of an IEEE 802.16 network.
Some manufacturers (Tropos, Vigato and Airgo) are attempting to manufacture adaptive array antenna systems or mesh-networked base stations for 802.11 that may emulate some of the characteristics of 802.16. However it seems likely that cost and QoS will remain major obstacles for this type of approach
No one should be tempted to believe that an entire metropolitan area can be served with 802.11 equipment
The ‘high-speed’ standard: projected speeds are in excess of 100 MBps.
Endows 802.11 with Qos capabilities
However it is Ethernet based unlike 802.16 which is IP based.
IEEE 802.15 (Based on Bluetooth)
Gigabit 802.11? Still in discussion
802.11s Mesh Standard? Who knows?
Other Standards (Continued)
High Performance radio Metropolitan Area Network (HIPERMAN)
Analogous to 802.16 but generated by a different standards body: The European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI.
An outshoot from HIPERLAN2 (which emerged from HIPERLAN).
Nobody ever used this as far as I can tell?
However, discussions are ongoing between IEEE and ETSI to merge HIPERMAN2 and 802.16
The IEEE standards have made remarkable progress in a very short time
In the next presentation we will consider some of the implementation issues and opportunities and challenges for commercial exploitation of these standards.