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  • Good afternoon everyone. I’d like to talk to you about what many people consider to be the next wireless revolution, and that is the coming deployment of products using the IEEE 802.16 standard
  • 802.16 outlines a framework for the development of fixed wireless MANs that provide broadband Internet access The standard was designed to be extremely flexible and support many services including IP, VoIP, and real-time video conferencing It’s also protocol independent meaning that it can support IP packets, ATM cells, or Ethernet frames
  • This is a promising technology for ISPs to economically bridge the “last mile” between customers and switching stations The general idea is that microwave antennas known as subscriber or base stations would be mounted on buildings Users would connect to their respective SSs through conventional network technologies such as Ethernet or WLANs. Then the SSs transmit their data wirelessly to a BS which is directly connected to the backbone 802.16 would also lower the barriers to entry for new ISPs, increasing competition which should benefit customers in the form of lower rates and better service But it’s greatest impact will be in providing broadband to people who are currently underserved. The sparse populations of rural communities don’t give ISPs enough incentive to extend their networks And in developing nations, neither industry nor government can finance the capital expenditure required to build a wired network
  • These wireless networks will use a point-to-multipoint topology and operate in the 10-66 GHz frequency band. These high frequencies enable data rates of up to 134 Mbps but also make it necessary for highly directional line-of-sight signals So the IEEE adopted 802.16a to address these issues This standard has the same basic functionality but operates in the 2-11 GHZ range which eliminates the need for line-of-sight, making it more practical for real world applications The lower frequencies also allow for greater geographic coverage but at lower data rates
  • 802.16 functions at the MAC sublayer which is divided again into 3 sublayers: the CS, CPS, and the privacy sublayer
  • The CS layer gives 802.16 its interoperability. Separate layers are defined for ATM and packet based protocols. Basically what this layer does is receive data from higher layers, classify it as an ATM cell or Ethernet frame for example, and forward it to the CPS layer
  • The CPS layer performs many of the functions we associate with the MAC layer Addressing is done with MAC addresses but because 802.16 is connection oriented, connection identifiers are used as the primary address after initialization The actual media access policy is determined by the direction of transmissions In the Uplink direction several SSs compete to access one BS, so a time division multiple access technique is used where time slots are granted based on demand BSs are the only devices transmitting in the downlink direction, so time division multiplexing was used where times slots are serially allocated The CPS layer also encapsulates data into a common format, leaving the original frames intact. The CPS layer of the receiving station removes the encapsulation, keeping any changes hidden from the end host
  • The privacy sublayer performs two basic functions which are securing communications and preventing theft of service Transmissions are secured by encrypting data with the cipher block chaining method of DES Service theft is avoided by using a key management protocol where BSs assign keys to SSs which are used to them
  • The variety of services 802.16 supports meant that it has to handle continuous and bursty traffic To do this, burst profiles are attached to each frame that describe the transmission needs of that frame. These profiles include the specific method of encoding & transmission used and can be adjusted dynamically on a frame-by-frame basis to account for changing link conditions
  • As we know, data rates are a function of bandwidth and modulation . The table on the shows the relationship between these To accommodate burst profiling, 802.16 had to support both TDD where the uplink and downlink share a channel but do not operate simultaneously & FDD where the uplink and downlink are on separate frequencies and can transmit concurrently These techniques don’t work for NLOS applications so 802.16a uses OFDM which transmits data across multiple frequencies
  • Mobile broadband wireless access, IEEE standard 802.20, is the only viable alternative to 802.16 This standard extends wireless broadband to mobile end users and is optimized for IP traffic It also offers decent data rates of 1 Mbps and vehicular mobility at speeds of up to 250 km/h
  • But 802.16e is a direct competitor and stands to become the standard for wireless broadband to mobile end users 802.16e has several advantages over 802.20. First 802.16 has greater interoperabiliy, higher data rates, and strong industry support. Plus 802.20 has to be built from scratch which likely means 802.16e products will become entrenched in 802.20’s potential market. My guess is that because these standards are so similar, they’ll be consolidated in which case 802.16 will prevail
  • CLASS12

    1. 1. CLASS 12 Presentation Enterprise AP’s
    2. 2. Cisco Aironet 350 Series
    3. 3. Overview of 350 series <ul><li>Solutions for the enterprise and small and medium sized business </li></ul><ul><li>Offers scalable, centralized security and inline power </li></ul><ul><li>integrates seamlessly into an existing network as a wireless overlay </li></ul><ul><li>All Cisco Aironet 350 Series client adapters and access points are IEEE 802.11b compliant </li></ul>
    4. 4. Products of Aironet 350 Series <ul><li>Client Adapters </li></ul><ul><li>Access Points </li></ul><ul><li>Multifunction Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Workgroup Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Secure Access Control Server V.2.6 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Client Adapters <ul><li>Wireless client adapters connect a variety of devices to a wireless network either in ad hoc peer-to-peer mode or in infrastructure mode with APs. </li></ul><ul><li>Available in PC Card (PCMCIA) and Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) form factors </li></ul>
    6. 6. Features of Client Adapter <ul><li>Superior range and throughput </li></ul><ul><li>Secure network communications </li></ul><ul><li>World mode for international roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Full-featured utilities for easy configuration and management </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with the IEEE 802.11b high-rate standard </li></ul><ul><li>Support for all popular operating systems </li></ul>
    7. 7. Client Adapter Specifications <ul><li>Data Rates Supported: 1, 2, 5.5, and 11 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Network Standard: IEEE 802.11b </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency Band: 2.4 to 2.4897 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Medium: Direct Sequence Spread </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum (DSSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Media Access Protocol: Carrier sense multiple </li></ul><ul><li>access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) </li></ul><ul><li>Modulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBPSK @1 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DQPSK @ 2 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CCK @ 5.5 and 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Client Adapter Specifications (cont’) <ul><li>Operating Channels: North America: 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Range (typical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>130 ft (40 m) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>350 ft (107 m) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>800 ft (244 m) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 ft (610 m) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Input Power Requirements: +5 VDC +/- 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Power Consumption (at 100 mW transmit power setting) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit: 450 mA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive: 270 mA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep mode: 15 mA </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Access Point <ul><li>An AP is the center point in an all-wireless network or a connection point between a wired and wireless network. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Multiple APs Deployment
    11. 11. Features of AP <ul><li>The Cisco Aironet 350 Series AP supports data rates up to 11 Mbps, is IEEE 802.11b compliant </li></ul><ul><li>Support for inline power over Ethernet , simplifying and reducing the total cost of installation and ownership </li></ul><ul><li>High-performance 100 Milliwatt (mW) radio design, with power management capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Future-proof (Funny)architecture that can support additional software features for investment protection </li></ul>
    12. 12. Software Features of AP <ul><li>802.1x-based Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) services that provide centralized, user-based authentication for hassle-free security administration and user-based privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic channel selection, Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), and BOOTP services to simplify installation and management of WLAN infrastructures </li></ul>
    13. 13. Software Features of AP (cont’) <ul><li>High-availability services, such as load balancing and hot-standby redundancy, for dependable, performance, and reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Rich filtering options on both the Ethernet and radio side to provide performance and application tuning to meet specific business requirements </li></ul>
    14. 14. Load Balancing of AP <ul><li>Up to three APs, configured for different channels, can be colocated to achieve aggregate peak capacity of 33 Mbps for a single coverage area. </li></ul><ul><li>Load-balancing policies based on number of users, error rates, or signal strengths redistribute users to deliver more balanced collision domains </li></ul><ul><li>Another scalability enhancement is the addition of broadcast and multicast filtering. This enables administrators to select the amount of such frames that enter the WLAN, conserving the shared bandwidth. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Security of AP <ul><li>Cisco Aironet APs interoperate with EAP-enabled Remote Access Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers such as the Cisco Access Control Server 2000 Version 2.6 and EAP-enabled client adapters such as Cisco Aironet Series clients providing user-level authentication over an encrypted link. </li></ul><ul><li>After successful mutual authentication with the RADIUS server, the user derives a dynamic WEP encryption key that uniquely encrypts that user’s traffic over the air, ensuring security from both outside sources and inside network users. </li></ul>
    16. 16. specifications of AP <ul><li>Uplink: Auto-sensing 10/100BaseT Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Range (typical @ 100-mW transmit power setting with 2.2 dBi diversity dipole antenna) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>130 ft (39.6 m) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>350 ft (107 m) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>800 ft (244 m) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 ft (610 m) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Specifications of AP (cont’) <ul><li>Automatic Configuration Support: BOOTP and DHCP </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Configuration Support: </li></ul><ul><li>Telnet, HTTP, FTP, TFTP, and SNMP </li></ul><ul><li>Input Power Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>24 +/- 10% to 60 VDC (Ethernet line power) </li></ul><ul><li>Local Configuration: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct console port (with supplied serial cable) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Multifunction Bridge <ul><li>The Cisco Aironet ® 350 Series Multifunction </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge is a dual-purpose wireless device. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In bridge mode, the Cisco Aironet 350Series Multifunction Bridge provides for high-speed long-range outdoor links between buildings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When configured as an access point (AP), the Cisco Aironet 350 Series Multifunction Bridge is the ideal wireless infrastructure device for installations subject to plenum rating and harsh environments such as warehouses, factories, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the outdoors. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Point-to-point Wireless bridge Solution
    20. 20. Point-to-Multipoint Wireless Bridge Solution
    21. 21. Multifunction Bridge features <ul><li>High-speed (11-Mbps) high-power (100-mW) </li></ul><ul><li>radios delivering building-to-building links of </li></ul><ul><li>up to 18 miles (28.9 km) </li></ul><ul><li>Metal case for durability and plenum rating Extended operating temperature rating for harsh environments </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified installation, improved performance, and investment protection </li></ul><ul><li>Full user-selectable AP functionality Upgradable architecture, ensuring investment protection </li></ul>
    22. 22. Workgroup Bridge Specificatoins <ul><li>Range (typical) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge mode outdoors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18 miles (28.9 km) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 25 miles (40.2 km) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AP mode indoors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>130 ft (39.6 m) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>350 ft (107.0 m) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AP outdoors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>800 ft (244 m) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 ft (610 m) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Workgroup Bridge <ul><li>Designed to meet the needs of remote </li></ul><ul><li>workgroups, satellite offices, and mobile users, </li></ul><ul><li>The workgroup bridge quickly connects up to </li></ul><ul><li>eight Ethernet-enabled laptops or other portable computers to a wireless LAN (WLAN), providing </li></ul><ul><li>the link from these devices to any Cisco Aironet </li></ul><ul><li>Access Point (AP) or Multifunction Bridge. The </li></ul>
    24. 24. A Remote Workgroup
    25. 25. Workgroup Bridge Features <ul><li>Driverless installation of up to eight Ethernet-enabled devices </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum wireless performance and range </li></ul><ul><li>Standards-based centralized security </li></ul><ul><li>Two versions for a range of application requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Full-featured utilities and robust management </li></ul>
    26. 26. Workgroup Bridge Specifications <ul><li>Client Interface 10BaseT Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Clients Supported </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct: One </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via hub: Eight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range (typical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>130 ft (40 m) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>350 ft (107 m) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>800 ft (244 m) @ 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 ft (610 m) @ 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Antenna <ul><li>350 Series includes a complete range of antennas for client adapter, access point, and bridge equipment that enable a customized wireless solution for almost any </li></ul>
    28. 28. Optional, Higher-Gain Antennas Can be Used to Extend the Range of Access Points
    29. 29. With Cisco Aironet Bridge Antennas, Wireless Links over Great Distances and Obstacles are Possible
    30. 30. Secure Access Control Server V.2.6 (ACS) <ul><li>To support the growing population of users that connect to your network from all types of devices and services— VPNs, remote access, broadband, voice, and wireless solutions—Cisco introduces Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS) V.2.6 for Windows 2000 and NT. </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco Secure ACS is a highly scalable, high performance access control server that operates as a centralized RADIUS or TACACS+ server system and controls the authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) of users accessing corporate resources through the network. </li></ul>
    31. 31. ACS Administration <ul><li>Who can log in to the network from wired or wireless connections </li></ul><ul><li>What privileges each user has in the network </li></ul><ul><li>What accounting information is recorded in terms of security audits or account billing </li></ul><ul><li>What access and command controls are enabled for each administrator configuring Cisco IOS ® routers, Catalyst ® switches, or any TACACS+ enabled network device </li></ul>
    32. 32. 802.16a <ul><li>Still relatively new to me </li></ul><ul><li>Will be best for large organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>We are looking into implementing this. </li></ul>
    33. 33. IEEE 802.16: The Next Wireless Revolution
    34. 34. General Overview <ul><li>Standard for wireless metropolitan area networks (WirelessMAN ™) </li></ul><ul><li>Supports a variety of services such as IP, voice over IP, and streaming video </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol independent supporting ATM & packet based protocols </li></ul>
    35. 35. Applications <ul><li>Economically bridges the “last mile” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings equipped with subscriber and base stations, SS & BS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users connect to SS via conventional network technologies (e.g. 802.3, 802.11) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BSs connected directly to backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lowers barriers to entry for new ISPs increasing competition </li></ul><ul><li>Provides broadband to rural communities and developing nations </li></ul>
    36. 36. 802.16 Characteristics <ul><li>Point-to-multipoint broadband wireless access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates in 10-66 GHz spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rates up to 134 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires directional line-of-sight (LOS) propagation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>802.16a adopted to address these concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates in 2-11 GHz spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates need for directional LOS propagation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater range but lower data rates </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. 802.16 MAC <ul><li>WirelessMAN operates at MAC sub-layer of Data Link Layer </li></ul><ul><li>MAC layer is further subdivided into three layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence sub-layer (CS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common part sub-layer (CPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy sub-layer </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. 802.16 MAC: CS Layer <ul><li>Interoperability requires convergence sub-layer to be service specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate CS layers for ATM & packet protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CS Layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives data from higher layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifies data as ATM cell or packet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forwards frames to CPS layer </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. 802.16 MAC: CPS Layer <ul><li>Performs typical MAC functions such as addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each SS assigned 48-bit MAC address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection Identifiers used as primary address after initialization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAC policy determined by direction of transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplink is DAMA-TDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downlink is TDM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data encapsulated in a common format facilitating interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragment or pack frames as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes transparent to receiver </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. 802.16 MAC: Privacy Sub-Layer <ul><li>Provides secure communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data encrypted with cipher clock chaining mode of DES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevents theft of service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SSs authenticated by BS using key management protocol </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. 802.16 Physical Layer <ul><li>Variety of services supported requires support for continuous and bursty traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Burst profiles associated with every frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles describe transmission properties such as encoding & modulation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modulation & encoding schemes dynamically adjusted to account for changing link conditions </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. 802.16 Physical Layer <ul><li>Data rates determined by exact modulation and encoding schemes </li></ul><ul><li>TDD and FDD supported in 802.16 to accommodate burst profiling </li></ul><ul><li>802.16a adds OFDM and OFDMA to support NLOS multipath propagation </li></ul>134.4 89.6 44.8 28 120 80 40 25 96 64 32 20 Bit Rate (Mbps) 64-QAM Bit Rate (Mbps) 16-QAM Bit Rate (Mbps) QPSK Channel Size (MHz)
    43. 43. Alternatives <ul><li>Mobile Broadband Wireless Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE standard 802.20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends broadband wireless to mobile users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rates in excess of 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized for IP transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports vehicular mobility at 250 km/h </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. 802.16e vs. 802.20 <ul><li>IEEE commissioned 802.16e working group to extend WirelessMAN to mobile end users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.16 has greater interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.20’s data rates will likely exclude bandwidth intensive applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.20 must be built from scratch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.16 enjoys strong industry support </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Homework <ul><li>Read AntennaAlignmentTool.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>½ Page bullets </li></ul><ul><li>5 Questions and Answers </li></ul><ul><li>Due 04-26-04 </li></ul>
    46. 46. Quiz <ul><li>Whats the the default SSID for a Cisco AP? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Cisco’s version of RADIUS? </li></ul><ul><li>How much can a Cisco client card put out? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the advertised outdoor range of a Cisco AP? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s muticast filtering? </li></ul><ul><li>How many digits in a 128 bit hex key? </li></ul>
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