Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Mobile Commerce and Pervasive Computing
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the characteristics and attributes of m-commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the drivers of m-commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the technologies that support m-commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe wireless standards and transmission networks. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Discuss m-commerce applications in finance, advertising, and provision of content. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the applications of m-commerce within organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand B2B and supply chain applications of m-commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe consumer and personal applications of m-commerce. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Describe some non-Internet m-commerce applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe location-based commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the key characteristics and current uses of pervasive computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the major inhibitors and barriers of m-commerce. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nextbus: A Superb Customer Service <ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco buses have difficulty keeping up with the posted schedule, especially during rush hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scheduled times become meaningless </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nextbus (cont.) <ul><li>The Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco implemented a system called NextBus ( nextbus.com ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The system tracks public transportation buses in real time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NextBus calculates the estimated arrival time of the bus to each bus stop on the route </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Nextbus (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Arrival times are displayed in real time on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet-enabled wireless device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet and on a public screen at each bus stop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS satellites let the NextBus information center know where a bus is located making it possible to calculate arrival times </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Nextbus (cont.)
  9. 9. Nextbus (cont.) <ul><li>The Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worries about missing the bus are diminished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bus company can also use the system to improve scheduling, arrange for extra buses when needed, and make its operations more efficient </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Nextbus (cont.) <ul><li>What we can learn… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>location-based e-commerce, a major part of mobile commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EC services are provided to customers wherever they are located </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exemplifies pervasive computing— services are seamlessly blended into the environment without the user being aware of the technology behind the scenes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Mobile Commerce <ul><li>Mobile commerce (m-commerce, </li></ul><ul><li>m-business): Any e-commerce done in a wireless environment, especially via the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A natural extension of e-business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile devices create an opportunity to deliver new services to existing customers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Mobile Commerce Generations <ul><li>1G: The first generation of wireless technology, which was analog based </li></ul><ul><li>2G: The second generation of digital wireless technology; accommodates mainly text </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mobile Commerce Generations (cont.) <ul><li>2.5G: Interim wireless technology that can accommodate limited graphics </li></ul><ul><li>3G: The third generation of digital wireless technology; supports rich media such as video clips </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mobile Commerce Generations (cont.) <ul><li>4G: The expected next generation of wireless technology </li></ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistant (PDA): A handheld wireless computer </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mobile Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Short Message Service (SMS): Technology that allows for sending of short text messages on some cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS): An extension of SMS capable of simple animation, tiny pictures, and short tunes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mobile Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS): The next generation of wireless messaging; will be able to deliver rich media </li></ul><ul><li>Smartphone: Internet-enabled cell phones that can support mobile applications </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mobile Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Mobile financial applications (B2C, B2B) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile advertising (B2C) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile inventory management (B2C, B2B) </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive service management (B2C, B2B) </li></ul><ul><li>Product locating and shopping (B2C, B2B) </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless reengineering (B2C, B2B) </li></ul>Twelve applications of m-commerce
  18. 18. Mobile Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Mobile auction or reverse auction (B2C) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile entertainment services (B2C) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile office (B2C) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile distance education (B2C) </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless data center (B2C, B2B) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile music/music-on-demand (B2C) </li></ul>Twelve applications of m-commerce
  19. 19. Mobile Commerce: Attributes and Benefits <ul><li>Specific attributes of m-commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad reach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits of value-added attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Localization of products and services </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Mobile Commerce: Characteristics
  21. 21. Mobile Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Drivers of m-commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread availability of devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for a PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The handset culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors’ push </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of bandwidth </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Mobile Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>M-commerce value chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content aggregators </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Mobile Computing Infrastructure <ul><li>M-commerce hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular (mobile) phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachable keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive pagers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screenphones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A telephone equipped with a color screen, possibly a keyboard, e-mail, and Internet capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail handhelds </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>Required infrastructure hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitably configured wireline or wireless WAN modem, wireless LAN adapter, or wireless MAN (metro-area network) adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Web server with wireless support, a WAP gateway, a communications server, and/or a mobile communications server switch (MCSS) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><ul><li>An application or database server with application logic and a business application database providing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-commerce functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A GPS locator that is used to determine the location of the person carrying the mobile computing device </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbrowsers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless software designed with limited bandwidth and limited memory requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile-client operating system </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chip technology that enables voice and data communications between many wireless devices through low-power, short-range, digital two-way radio frequencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile application user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-end legacy application software </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Application middleware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless middleware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Application Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A set of communications protocols designed to enable different kinds of wireless devices to talk to a server installed on a mobile network so users can access the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Wireless Markup Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scripting language used for creating content in the wireless Web environment; based on XML, minus unnecessary content to increase speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An extension of XML designed to accommodate voice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>Mobile networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscriber Identification Module (SIM) card: An extractable storage card used for identification, transaction processing, and the like </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.)
  32. 32. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>Multiplexing protocols are used to service extremely large numbers of users given limited communication bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>Wireless LAN (WLAN): LAN without the cables; used to transmit and receive data over the airwaves </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless access point: An antenna connecting a mobile device (laptop or PDA) to a wired LAN </li></ul>
  34. 34. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>802.11b: Standard, developed by the IEEE, on which most of today’s WLANs run; WLANs employing this standard have communication speeds of 11 mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi): Another name for the 802.11b standard on which most WLANs run </li></ul>
  35. 35. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>M-commerce security issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a stolen device can provide the thief with valuable data and digital credentials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transactions are routed over a public network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-transaction issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some method of proving that a particular transaction has occurred </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>SIM-based authentication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually implemented as a smart card containing an authentication key along with other vital information about the subscriber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PIN number protects the cell phone against illegal use if it happens to be stolen or lost </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS): Communication protocols that enable encrypted communications between a mobile device and the WAP gateway and support the key elements of electronic payment systems </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless identity module (WIM): A smart card device that can be used in combination with WTLS </li></ul>
  38. 38. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.)
  39. 39. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>Voice systems for m-commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand- and eyes-free operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disabled people can use voice commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice terminals are designed for portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice terminals are more rugged than keyboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is about two-and-a-half times faster talking than typing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking results in fewer data entry errors </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Mobile Computing Infrastructure (cont.) <ul><li>Interactive voice response (IVR): A computer voice system that enables users to request and receive information and to enter and change data through regular telephone lines or through 1G cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>Voice portal: A Web site with an audio interface that can be accessed through a telephone call </li></ul>
  41. 41. Mobile Financial Applications <ul><li>Mobile banking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large percentage of banks offer mobile access to financial and account information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The uptake of mobile banking has been minimal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys indicate there is strong latent demand for these offerings that is waiting for the technology and transmission speeds to improve </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Mobile Financial Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Wireless electronic payment systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless payment systems transform mobile phones into secure, self-contained purchasing tools capable of instantly authorizing payments over the cellular network for goods and services </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Mobile Financial Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Micropayments: Electronic payments for small-purchase amounts (generally less than $10) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide-ranging applications, such as making payments to parking garages, restaurants, grocery stores, and public utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success depends on the costs of the transactions </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Mobile Financial Applications (cont.) <ul><li>M-wallet (mobile wallet): A wireless wallet that enables cardholders to make purchases with a single click from their wireless device </li></ul>
  45. 45. Mobile Financial Applications: Bill Payments
  46. 46. Mobile Financial Applications: Bill Payments (cont.) <ul><li>Bill payments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of companies are now providing their customers with the option of paying their bills directly from a cell phone </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Mobile Shopping, Advertising, and Content Providing <ul><li>Shopping from wireless devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless shoppers are supported by services similar to those available for wireline shoppers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phone users also can participate in online auctions (eBay and Amazon.com) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Mobile Advertising (cont.) <ul><li>Targeted advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing the current location of mobile users (using GPS) and their preferences or surfing habits, marketers can send user-specific advertising messages </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Mobile Advertising (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Advertisements can also be location sensitive, informing a user about various ongoing special sales in shops, malls, and restaurants close to where a potential buyer is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMS messages or short paging messages can be used to deliver these ads to cell phones and pagers, respectively </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Mobile Advertising (cont.) <ul><li>Getting paid to listen to ads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore, thousands of people subscribed to the free minutes in exchange for listening to the ads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future of wireless advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless advertising initiatives to date have all been “trials” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless ads will be incorporated with other advertising media </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Mobile Advertising and Content Providing (cont.) <ul><li>Mobile portal: A customer interaction channel that aggregates content and services for mobile users </li></ul>
  52. 52. Mobile Intrabusiness and Applications <ul><li>Support for mobile employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile employees need the same corporate data available to employees working inside the company’s offices </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Mobile Intrabusiness and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Wearable devices: Mobile wireless computing devices for employees who work on buildings and other difficult-to-climb places </li></ul>
  54. 54. Mobile Intrabusiness and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Examples of wearable devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch-panel display </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Mobile Intrabusiness and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Job dispatch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nonvoice mobile services can be used to assign jobs to mobile employees, along with detailed information about the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Mobile Intrabusiness and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Customer support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile access extends the reach of CRM—both inside and outside the company, to employees and partners alike on a 24/7 basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice portal technology can be connected to legacy systems to provide enhanced customer service or to improve access to data for employees </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Mobile Intrabusiness and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Non-internet intrabusiness applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery and order status updates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online dispatching, online diagnosis support from remote locations, and parts ordering/inventory queries </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Mobile Intrabusiness and Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Mobile shop-floor quality control systems that enable voice reports by inspectors, data collection from facilities, and transmission to a central processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A corporate wireless network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote database queries regarding order status or product availability </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Mobile Intrabusiness and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Internet-based intrabusiness applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly pay slips as SMS messages sent to mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile inventory systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-enabled wireless devices for express delivery companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property adjusters send pictures and report from the scene of an accident </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Mobile B2B and Supply Chain Applications <ul><li>Mobile computing solutions enable organizations to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond faster to supply chain disruptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive adjustment of plans or shifting resources related to critical supply chain events as they occur </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Mobile B2B and Supply Chain Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Wireless telemetry is an integrated messaging system that combines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wireless communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vehicle monitoring systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vehicle location devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Mobile B2B and Supply Chain Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Technology enables: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large-scale automation of data capture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved billing timeliness and accuracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced overhead associated with the manual alternative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased customer satisfaction through service responsiveness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Mobile Consumer and Personal Service Applications <ul><li>Mobile games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With more than 1 billion cell phones in use today the potential audience for mobile games is substantially larger than the market for other platforms </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Mobile Consumer and Personal Service Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Games can be programmed directly into the phone’s chipset and shipped with the phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP games are played by accessing the game provider’s mobile or Web portal </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Mobile Consumer and Personal Service Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Mobile entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The availability of portable MP3 players has lead to the development of music devices integrated with mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With higher bandwidth, music vendors can offer instant delivery of songs from their music libraries for online purchase </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Mobile Consumer and Personal Service Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Handset vendors have cell phones that enable users to send pictures from one device to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the 3G handsets hit the market, mobile devices will begin to support the downloading and real-time playback of audio and video clips </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Mobile Consumer and Personal Service Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Hotels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotels now offer their guests in-room, high-speed Internet connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A small number of hotels are testing the use of this technology for check-in and check-out, for making purchases from hotel vending machines and stores, for tracking loyalty points </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Mobile Consumer and Personal Service Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Wireless telemedicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The storage and forwarding of digital images from one location to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing used for real-time consultation with a patient in one location and a medical specialist in another </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Mobile Consumer and Personal Service Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>New and novel application opportunities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On wearable heart monitors linked to cell phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portable devices that transmit the vital signs of avalanche victims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile communications used to attend to medical emergencies occurring on planes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile telesurgery applications that enable surgeons in one location to remotely control robotic arms for surgery in another location </li></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Location-Based Commerce <ul><li>Location-based commerce (l-commerce): M-commerce transactions targeted to individuals in specific locations, at specific times </li></ul><ul><li>L-commerce offers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Location-Based Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>L-commerce basic services revolve around five key areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Location-Based Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Necessary location-based and network technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position-determining equipment (PDE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile positioning center (MPC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location-based technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location-specific content </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Location-Based Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Global positioning system (GPS): A wireless system that uses satellites to enable users to determine their position anywhere on the earth </li></ul><ul><li>GPS handsets can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stand-alone units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plugged into a mobile device or completely embedded in one </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Location-Based Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Geographical information system (GIS): System that integrates GSP data onto digitized map displays </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless 911 (e-911): Calls from cellular phones to providers of emergency services </li></ul>
  75. 75. Location-Based Commerce (cont.)
  76. 76. Location-Based Commerce (cont.)
  77. 77. Location-Based Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Automatic crash notification (ACN): Device that automatically sends the police the location of a vehicle that has been involved in a crash </li></ul><ul><li>Telematics: The integration of computers and wireless communications to improve information flow using the principles of telemetry </li></ul>
  78. 78. Location-Based Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Barriers to l-commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost-benefit justification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bandwidth of GSM networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion of privacy </li></ul></ul>
  79. 79. Pervasive Computing <ul><li>Pervasive computing: Invisible, everywhere computing that is embedded in the objects around us </li></ul><ul><li>Also know as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ubiquitous computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embedded computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>augmented computing </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Pervasive Computing (cont.) <ul><li>Embedded computers do not intrude on our consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio frequency identification (RFID): Generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify individual items </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Pervasive Computing (cont.) <ul><li>Properties of pervasive computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisible devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded microchips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-enhancing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer-centric solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term vision </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Pervasive Computing (cont.) <ul><li>Technical foundation of pervasive computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyday objects have to contain embedded microprocessors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ubiquitous network is needed to connect these microprocessors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The microprocessors must be able to communicate with the ubiquitous network </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Pervasive Computing: Applications <ul><li>Smart homes—home automation systems support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home security and communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home theater </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Smart appliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet-ready appliance that can be controlled by a small handheld device or desktop computer via a home intranet or the public Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Alliance (internethomealliance.com) </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><li>A networked appliance could provide a manufacturer and the owner with information that could be used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capturing or reporting on the operation, performance, and usage of a device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic purposes—monitoring, troubleshooting, repairing, or maintaining the device </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Improving or augmenting the performance or features of a device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling and coordinating devices into a sequenced pattern of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiling and behavior tracking of a device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking and optimizing the service support system </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Smart cars—increased use of automobile microprocessors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sophisticated engine controls to meet emissions and fuel-economy standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advanced diagnostics; simplification of the manufacture and design of cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduction of the amount of wiring in cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new safety features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new comfort and convenience features </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Growing trend is connecting car microprocessors to mobile networks for support services including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Services provided by OnStar (onstar.com) include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Bag Deployment Notification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice-activated nationwide wireless calling service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency services and roadside assistance </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Personal Concierge, which plans entire trips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Route Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stolen Vehicle Tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote Door Unlock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote Diagnostics </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Smart “things” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Product Code (UPC)—barcodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>used at various points in the supply chain to track inventory and shipments and to identify items at the point of sale </li></ul></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Pervasive Computing: Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Auto Identification Center (Auto-ID): Joint partnership among global companies and research universities to create an Internet of Things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet of Things: A network that connects computers to objects in order to be able to track individual items as they move from factories to store shelves to recycling facilities, providing near-perfect supply chain visibility </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Pervasive Computing: RFID <ul><li>Key technical elements of the Auto-ID system include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Product Code (EPC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal standard for product identification, stored on an RFID tag </li></ul></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Pervasive Computing (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Object Name Service (ONS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service that points a computer to an address on the Internet where information about a product is stored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Markup Language (PML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed new markup language, based on the XML standard, that specifies how a product’s name, category, manufacture date, expiration date, and the like will be represented in a computer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Pervasive Computing (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Savant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software created by the Auto-ID center that gathers information from RFID readers and passes it on to various business applications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Pervasive Computing (cont.) <ul><li>Auto-ID at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding identity to products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding identity to cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savant at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PML at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency in distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency in inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overstocking eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer convenience </li></ul></ul>
  97. 97. Inhibitors and Barriers to L-Commerce <ul><li>Usability problem—three dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  98. 98. Inhibitors and Barriers to L-Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Mobile visitors to a Web site are paying premium rates for connections and are focused on a specific goal </li></ul><ul><li>To find exactly what they are looking for easily and quickly customers need more than text-only devices with small screens </li></ul>
  99. 99. Inhibitors and Barriers to L-Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Technical limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of a standardized security protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission and power consumption limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP limitations </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Inhibitors and Barriers to L-Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Potential health hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue of cellular radio frequency emissions and the fear that radiation from wireless mobile devices may induce cancer has been debated for several years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers using mobile telephones have an increased chance of being involved in a traffic accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of cell phones may interfere with sensitive medical devices </li></ul></ul>
  101. 101. Managerial Issues <ul><li>What’s our timetable? </li></ul><ul><li>Which applications first? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it real or just a buzzword? </li></ul><ul><li>Which system to use? </li></ul>
  102. 102. Summary <ul><li>Characteristics and attributes of m-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers of m-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless standards and technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Finance, advertising, and content-providing applications </li></ul><ul><li>Intrabusiness applications </li></ul>
  103. 103. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>B2B applications </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer applications </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Internet applications </li></ul><ul><li>L-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive computing </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of m-commerce </li></ul>

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